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In my 2019 book America Before I devote seven chapters, more than 90 pages, to the implications of recent remarkable discoveries in the Amazon rainforest. These include great cities overgrown by the jungle, immense earthwork mounds and henges, astronomically-aligned megalithic sites, evidence of sophisticated agricultural techniques and evidence of advanced scientific knowledge of the medicinal properties of plants.

In Chapter Fifteen, “Sacred Geometry”, I draw particular attention to “clusters of monumental earthworks… shaped as perfect circles, rectangles and composite figures” that have been revealed by LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) surveys in the Brazilian Amazon. Now, far to the south in the Bolivian Amazon, a new LiDAR survey has unveiled further networks of mysterious monumental structures.

The Cotoca site (no. 185) a, Occupation of the Cotoca lidar area. b, Sites and major archaeological features revealed by lidar in the Cotoca area. c, Lidar image of the large settlement site Cotoca with cross sections A–B and C–D. m.a.s.l., metres above sea level.

Published in Nature on 25 May 2022 (see here: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-022-04780-4 and here: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-022-01458-9), the new findings identify two sites in particular, Cotoca and Landivar as the most important:

These two large settlement sites were already known, but their massive size and architectural elaboration became apparent only through the lidar survey.

The scale and elaboration of civic-ceremonial architecture are key aspects of the large settlement sites. Massive earthen platform buildings— some of which are U-shaped —and conical pyramids rise more than 20 m above the surrounding savannah on top of artificial terraces of up to 6 m in height. The orientation of the buildings that constitute the civic-ceremonial centres of the two large settlement sites is very uniform towards the north-northwest. This probably reflects a cosmological world view…

The paper’s authors further note that the core area of Cotoca totals 570,690 m3– making it more than ten times larger than the famous Akapana pyramid of Tiwanaku in the Bolivian Andes.

Moreover, the LiDAR survey shows Cotoca to have stood at

the centre of an area of approximately 500 km2, half forest and half savannah, which includes 18 other monumental sites… The…role of Cotoca as a primary site is… underlined by the impressive system of canals and causeways that radiate from the base platform in all of the cardinal directions.

By any measure, therefore, what the new research in the Bolivian Amazon has brought to light are the remnants of a truly monumental civilization. “Our results”, the authors conclude:

put to rest arguments that western Amazonia was sparsely populated in pre-Hispanic times. The architectural layout of large settlement sites … indicates that the inhabitants of this region created a new social and public landscape through monumentality.

Archaeologists attribute Cotoca and Landivar to the so-called “Casarabe culture” (we don’t know what this culture called itself) and date them to between AD 500 and AD 1400. This time-frame is not derived from excavations at Cotoca and Landivar themselves but from excavations at a number of similar monumental sites in the same general area. Carbon dates more than two thousand years older than the oldest Casarabe dates have been found but are ignored as “outliers”:

Excavations at monumental sites Salvatiera and Mendoza have revealed complex stratigraphies that bracket the chronology of the Casarabe culture from AD 500 to 1400. The 94 radiocarbon dates from Salvatierra and Mendoza, as well as 50 additional radiocarbon dates previously published for other Casarabe culture sites date the construction and use of these sites to this period. The dates prior to this period are mostly outliers but, in some cases, also come from samples taken from the sterile soil beneath the earliest platform buildings. They date natural events or perhaps the ephemeral presence of non-ceramic cultures prior to the construction of the Casarabe culture sites.

The archaeological investigations thus far undertaken into the Casarabe culture deserve praise for being thorough and detailed, but such a sophisticated civilization – no lesser word will do — does not simply spring up out of nowhere. There must be a background to it, either beneath the earliest platform buildings or in the as-yet unexcavated sites that the LiDAR survey has pinpointed in the surrounding jungle.

The Amazon, as I wrote in America Before, remains largely a terra incognita to archaeologists

Even in these days of man-made ecological disaster let us remind ourselves that 5.5 million square kilometers of the Amazon basin is still covered by rainforest. To put that in perspective, picture Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador. Taken together they encompass 2.22 million square kilometers—not nearly enough—so we will need to add on India with more than 3 million square kilometers to get an imaginary realm almost equivalent in size to the Amazon rainforest. My point here is that when we consider the Amazon as an archaeological project, its scale is comparable to Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, AND India all added together, and all, in addition, entirely covered by dense rainforest and therefore difficult and expensive to access. Moreover, unlike Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador, where the famous Maya civilization flourished, and unlike India with its ancient cities and temples, there was… no inducement for archaeologists to invest scarce time and money on excavations in the Amazon while it was believed that nothing of great interest would be found there. At the close of the second decade of the twenty-first century no serious archaeologists are still thinking that way! The state of affairs they’ve inherited, however, means that huge swaths of the Amazon, encompassing millions of square kilometers, have never been subject to any kind of archaeological investigation at all.

This is a wider problem than the Amazon. For example, sea level rose 120 meters when the Ice Age came to an end with the result that 27 million square kilometers of land that was above water at the last glacial maximum 21,000 years ago is under water today. These submerged continental shelves were prime seafront real estate during the Ice Age, yet only a few tiny slivers of them have ever been subject to any kind of marine archaeological investigation. Again, this is because, like the Amazon, access requires special preparations, equipment, and transportation and also because of a similar belief that whatever would be found as a result of these costly investigations would not add greatly to what is already known.

I’ll say nothing about Antarctica, with its 14 million square kilometers entirely virgin to the archaeologist’s spade. The almost universal agreement that humans could never have lived there in the past might or might not be correct, but we’ll never know for sure unless we look.

We do know that the Sahara desert, presently occupying an area of about 9 million square kilometers, had a very different climate during the Ice Age, and in the early millennia of the Holocene, than it experiences today and that there were long periods when it was well watered and fertile, with extensive lakes and grasslands and abundant wildlife. It is near enough to Egypt and the other great centres of early civilization in North Africa and the Middle East to have attracted the attention of archaeologists, but like the Amazon and like the submerged continental shelves, access is difficult and expensive, placing serious practical limits on what can be achieved.

Part of our predicament, therefore, as a species with amnesia, is that huge areas of the planet that we know for sure were used by and lived upon by our ancestors—the submerged continental shelves, the Sahara desert, the Amazon rainforest—have, for a variety of practical and ideological reasons, been badly served by archaeology. The truth is, we know VERY little about the real prehistory of any of these places, and the tiny patches that have thus far been surveyed and excavated within them are no legitimate basis upon which to draw conclusions and express certainties about the vast areas that remain unsurveyed and unexcavated.

America Before

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13 thoughts on “The Amazon Mystery”

  1. Tyrone says:

    Awesome.

    Check out my website if you have the chance.

    https://rebirthoftheword.com/

  2. claude says:

    so so true Graham,l once did a geo paper and my thinking then has not changed .Until we turn over every stone and explore every part of the earth all our theory is just that Theory.If someone was to find human remains buried in places out of context with mainstream thought would it change their thinking NO.I have recently found some peat boulders on the beach that fell from abt 30/40m up the cliff and the strata has been dated to 125000y old, and is buried under volcanics .no one knows the extent of the peat bed, that is abt 1.2m thick in the deepest part.There are chunks of wood imbeded that I have been able to tentatively ID as a species that only still grows at high altitude or very wet cold areas.I often wonder as I pick my way through the samples l salvaged before the tide washed away the remnants, what would happen if l stumbled upon something made by humans ,since we are told to believe that the first humans reached these shores only in 1250 +/-AD

  3. Mariza Munoz says:

    Same group at each site – conical pyramid is rods and cones together – U is Ophiuchus is mtdna line family tree website expression of hunter gatherer

  4. Scott Brandom says:

    Hi Graham, I find information regarding ancient advanced technology mind boggling. Why, do you believe, is orthodox archaeology and opinion so constrained and dismissive regarding ‘alternative’ interpretations? I find myself wondering if I’m deluded to believe that the orthodox is likely inaccurate, as mainstream has such a grip on the minds of the majority.

    1. Nic says:

      If I may weigh in, I think the Eurocentric worldview which we westerners all swim, in plays a huge role. Even if we no longer actually believe that the world started on some October day 6000 odd years ago we still function as if the important bits all occurred within that timeframe.
      We centre the notion of Egypt>Greece>Rome>Europe>UK>US as the leaders of civilization even if we don’t think we do. We centre the Abrahamitic religions as the foundation of spiritual thought and the pinnacle.
      Thus we see everything else that doesn’t point to that hierarchy as something of an afterthought, a wrong turn or some chance cleverness that doesn’t really mean anything.
      Here’s why I think that is so. Christians are taught to be the rulers of the Earth. Many terrible things have been done in the pursuit of that. If that rulership is not actually ordained then wouldn’t that just make the people of Christendom a bunch of bullies and thugs? Can’t have that. So we perceive a history that essentially only exists back to the start of the Jewish religion and it leads tidily to the status quo of today.
      What Graham’s and other works reveal is a history that not only long predates what we thought, but shifts the world’s centre to an entirely different part of the globe. Europe (and consequently modern US) are not really even bit players in all this.
      This means that “civilization” and its development are not only cyclical and ebb and flow over time, but the development has not naturally or supernaturally led to European supremacy, a supremacy many believe should be eternal and god given.
      Changing that paradigm involves changing a whole bunch of other paradigms and a lot of people have a vested interest (in literal money) in not changing them. That’s why people are happy to mischaracterize Graham’s work and encourage his mockery.

      1. David says:

        In summary, two words near the end of your words say it all: “vested interests”. Spot on.

  5. Ade says:

    Whilst I understand the observation that the size of the cities were far bigger that excepted. That is really interesting. However, my understanding was that the Egyptians were great sailors and had passed on their knowledge to the South America’s by at least 3000bc. So why the surprise regarding the pyramids? If this knowledge was being shared it wasn’t because they look pretty. There was an advantage to having these buildings in your cities midsts, otherwise why do we see them so widely distributed around the world?

  6. Ken Peartree says:

    Hello Mr. Hancock, I hope that you are having a great week. I reached out to you in the hopes that you will take a chance to hear me out. You will have many reasons not to take me seriously, and it they don’t immediately present themselves, someone will happen to know why you should not interact with me for reasons that are impossible for me to anticipate, yet are as certain as the sun rising tomorrow. My story, and how it came to be was the reason that I sought to understand this complex world that I have dubbed The American Matrix. Any and all that you will “just happen to hear” about me will be, wholly or in part, a lie or a distortion of facts. I must be direct and to the point with you and mean no disrespect; but your choice is of course your own and will have no bearing on the validity of what I will present, although I certainly hope that you will hear me out.

    While I realize that in this initial point, I am preaching to the choir, I think that we can agree that our ancient past has been hijacked and is being held hostage. Hidden and off limits is a true understanding of the demise of Mesopotamia, to the first and last inhabitants of Göbeklitepe and Karahan Tepe, predynastic Egyptians, the peoples of Nazca, Sacsayhuamán, Cusco, Ollantaytambo, Tiwanaku, and the cultures of the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Toltec, Maya, Aztec, and the Indus Valley Civilizations, to the primitive Neanderthals, Denisovans and Clovis cultures; they all met the same demise. They shared in the story of the earliest cyanobacteria that formed stromatolites, the Trilobites of the Ordovician, to the last great extinction that saw the end of Death from the Skies known as Quetzalcoatlus and its fellow master-predator, the land-based Tyrannosaurus Rex. Subsequent events that have captured our imagination were the more recent global challenges, which were tiny in comparison, like the Younger Dryas that ushered in the extinctions of mega fauna like the ground sloths that weighed more than VW Beetles; their disappearing acts have been the perplexing mysteries of our ages, until now.

    This information may seem to be opposed to your stance on the younger dryas impact hypothesis. It is, well, sort of, but actually a clarification of everything that the Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis’ logical conclusions, which, quite frankly is the best theory currently available base on our current scientific understandings, did not adequately explain.

    I can provide conclusive theory with direct evidence to answer the known disconcerting deficiencies of the comet hypothesis such as the number of incidents of temperature swings and the multiple pulses of massive fluvial discharges. Then there is the most gaping hole, the energy paradox; what force could melt millions of cubic kilometers of ice in such a short time span, and most importantly, and virtually never even mentioned, what caused the northern hemisphere to form the massive ice sheets in the first place, in a timespan that we now know was likely weeks or months, while leaving temperatures in the southern hemisphere unaffected to warmer?

    My path into how our planet really works began with what I saw as too many things that did not add up with what our government and scientist were saying about our climate. Climate is a dynamic process that involves many disciplines, from meteorology, to geology, and astrophysics. I kept digging; I really wanted to understand all the processes completely; I uncovered more than I could have imagined.
    My inquiries into how our planet interacts with climatological systems just did not match what scientist were saying, or anything that I, or anyone else that I knew were taught in school. Moreover, the systems that seemed to have the greatest influence on our climate was the sun and the ground under our feet, instead of carbon dioxide, or any other gas; but I needed proof. That quest for a complete understanding and proof for my hypothesis, not only led me to completely understand how earth’s weather is really created, but it led me to the discovery of another connection to the ground beneath our feet that was the most disturbing thing anyone could, or has ever contemplated. I have come to the troubling reality that our planet has what may be a major flaw, and that planetary level defect is the verifiable reason for every mass extinction since the beginning of time.
    Scientific evidence so eloquently expressed and explained by your fellow truth teller Randall Carlson, the Bible, as well as ancient tales from around the globe, all tell of a great flood. Those floods, written about by a multitude of sources, they happened, and I know how, where they started, and why they started. The Biblical reference of fire and brimstone, that is scientific fact and in our future. It was fire and brimstone, so to speak that cause every mass extinction since our planet formed. It is going to happen again, and there are VERY troubling signs that the next one may be soon, in the lifetime of someone we know, possibly including anyone who may read this. I cannot put an exact date on it, but this is serious and needs immediate attention because the timeline may be expressed in years, rather than decades or longer.
    Everything that we all thought that we knew, nearly all the basis of our scientific understandings about our planet’s formation, the origin of the universe, and how we humans came to be is all wrong. Most importantly, the Great Extinctions of the past, are not a thing of the pass, they are part of our planet’s great challenge. We are standing at the threshold of the most serious situation to ever present itself to anatomically modern humans, and just like the original hominins, homo erectus, the Neandertals, to the lesser known Denisovans and Clovis, and the unknown Original Ancients, they all met the same fate. I know what happened to each one of them, and the trilobites, the dinosaurs, and the mammoths of North America as 12,000 years ago these giant mammoths were stalked by a pack of saber-tooth cats on what are now the streets of New York city. The same unimaginable processes ended the reign of these giants , as it did the giants before them on our planet. That same devastating force will reclaim what we see today. Never in recorded human history have any scientist understood the causes associated with the five great mass extinctions; although current dogma would have you believe that a comet killed the dinosaurs. That simply is not what happened. Our threat is not from outer space; it is from the very ground that we walk on.
    I am not looking for a handout, I would like to bounce this theory off of you because I know that you of all people want to follow the truth, even when it is an unpopular one. I am moving at a good pace, but this multi-disciplinary book project is a massive undertaking, as I am sure you can imagine. I am not a scientist; I am a formerly inquisitive researcher turned writer, just like you, with a degree in Business Management with a minor in Logistics. However, my advantage is my natural acute powers of observation, amplified by formal training in quality control, and years of observing and reporting in the Military and for private contractors under DoD contracts. I am highly observant, and most of all logical to the core. These are the tenants that drove my discovery and my drive to understand the processes that provided their startling conclusions. .

    It is full speed ahead on this book project that I intend to call Project Terrella. I’ve utilized a staffing service that has been a Godsend. Through that service, I have hired a Research Assistant in Largos Nigeria who took on the task of logging the pool of 4000+ potential references into a Bibliography and Reference Management application so that my final writing and referencing process will be much faster. She took on the task of learning a program that she had never seen, and is doing a fine job. I have commissioned photographs of important geological features around the globe that will shed light onto our unknown ancestry and the geologic features associated with the catastrophic events that cause previous mass extinctions. I also have collected hundreds of relevant images on all 7 continents (actually 5 continents but that’s an argument for another time) that I have rights to share under some restrictions. There have been, or are currently in progress, three projects in Malta, three in Peru with two more pending, two in India, one in Spain, one in Colorado, and one in Wyoming. This is a massive undertaking, but I have written 150-page instruction manuals, and taken part in producing up to 200-page Deployment Procedure documents, in just a week. I know how to do this and I can work on a limited timeline; I can and will complete this book project because it must be done.
    This book may be the most important set of words written in modern history; that is not me tooting my own horn. I am not a scientist, but what I have discovered will force a rewrite of the very basis of our current scientific understandings, from the atom to the entire universe. It may cause some to question their faith, as well. I cannot change that or provide anyone solace if they question what they believe, those are our most personal thoughts; they will not change what we face. We need the best minds on planet earth working to understand this because it is undoubtedly humanity’s greatest challenge. I have the concepts. I can explain how this will happen; even what areas will initially be most vulnerable. But there are no safe places anywhere on planet earth. These are continent level extinction events that can, in a matter of hours, completely destroy all life within thousands of miles. This is not a joke.

    The basis of my theory is not novel, but it is not well understood by most, and disregarded by the main stream science community. It is the Electric Universe hypothesis, and there are thousands of people who support this understanding of our universe, based on plasma. What is novel is my discovery of how our planet’s biosphere is linked to that hypothesis, and every other earthly process. Oddly enough, my interest in the Electric Universe hypothesis was prompted by a comment from Randall Carlson on one of his shows over two years ago, and I have maintained my active support for Randall on Patreon since then.

    The last event, rather the current Ice Age that we call the Quaternary glaciation began by destroying small areas, then plunging the entire northern hemisphere into a deep freeze that likely took temperatures from much warmer than today, to over a hundred degrees below zero in a matter of hours in the north near it’s Ground Zero areas, while all the while raining down water that would have been measured in feet per hour thousands of miles away at earth’s mid latitudes. Instead of rain, in the northern areas, snowfall was likely more like snow buckets that would have been measured as yards per hour, instead of inches per hour of snowfall in the initial hours of the events. This precipitation was what created the massive ice sheets that were over 2-miles thick in the north, with ice that stretched as far south as where New York City and the Great Lakes now sit. Thousands of years later, then just as suddenly, likely in a series of one-day events, but happening perhaps a dozen or so separate times, the same primordial force of nature melted thousands of feet of ice, the ice it previously created, millions of cubic miles of ice turned into massive floods of raging water stretching hundreds of miles at a time, hundreds of feet deep, all in a matter of hours. Again, at lower latitudes, the same force returned to dumping enormous blankets of relentless rain across the globe causing floods across the entire planet, thus the Great Floods actually happened twice during our recent past, except the first-time humans were still living in caves with no concept of writing yet. In fact, this is what happened during every mass extinction.
    Believing or disbelief will not change anything, this is coming. The only question is when and how bad will it get. This is the process that was a relatively small event during the Younger Dryas, perhaps even an interstitial progression, yet it killed nearly all megafauna in North America, including the humans that lived in North America at the time, the Clovis people, as well as large numbers of animals and humans in other locations. These animals, plants, and humans were vaporized in seconds by winds that likely exceeded 1000 mph, at temperatures rivaling those of the sun, nothing can survive inside the discharge zone which may stretch over 1000 miles long and hundreds of miles wide. Inside the discharge zone, no life remains. In fact, if you are close enough to see it at ground level, there may be almost no chance of survival. Flat plains that were tens of feet above sea level are raised to hundreds of feet above sea level in irregular blocks of thousands of square miles at a time in seconds. Rolling hills become towering mountain peaks, while dikes of now malleable mantle ooze through massive fishers, while others flip slabs of strata weighing tens of thousands of tons vertically like they were lawn chairs, all enacted by negative pressures that essentially equate to near zero gravity, creating formations that are now called dikes all in a single afternoon. During the younger Dryas, in North America massive amounts of plant life, animals, and humans all vanished, instantly incorporated into the soils as ash from the searing heat while leaving a layer of burnt material that stretches nearly around the globe. I can explain it, all, and maybe we can figure out how to help more survive. Or, we can wait for it to happen. Either way, it’s coming, and too soon.
    Once again, I cannot know what you will think about this, and we both know that belief has nothing to do with real facts. The basic shell of my book is written. I am working to transfer over two 300-page notebooks full of hand-written words into digital format that will comprise my rough draft, which should then quickly become a first draft. God willing, I will be ready to publish this fall.

    I followed the truth, and it led me to discover what I just briefly described, what may be the most important understanding in human history. My story is just a small part of this book, and it pales in comparison to the imminent danger that our planet faces. Again, this is not about me, even though I cannot help but be part of this story. Belief, or disbelief at this point has no bearing on the truth; I have never been more certain about anything in my professional life. This is about the survival or demise of all human kind. I don’t know what will happen to me next; there are people who may not want me to tell this story or for the world to know about this very serious situation, but I do know that for the sake of humanity I must complete this book, and soon because our time may be near.
    If you made it this far, God Bless you for the consideration. There is strength in numbers. Please share this with Randall, or anyone else that you trust, and if you want to know more, and provide your invaluable insights, I’d love that. Or keeping it real, just wait to see if I was right, but I already know how that will turn out. Thanks for whatever you decide.

    Many blessings, Ken Peartree

  7. George Persaud says:

    Hello Mr. Hancock iv tried to reach out to many times before. But never got a response from you. I live in Guyana South America. I have found what looks like a lost civilization, on top of a mountain in the clouds. Iv done some research on what iv found. There are steps like thosexof the Incas.. and walls of the incas also. I would be honored if you would give me some of your time and take a look at what iv found with your lidar.

  8. George says:

    Don´t forget “Terra Prieta” in the Amazon which is also found in West Africa, a possible/probable intercontinenal pre-Colombian link.

  9. Ralf says:

    Excelente book about the Amazonas and hidden secrets
    Tks

  10. Rolland Pangowish says:

    I believe there is something to this science of cosmic energy and the fluctuations in the earth’s electro-magnetic shield. According to some newly emerging theoretical analysis, it appears that flucuations in the electro-magnetic energy of of the sun interacts with the earth’s magnetic shield periodically producing various phenomena that can produce catastrophic events, climate change and mass extinctions. There are many global impacts, including changes in gravity, magnetic pole reversals and severe climate shifts. Is it worth considering how a momentary weakening of the magnetic shield might invite cosmic impacts?

    These new findings trace fluctuations in cosmic plasma energy that appear to occur in patterns over time. The implications are definitely more significant than the current science institutions can acknowledge. Sun spots and solar winds can have sigificant impacts on the earth’s magnetic shield. This electro-manetic energy interacts with the earth’s metallic core and may even affect the earth’s rotation. There also appear to be larger patterns of electro- magnetic energy within the galaxy that determine patterns of cosmic energy throughout the entire solar system. Recent temperature fluctuations on some of the outer planets may be an indicator of shifting galactic waves of cosmic energy.

    Assessing the accuracy of this recognition of “cosmic weather” is one matter, but the logic of it’s impact is undeniable. The thesis provides new evidence for patterns of catastrophic change of planetary conditions.

    I feel that cosmic energy and the interaction of electro-magnetic plasma have significant implications for assessing earth history and natural science. This aspect of reality should not be dismissed, as it is an overriding factor that must be taken into account.

    In closing, while there are a number of web-sites and YouTube channels addressing related issues, I have found the groundbreaking science and observations discussed by Ben Davidson and the Suspicious Observers sites to be in the forefront of assessing solar impacts and electro-magnetic energy. I recommend taking a look at their YouTube Page, especially the Disaster Playlist, Plasma Cosmology and Climate Forcing videos for an interesting background on this issue. I monitor their daily cosmic weather updates which are not only informative, but are so cynically humorous as to make the presentation of deep science and technical data immensely entertaining.

    I just want to ensure we are all aware of the innovative science and information on catastrophic global impacts that is available out there. This assessment could be very significant and I praise Ben Davidson and the Suspicious Observers for their effective challenge to institional science. A very refreshing approach to science, even as it exposes the inevitability if the coming global disaster.

  11. Jeff Bishop says:

    Astonishing,
    The submerged (former) coastal plains
    The Amazon
    The Sahara
    Antartica

    20 million kilometers or more of earths land mass literally unexplored.

    Myself, I look at things with a slightly different perspective.
    The industrial revolution is what? Less than 300 years old?
    The species is now considered …what…300,000 years old?

    Far from considering the human race (Homo Sapien Sapien) as being an “advanced”
    life form, I consider our species to have barely crawled out of the mire of the natural world.

    We are still barbaric, generally uneducated and most of us are quite stupid.
    Our arrogance defines us, we hardly know shit about anything.

    Much reamins to be discovered, that is, if the species is not extinct, due to insane cultural attributes and of course ignorance in the NEAR future.

    Thank you Graham, your words have reached thine eyes.

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