© Mauricio Antón (CC BY 2.5)


Catastrophism: the theory that certain vast geological changes were caused by catastrophes, sometimes worldwide in scope, rather than gradual evolutionary forces.

Uniformitarianism: the theory that slow incremental changes, such as erosion, created all the Earth’s geological features and that processes that operated in the remote geological past are not different from those observed now.

Pleistocene: the last Ice Age, approx 2.5 million years ago to 11,600 years ago.

Most of us who follow the mysteries are aware that huge numbers of carcasses of extinct megafauna, notably mammoths, have been found preserved in the permafrost of Siberia – the victims, it has been suggested, of some great cataclysm near the end of the last Ice Age. Most of us are also probably aware that similar claims have been made for Alaska; however, the evidence there has received less attention.

It is this mystery, the so-called terminal Ice Age cataclysm and megafaunal extinctions of Alaska, that I want to take a look at here – hopefully with your help. If anyone reading this has done any relevant research or can shed any further light on the subject, please tell me what you know in the comments section below.

So far as I’ve been able to establish, the cataclysmic picture of Alaska at the end of the Ice Age first really began to take shape in the late 1930’s and early 1940’s and derives primarily from the work of two scholars, Froelich Rainey and Frank C. Hibben. Writing in the April 1940 issue of American Antiquity, for example, Rainey, a professor of anthropology at the University of Alaska, described wide cuts, miles long and up to 140 feet deep, that were then being sluiced out by the gold mining industry along stream valleys tributary to the Tanana river in Fairbanks District:

‘In order to reach gold-bearing gravel beds an over-burden of frozen silt or ‘muck’ is removed with hydraulic giants. This ‘muck’ contains enormous numbers of frozen bones of extinct mammals such as the mammoth, mastodon, super-bison and horse, as well as brush, stumps, moss and fresh-water mollusks…. Because of the extinct mammal bones, the ‘muck’ is generally believed to be late Pleistocene or early post-glacial. No adequate explanation of the age of these deposits nor the manner in which they were formed can be given at present.’1

Rainey further reported the discovery of nineteen man-made artefacts in the ‘muck’ including a few found ‘frozen in situ at great depths and in apparent association with Pleistocene fauna.’2 These finds led him to put on record his opinion that ‘men were contemporary with extinct mammals in Alaska.’3

This, too, was the view of University of New Mexico archaeologist Frank Hibben who wrote (in December 1941):

‘…the Alaska mucks are well supplied with faunal remains which must have served as the living larder for the first American inhabitants. Animals at present identified from the Alaska muck include the mammoth, mastodon (although not nearly so common as the mammoth), horse, at least three species of bison, (Bison crassicornis, Bison occidentalis, and Bison alleni), two species of musk ox, saber toothed tiger, lion, camel, gazelle, antelope, an extinct bear, sheep, and a number of rodent forms. In addition to the above now extinct species, there also occur moose and caribou, similar to, if not identical with, living forms.’4

In that same year, 1941, Hibben and a team from the University of New Mexico had undertaken intensive field investigations of the Alaskan muck deposits, reporting their findings in the January 1943 issue of American Antiquity:

‘The area immediately to the north of Cook Inlet was examined as far inland as water and sporadic trails permitted, as was the area of the Lower Yukon in a hundred mile circle radiating out from the town of Koyukuk. In addition to the above two areas, some time was spent in examining the muck deposits exposed in the grounds of the Fairbanks Exploration Company in the vicinity of Fairbanks, Alaska…’5

What followed, though Hibben mentions it only in passing, is an observation that catastrophists continue to cite enthusiastically to this day:

‘Although the formation of the deposits of muck is not clear, there is ample evidence that at least portions of this material were deposited under catastrophic conditions. Mammal remains are for the most part dismembered and disarticulated, even though some fragments yet retain, in this frozen state, portions of ligaments, skin, hair, and flesh. Twisted and torn trees are piled in splintered masses concentrated in what must be regarded as ephemeral canyons or arroyo cuts.’6

In his 1946 book The Lost Americans, Hibben elaborated on his catastrophist theme, telling us how astounded he was:

‘to discover in the gold mines of Alaska bones of extinct animals in unbelievable quantities and sound condition; in some places, even, they were an actual impediment to mining.

‘These bones are found all over the central region of the northern Alaskan Peninsula embedded in the typical Alaskan ‘muck’. As the gold-bearing gravels lie beneath this muck, the miners find themselves, of necessity, digging pits and shafts through the muck to get at the gold beneath. As the muck is eternally frozen, it is not only a great impediment to gold mining operations, but also a wonderful preservative of any animal remains that might lie within it.

‘In many places the Alaskan muck blanket is packed with animal bones and debris in trainload lots. Bones of mammoth, mastodon, several kinds of bison, horses, wolves, bears and lions… Within this mass, frozen solid, lie the twisted parts of animals and trees intermingled with lenses of ice and layers of peat and mosses. It looks as though in the middle of some cataclysmic catastrophe of ten thousand years ago the whole Alaskan world of living animals and plants was suddenly frozen in mid-motion in a grim charade… Throughout the Yukon and its tributaries, the gnawing currents of the river had eaten into many a frozen bank of muck to reveal bones and tusks of these animals protruding at all levels. Whole gravel bars in the muddy river were formed of the jumbled fragments of animal remains.’7

The richest pickings, however, were brought to light by mining operations:

‘The hydraulic jets of water which the miners used in their modern gold-mining methods had sluiced away tremendous quantities of the overlying muck. In summer, beneath the short-lived Alaskan sun, the frozen muck-masses dripped and fell away in sludgy masses. Within these oozing piles, the bones of mammoth, camel, horse, moose, and carnivores were everywhere in abundance…

‘The frozen muck had preserved, in a remarkable manner, tendons, ligaments, fragments of skin and hair, hooves and even, in some cases, portions of flesh of these dead animals.

‘In one location north of Fairbanks, a bulldozer was being used to push the melting muck into a sluice box for the extraction of gold. With each passage of the dozer blade across the melting mass, mammoth tusks and bones rolled up like shavings before a giant plane. As the sun melted the black ooze in and around the bones, the stench could be smelled for miles around, the stench of some hundreds of tons of rotting mammoth meat, ten thousand years old. Apparently a whole herd of mammoth had died in this place and fallen together in a jumbled mass of leg bones, tusks and mighty skulls, to be frozen solid and preserved until this day…

‘Mammals there were in abundance, dumped in all attitudes of death. Most of them were pulled apart by some unexplained prehistoric catastrophic disturbance…’8

Unexplained and, I would add, undated, because Hibben’s guess that the finds were ‘ten thousand years old’ is just that – a guess, a wild stab in the dark connected to a loose idea about a terminal Ice Age cataclysm, and nothing more.

That, however, is a minor matter by comparison with the doubts that have been raised over the veracity of Hibben’s discoveries and reports, and over his scientific integrity. Indeed a co-ordinated campaign to discredit him has been mounted by a group of modern geologists who claim that his colourful descriptions are ‘nothing more than imaginative fiction’. Louisiana State University geologist Paul Heinrich is a particularly scathing critic:

‘As proved by numerous published peer-reviewed papers and monographs, including Berger (2003), Bettis et al. (2003),Guthrie (1990), McDowell and Edwards (2001), Muhs et al. (2001, 2003, 2004), Pewe (1955, 1975a, 1975b, 1989), and Westgate et al. (1990), the claim that these deposits [the Alaskan muck deposits] consist of “thick frozen deposits of volcanic ash, silts, sands, boulders, lenticles and ribbons of unmelted ice, and countless relics of late Pleistocene animals and plants lie jumbled together in no discernible order” is false. Instead, as described in numerous publications, specifically Guthrie (1990), Muhs et al. (2003),
Pewe (1955, 1975a, 1975b, 1989), and Westgate et al. (1990), the deposits, which are often referred to as “Alaskan muck” consist of a well-ordered, layer-cake sequence of stratigraphic units containing distinct paleosols and buried forests with in situ tree stumps. As seen in Figures 20 and 29 of Pewe (1975); Figure 4 of Pewe et al. (1997); and the measured sections of Westgate et al. (1990), the so-called “muck” consists of well-defined geologic layers, which are only jumbled where the surface has been disturbed by either thermokarst, landslides, solifluction, or some combination of these processes…

‘Starting with Pewe (1955), Quaternary geologists have recognized the presence of 7 well-defined stratigraphic units, [constituting] the deposits that are falsely described as being “jumbled together in no discernible order”… The contacts between these stratigraphic units are well-defined, persistent, and easily mapable. The forest beds, ice-wedge casts, and buried soils, which are found associated with the contacts demonstrate that periods of non-deposition lasting thousands to tens of thousands years occurred between the deposition of different stratigraphic units. They soundly refute the claim that the “Alaskan muck” accumulated during a single catastrophic event… The dates [from optically-stimulated luminescence and radiocarbon] demonstrate that the sediments, which are haphazardly and incorrectly lumped together as a single “Alaskan muck”, episodically accumulated over a period of 2 to 3 million years, with the youngest deposits having accumulated as recently as 7,000 to 8,000 years ago. The youngest forest bed, the Eva Forest Bed, dates to the last interglacial, about 125,000 years ago as determined by Pewe et al. (1997). It and the “muck” beneath it are far too old to be related to any terminal Pleistocene catastrophe. The oldest forest bed, the Dawson Cut Forest Bed, has been found to be almost 2 million years old by Westgate et al. (2003). These dates, paleosols, and in situ forest beds, indicate that the “Alaskan muck” did not accumulate as the result of one event, but rather represents periods during which loess and other sediments accumulated separated by very long periods, thousands to tens of thousands of years, during which there was a lack of any accumulation of “muck” (Berger 2003, Muhs et al. (2001, 2003, 2004), Pewe (1955, 1975a, 1975b, 1989), Pewe et al. (1997), and Westgate et al. (1990)…’9

Reading Heinrich, you might be forgiven for thinking that Hibben has been completely and comprehensively debunked, and that there is zero evidence for cataclysmic megafaunal extinctions in Alaska. As is often the case with self-styled skeptics, however, there is another side to the story. Heinrich’s argument seems unassailable at least in part because of the extensive references he cites to support his points, but a recent investigation10 that consulted and put those references to the test found that none of them ‘debunk’ or ‘disprove’ Hibben as Heinrich wishes us to believe:

‘More than two dozen sources are cited in Heinrich’s articles on Hibben: a lot of research is required if we want to get to the bottom of this debate… What actual criticisms do Bettis et al, Busacca et al, etc make of Hibben’s claims? Let’s take them one by one:

This paper does not mention Hibben or the Alaskan muck deposits.

  • ‘A.J. Busacca, J.E. Beget, H.W. Markewich, D. R. Muhs, N. Lancaster, and M.R. Sweeney, Eolian Sediments, in A R Gillespie, S C Porter, and B F Atwater (editors), The Quaternary Period in the United States, pp 275-309, Elsevier, Amsterdam (2004).

This paper does not mention Hibben or the Alaskan muck deposits.

This source does not mention Hibben or the Alaskan muck deposits.

This paper does not mention Hibben or Alaskan muck.’

Even more suprising than the non-mention of Hibben in papers that are claimed to debunk his work11 is the disturbing discovery that a number of the sources cited by Heinrich as disproving Hibben’s catastrophism in a number of ways do the exact opposite and in fact add several layers of further confirmation to his unorthodox conclusions. Thus, for example, Heinrich tells us, with blunt certainty, that ‘papers and monographs published in the last fifty years have shown the claims and descriptions made by Rainey and Hibben concerning the abundance and distribution of fossil bones to be grossly exaggerated and quite inaccurate.’12

Amongst the papers that Heinrich cites as proof of the ‘exaggerated’ and ‘inaccurate’ nature of these claims is ‘Pewe 1975a’. The reference is to Pewe’s authoritative study, Quaternary Geology of Alaska, published by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1975.13 But far from disproving Hibben and Rainey on the abundance and distribution of fossil bones, the Pewe study seems rather to confirm their findings. The best way to make this clear is to cite Pewe at length:

‘Alaska, like northern Siberia, has long been famous for the abundant remains of extinct Pleistocene mammals, found in frozen deposits along major rivers and in the valleys of many minor streams. The earliest account of these fossils seems to be that of Kotzebue (1821, p. who found abundant vertebrate remains at Elephant Point in Eschscholtz Bay during his expedition to the Chukchi Sea in 1816). F. W. Beechey also collected there, and the mammal bones were reported by Buckland (1831). Because early explorers (Dall, 1869, 1873) reported a great abundance of bones, several expeditions were conducted in Alaska in the hope of finding complete skeletons or perhaps even frozen carcasses comparable with those found in Siberia (Maddren, 1905; Gilmore, 1908; Quackenbush, 1909). When large-scale gold mining began in the Fairbanks district in 1928, extensive fossil collecting was undertaken there and elsewhere in Alaska by the late 0. W. Geist and others on behalf of the American Museum of Natural History. A small part of this material has been described by Frick (1937) and Skinner and Kaisen (1947). Later, Geist and others collected vertebrate fossils from the Fairbanks area and northern Alaska for the Museum of the University of Alaska. Some of the most detailed work ever done on the late Pleistocene mammals in central and western Alaska was that by Guthrie (1966a, b, c; 1967; 1968a, b; Guthrie and Matthews, 1971), who studied collections that he had made, as well as the vast collection of Geist.

‘The greatest collection of vertebrate specimens is from the Fairbanks area, where tens of thousands of specimens have been collected during the past 30 years. For example, in 1938, a typical year, 8,008 cataloged specimens weighing about 8 tons were collected by 0. W. Geist and shipped to the American Museum of Natural History in New York City (University of Alaska, “Collegian,” 1938, fall). Partial lists of mammals from the Fairbanks area were given by Frick (1930, 1937), Wilkerson (1932, p. 422), Mertie (1937, p. 191), Stock (1942), Hibben (1943), Taber (1943, p. 1487), Skinner and Kaisen (1947), Skarland (1949, p. 132-133), Pewe (1952a, table 4), Geist (1953), Pewe and Hopkins (1967), and Guthrie (1968a).

‘The geological literature (U.S. Geological Survey Bulletins) in Alaska dealing with early placer mining activities mentions in passing that bones of extinct animals such as mammoth, mastodon, bison, horse, and others were found in many localities in addition to the Fairbanks area. Vertebrate remains on the Seward Peninsula were mentioned by Collier (1902), Quackenbush (1909), Hopkins (1963), Harington (1970a, b), and many others. Mertie (1937, p. 190-191) summarized finds of several specimens from the Yukon-Tanana Upland. Whitmore and Foster (1967) listed finds from Chicken and Lost Chicken Creek, including Panthera atrox, and Repenning, Hopkins, and Rubin (1964) listed fossils from Tofty.

‘Chapman and Sable (1960, p. 124) mentioned mammoth tusks found along banks of the Utukok and Kokolik Rivers of northern Alaska. Other references to vertebrates on the Arctic Coastal Plain (pl. 1) were made by Livingstone, Bryan, and Leahy (1958), Harington (1969), and others. William Quaide (unpub. data, 1953) collected mammal remains along the Kuk and Ikpikpuk Rivers in northern Alaska, and Robert Fladeland identified wolf, bear, large cat, mammoth, horse, moose, caribou, musk ox, and bison. A Saiga bone was also identified in this collection by C. R. Harington (C. E. Ray, oral commun., Feb. 12, 1970). C. A. Repenning (written commun. to D. M. Hopkins, Feb. 5, 1962) provisionally identified many vertebrate remains collected by W. J. Maher from the Ikpikpuk River including Smilodon sp. and Felis (Lynx) lynx. Ray (1971) reported that bones of the woolly mammoth were found on St. Lawrence, Pribilof, and Unalaska Islands on the Bering-Chukchi platform.14

So on the one hand we have Heinrich pouring scorn on Hibben for his claim that ‘In many places the Alaskan muck blanket is packed with animal bones and debris in trainload lots. Bones of mammoth, mastodon, several kinds of bison, horses, wolves, bears and lions… Within this mass, frozen solid, lie the twisted parts of animals and trees intermingled with lenses of ice and layers of peat and mosses.’15

On the other hand, however, we have Pewe, one of the very sources that Heinrich offers as proof that Hibben’s claims and descriptions were ‘exaggerated’ and ‘inaccurate’. Yet, in the passages quoted above, Pewe offers no such proof. On the contrary, he cites Hibben himself and refers unambiguously to ‘the abundant remains of extinct Pleistocene mammals, found in frozen deposits along major rivers and in the valleys of many minor streams.’16 Moreover, is not Pewe precisely describing ‘trainload lots’ of bones and remains when he informs us that:

‘The greatest collection of vertebrate specimens is from the Fairbanks area, where tens of thousands of specimens have been collected during the past 30 years. For example, in 1938, a typical year, 8,008 cataloged specimens weighing about 8 tons were collected by 0. W. Geist and shipped to the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.’17

Like many of his colleagues in universities around the world today, Heinrich appears to be ideologically committed to the uniformitarian notion of slow, gradual geological changes – so it’s no surprise that he rejects and seeks to ‘debunk’ catastrophist explanations. The possibility must be considered, however, that uniformitarian beliefs, however sincerely and passionately held, do not serve the truth in this matter of the Alaskan mucks and megafaunal extinctions. I don’t dispute that the remains of mammoths from many different epochs have been found in Alaska18 – one could hardly expect otherwise since mammoths inhabited this area for tens of thousands of years – but this by no means rules out the possibility that their ultimate extinction was the result of a single cataclysmic event or that evidence for such an event may lie amidst the Alaskan mucks.

Moreover, although I have focused on Alaska here – since it was in relation to Alaska that the original claims of cataclysm surfaced – the Canadian territory of Yukon directly adjoins Alaska, continues to be the source of great numbers of megafaunal fossils sluiced by gold miners out of the muck and should be considered part of the same mystery.19

I would therefore like to throw the whole matter open to this community. To those who have done any relevant research, or have additional information on where frozen mammoths and other megafauna can still be seen in the mucks of Alaska and Yukon, or indeed can shed any further light on the subject, I repeat my request to tell me what you know in the comments section below.

Despite the ideological struggle between uniformitarians and catastrophists, despite the claims and the counter-claims, and despite the many decades that have passed since the phenomenon of the Alaskan mucks was first investigated, I remain hopeful that there is still some GROUND TRUTH to be found. I’m looking for leads here and I’m absolutely ready to make a research trip to Alaska and Yukon if the material justifies it.

© Wellcome Images (CC BY 4.0)


1 Froelich Rainey, “Archaeological Investigation in Central Alaska”, American Antiquity, Vol. 5, No. 4 (Apr., 1940), p. 305

2 Ibid, p. 305

3 Ibid, p. 307

4 Frank C. Hibben, “Archaeological Aspects of the Alaska Muck Deposits”, New Mexico Anthropologist, Vol 5, No 4 (Oct-Dec 1941), p. 153

5 Frank C. Hibben, “Evidences of Early Man in Alaska,” American Antiquity, Vol 8, No 3 (Jan 1943), p. 255

6 Ibid, p. 256

7 Frank C. Hibben, The Lost Americans, Thomas Y. Crowell Company., New York, 1946, pp 90-92

8 Ibid, pp 95-96

12 http://theepistlesofpaul.blogspot.co.uk/2007/06/imaginary-mucks-of-alaska-and-siberia.html

13 Pewe, T. L., Quaternary Geology of Alaska, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 835, 1975.

14 Pewe, T. L., Quaternary Geology of Alaska, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 835, 1975, pp 91-92

15 Hibben, The Lost Americans op.cit., pp 90-92

16 Pewe, T. L., Quaternary Geology of Alaska, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 835, 1975, pp 91-92

17 Pewe, T. L., Quaternary Geology of Alaska, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 835, 1975, pp 91-92

72 thoughts on “Muck, Mammoths and Extinctions: was Alaska the scene of a giant cataclysm at the end of the Ice Age?”

  1. Richard says:

    . . . Those references above pertaining to the North American continent sound interesting to read and to follow up on. I’m not sure about the where-a-bouts of the folks who wrote those, but keep their references handy, just the same.

    There’s a great deal to cover about North America, especially, those elemental forces that put the continent together – busted it up – and put it back together – thawed it – froze it – boiled it with lava, to make it what’s like today, and that’s just the geology of it. But what about the bone and plant fossils one finds while digging around? This gentleman might point you in the right directions and to a few more of those fossil sites, too.

    Dr. Kirk Johnson might be able to give you a hand. He’s knows something about geology and paleontology, and, especially, something about the North American continent going back millions of years to today. He’s not afraid of catastrophes, either, so long as he’s not inundated by them, Heh! Heh! . . . Just had to put my two-bits in there. . . Well, anyway, you needn’t take my word for it, Dr. Johnson can be found here:: :


    He hosted a 2015 NOVA production called “Making North America,” and although the video was only 3 hours long it covered a great deal of territory, possibilities for more investigations, and had a host of computer-generated imagery (CGI) animations along with the real McCoy landscape footage his field missions took him to. He discovered a few new fossils in places where there should not have been fauna of that kind in the first place without some significant landscaping on a global scale. Caught on camera, so to speak, while on location doing his work filming. Good DVD, actually, and very informative to get started.

    Kirk probably has a handle on who else you might want to get in touch with if he can’t go along with you on an expedition to the mighty Canadian and Alaskan Northern territories. . . . Wear wide boots and warm-cotton socks, and make sure you poke the ground with a ski-pole WITHOUT getting the end disc stick in the mud before you take that next step forward into muck during a thaw. Practice with it, too, because it can give a new user of them a thumb injury they were not expecting. . . Thanks for the article – Cheers

  2. James I. Nienhuis says:

    Hello Graham, the Ice Age ended when the skies cleared, because the ocean had cooled to about today’s temperatures, so fast summer melt and longer colder winters. See http://TheRightSway.com.

  3. Daniel says:

    I live close to Waco Mammoth Site, a new unit of the National Park System. This paleontological site represents the nation’s only recorded discovery of a nursery herd of Columbian mammoths. Visitors can view “in situ” fossils including female mammoths, a bull mammoth, and a camel that lived approximately 67,000 years ago. https://www.nps.gov/waco/index.htm
    If there is any information I could get there, such as photos, I would be happy to.
    I really enjoy all your work, have many of your books and thank you for all you do.

  4. Jose serrano says:

    I LOVE YOUR WORK GRAHAM HANCOCK!! I’ve been read the Master Game and I’m almost finished. I usually don’t even read but once I found out about your findings and your research I couldn’t stop reading. Just know that you’re very appreciated, I vow to meet you one day, many blessings.

    1. Jose serrano says:


  5. Paul Alan Dorich says:

    Prayers on a speedy recovery. I live in Colorado and met you in Boulder on your last book tour. How can I help in your research?

  6. Pat Gregory says:

    Good to see this coming to light again. Velikovsky discussed Alaskan muck in his works.

  7. Keith holley says:

    Hello graham how are you I saw that you were ill and hope you are ok I live in south jersey on the east coast we have many ice age sites both animals and humans there were many species from that time period here I have a good collection of bones and teeth from that time most of my area was frozen during that time and there are sites that still produce bones and human remains if you need to see any of my stuff or info let me now Keith in New Jersey phone also 609 836 2496 also do more aceint aleins episode when you can

  8. Stephen Perkins says:

    There is at least one chapter of Ages In Chaos (Velikovsky) you should. Ages in Chaos is his follow up to Worlds in Collision. In it he follows the geologic evidence as it pertains to his catastrophic theories. Whether you agree with him or not, he meticulously footnoted his sources. So that should give you a new avenue of research. I would do the research myself but all my books are packed in preparation of a move.

    I heard of your illness and I hope you are feeling better. That you are researching a new book tells me that you are on the mend. Take care and god bless.

  9. Frank Delaplaine says:

    Significant breakthroughs in our understanding of fossils and geology may have been made by the author of the Universal Model. It would be interesting to get your take on his work. https://universalmodel.com/ Thank you.

  10. Brennan B. says:

    Hi Graham,

    Have you looked into the mammoth ‘muck’ sites in Michigan and around the Great Lakes, or is that outside of your area of research? There are some interesting similarities with some of the sites in the Yukon that may be worth investigating. I would be happy to provide you with more information. As far as ‘muck’ sites, I consulted on a project regarding the conservation Pleistocene faunal remains from a ‘muck’ site in northeastern Washington several years ago and did some research into similar deposits. You may have already seen some of these papers but hopefully, this helps:

    Campbell, J.D.
    1952 Paleobotany and straigraphic sequence of the Pleistocene Klondike ‘muck deposits.’ PhD thesis, McGill University, Montreal

    Cockfield, W.E.
    1921 Sixtymile and Ladue Rivers Area, Yukon. Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 123:1-60.

    Farrand, W.R.
    1961 Frozen mammoths and modern geology. Science 133(3455):729-34

    Fraser, T.A., and Burn, C.R.
    1997 On the nature and origin of ‘muck’ deposits in the Klondike area, Yukon Territory. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 34:1333-44.

    McAtee, C.
    1979 Late-quaternary chronology, vegetation, and depositional history of Klondike ‘muck’ deposits, Yukon Territory, Canada: Final report

    Morlan, R.E., and J. Cinq-Mars
    1982 Ancient Beringians: Human occupation in the Late Pleistocene of Alaska and the Yukon Territory. In Paleoecology of Beringia, Academic Press, New York, pp. 353-81.

    Pewe, T.L.
    1968 Loess deposits of Alaska. Proceedings of the XXIII International Geological Congress 8:297-309.

    Other similar sites:

    McAndrews, J.H.
    1994 Pollen diagrams for southern Ontario applied to archaeology. In Proceedings of Great Lakes Archaeology and Paleoecology, pp. 179-95.

  11. jose m. amoedo says:

    if you need a base camp and or guide, i live in Mayo, in the central Yukon Territory.

  12. Bob SMith says:

    I have looked into this subject area a bit over the years, and I have not found any reference to a statistical study of fossil distribution over a geographic area. Maybe there is one I have not seen. It is hard to deal with closed minds without sufficient incontrovertible data that can be used to beat them over the head until their mind opens.

    Given that the gold explorations were hurried and there was no real attempt to date and catalog finds, it is nothing but speculation as to date and location within the strata – all of the gold mining associated sites have been compromised geologically. I think an assessment of where finds have turned up, been uncovered might lead to some potential dig areas, and maybe some scientific clues to cause.

    Given the environment – over time – I don’t think it is possible to estimate any sort of date for what appears to be a sudden cataclysm, It is also almost impossible to differentiate local and world wide cataclysms without sufficient data to tie the times together.

    SO, no real help to you, just support, and the suggestion of some analysis.
    Best of luck, and stay well please.

  13. Graham Langdon says:

    Graham if you go to Alaska, the Chena hot springs (in Fairbanks) in February is perhaps one of the best spots to view the northern lights in the entire world.

    Good luck tracking down the Alaska muck!

  14. Richard Nichols says:

    When referencing others many readers will not do the necessary reading of the other material and just assume the author is referencing information that supports their claim.

    Over time I have learned to make the effort and read the referenced material to make sure that supporting claim is valid and not just an attempt to overwhelm the reader.

    It is amazing how many published works in archeology and climate have references that do not (or only marginally) support the claim of the author(s).

  15. Daniel Moore says:

    Interesting research, Graham. I think the case for a world-wide catastrophe twelve-thousand years ago is indisputable. My favorite monograph on the subject is “Cataclysm!” by Allan and Delair. They have some extensive comments on the far-northern frozen-muck problem. Every continent has some variation of muck, often jammed in inaccessible caves and fissures, though often petrified. Hope your migraines are under control; I’ve suffered for fifty years. Inderal now controls them.

  16. Eric Korbly says:

    Mr. Hancock, there’s two pervasive reasons for the resistance of adding catastrophic events to the timeline of earth changes.
    Fear: it’s flat out scary, & it means men aren’t in control of their own destinies if born in the wrong century
    Ego: admission of error is too much for any ego driven personality.

    You might be wasting some of your time battling the skeptics by trying to convince them of the obvious. Though this paper is the way to do battle should you find the need.

    Good luck,

  17. Heidi says:

    It is not a mystery what happened, as it has been documented well and spoken of many ancient cultures. Besides the evidence makes it abundantly clear – a worldwide flood as described in Genesis. All kinds of animals, man, trees and muck jumbled together and killed in a moment. The evidence is everywhere you look.

    1. TRM says:

      The Haida indians of the pacific northwest don’t tell “wave” flood stories. They tell of the tide coming in and in and in until only the tops of mountains could be seen. So a rising water flood not a wave flood.

      A rising water flood could drown and lot of animals and as it retreated leave them all in a big pile.

  18. Shawn Winkinhofer says:

    It is Interesting that maps from the 1500’s had accurate depictions of the northern portion of what is now frozen. There have been unique objects found in actual coal therefore pointing towards the fact humans are much older than science states. As well as human remains found with dinosaurs it does not surprise me what has been found in Alaska.

  19. Andrew McBride says:

    Hi Graham

    Interesting info there…and what a tale to tell if there are any remains showing cut-marks that can only have come from man-made weapons or tools. Or any bones of man among all that ‘muck’.

    But maybe not. No doubt you know the history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and its supposed end-date of melting and creating great washes of water across the landscape; gathering up all it held within it and before it and creating such deposits of bones and flesh; leaving behind just a remnant in the Barnes Ice Cap of Baffin Island (nice island that…iron ore deposit some 93% pure…little effort needed in producing iron…)

    Ah…but various finds over the years show that maybe, man was there before the LIS appeared in its form, having become what it was after previous ice ages and accumulations began the Bering Bridge. Before some 95,000 years ago, and possibly up to 135,000 ya, man has left remnants upon bones that had their flesh cut from them; man following other animals that made their way across the edge of the bridge, either on foot or in the water at the edge of the bridge. But! no skeletons of man from that age, or any age really before accepted datings of the earliest skeletons found…maybe up to 20-25,000 ya: The end of the LIS.

    Well, I guess a retreating and melting ice sheet is responsible for drowning so many animals and sending the bodies to the lowest ravines, streams, valleys etc to accumulate…yet one would think man would have been hunting those areas too as there was no where for the animals to go or gather except in front of the ice sheet…a perfect wall at the ends of valleys, ravines, gulches etc where man could herd their prey and make their kills.

    Are folks sure there are no skeletons of man in all that debris? No hunters or gold fossikers of the time?


    1. Andrew McBride says:

      Just saw an article on the news desk: Ice Age Predators Found Alongside Oldest Human in Americas.

      Nice…a human skeleton some 13,000 years old in a cave alongside animal skeletons, in the Yucatán Peninsula. At least we have hunters being found alongside their prey at the time the ice age was coming to a close.

  20. Kelly Reid says:

    Happy to help.

  21. Sushil Soni says:

    Dear Mr Hancock,

    Following is an interesting point that you could discuss in your next, regards

    “There were 22 civilizations on earth. These civilizations did indeed attain a high level of technocratic development and destroyed themselves. This self destruction occurred either in the form of a global conflict or as a result of a global catastrophe, caused in large part by the attraction of objects from space with negative psychic energy. As a result of these global catastrophes, the climate on earth changed, and only when the climate once again become hospitable for human life did humankind reappear in the form of a new civilization, which eventually achieved a high level of technocratic development and once again self-destructed.”

    – From “Where do we come from”, by Dr Ernst Muldashev, pp 120-121 (The central theme of this book is the hypothesis that humans may have originated in Tibet – hypothesis reached through opthalmo-geometric study)

  22. Roger Broadie says:

    Not research that will lead you to ground truth – but an observation that may help. Many sources were brought together by Velikovsky in Earth in Upheaval in the 1950s so we have known about this for ages – the book is well worth a re-read. I take it as true that the Siberian mammoth ivory and the jumbled remains in Alaska exist and am concerned with how they got there. A convincing cause must be part of verification of the truth. I cover this (and other issues) in my book Gods, Genes and Climate that I have recently published.

    The only explanation I can see that works scientifically to produce Siberian mammoth ivory and the Alaskan mucks is a vast amount of water sweeping up and East across Siberia. The only place this vast amount of water can have come from is the Pacific or the Arctic oceans – most likely the Pacific as it is bigger. If you think about the mechanics that might cause this, the Earth is rotating towards the East and the seas at the Arctic circle are travelling 736km/hr. If Hapgood is right and the Earth’s crust can slip, a displacement of the crust to the South would not carry the Pacific Ocean with it. The immense angular momentum of the water would cause it to continue to rotate at the same speed, but at a higher latitude where the crust is moving more slowly. Hence if Eastern Siberia and Alaska had slipped South the Pacific would sweep across them. The water from wider parts of the Pacific would not fit as the distance between Siberia and Alaska narrows as you go North. Everything that floated would then be pushed towards Alaska as the crust continued to rotate – having come from further South the water would be rotating faster than the crust (rotational speed of a point on the crust changes from 1669 km/hr at the Equator to zero at the pole).

    I have done a little ‘back of the envelope’ calculation in the book as to whether the younger dryas asteroid could possibly cause an acceleration of the crust sufficient to cause this effect. And the answer is yes if you assume the Earth’s crust was already slipping and friction between the crust and the magma below it had become pretty low. And that the asteroid hit so as to accelerate the crust in the direction it was already slipping. The acceleration is not big but sufficient to cause mayhem over a relatively short period of days or weeks.

    If this happened it would also explain all the evidence presented in Earth in Upheaval that in many places in Europe land seems to have been overwhelmed by vast amounts of water carrying animal and plant debris, that appears to have come from a North Westerly direction.

    All praise to you for all that you have published so far and I look forward to you shedding more light on what happened to Northern America.

  23. Dan Barwell says:

    You are inspirational Graham!
    This geologic debate is is no longer questionable with the latest evidence. I have successfully shown the overwriting of the Pangaea model in my film “Fingerprints of the Flood” (title inspired by Grahams work). The CCGC’ World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map validates rapid continental motion over the lithosphere, where Plate Tectonics was founded on the notion of mainly lithosphere riding on top of asthenosphere. It is now epistemically objective that the east/west Atlantic separation model is barricaded as a possibility (that house of cards fell). Moreover, I am just about to release software with 14 animated globes (some in 8K resolution) to make this easy for students. Would love to work with you Graham on the one globe dedicated to archeology. I had the privilege of chats with J.A. West in 2015, and he mentioned sharing some of my research with Shoch…so I sent him some material. Lots to share, feel free to contact me Graham. Sincerely Dan

  24. Brandon Perry says:

    There is much more than meets the eye here. As you prove Heinrich outright lied. The real question to me is why? What is this person trying to hide and who is behind him? I am in no way at the level of yourself Mr. Hancock but I myself have 17 years of learning the truth and oh man something very strange is going on and I will not speak to its entirety through the net. It’s called the web for a reason and the spider is watching. I know this that our entire history and true way of life has be taken from us. In Latin the word myth is history in English. In Latin pharmaceutical is witchcraft in English. This is modern English and to further that American English. But anyway, funny thing all the Christians think they’re doing right by God that they believe in yet they all practice witchcraft for their medical problems. Upside down and backwards is what we live in. I watch all this everyday, like a train wreck in slow motion. I tell them and I’m disregarded and looked at as crazy. I’ll take crazy to what they’re doing any day. Yet the definition per Einstein is doing the same thing over again expecting a different result. They are the crazy ones and don’t even know it. It’s so confusing. It’s almost as if they aren’t “real”. Anyway thanks for the info, great work.

  25. ST says:

    When you find out the main real truth, this information will all fall into place… Like how were you used and reproduced into a human? The real you call it soul or whatever is not a limited short lived human that dies !!! Only the soul knows these answers that can be blocked by the mechanical human brain that has been programmed by false information… Less than 1% thinks with the soul, some call it the higher self, subconscious or whatever. PROOF; in every category of work there are ONLY a few who are brilliant. Example with artists only a few that are brilliant. This is why its easy to control information for the masses, they will not believe you they will believe the mainstream media or their leader !!! Discover the advanced ancient you, and everything else will fall into place. Its not pretty

  26. Andrew Wickes says:

    Hi Graham,

    This is not in Alaska, but further south here in Colorado near Aspen. A similar pile of these extinct animal bones were found in a lake. Although the leading theory has something to do with quicksand, I’ve always felt that the area showcases the catastrophe. Here is the Wikipedia page in the case you are not aware of the site. I know you were in Aspen some time ago…


  27. Adrian Auler says:

    Dear Graham, when I read the description of how the remains were torn apart, I recalled reading a book called “The Day the Earth Almost Died” – I no longer have it so I can’t refer to passages – that came out before any of the new meteoric and Gobekli Tepi information you call upon. I think that author’s thesis referred to sudden crustal displacement. One point he made at length was discoveries of caves and crevices around the world that had been found to be packed with a varied assortment of animal parts from different places in the world – like caves in South America with not only local animals but some from Africa too – which it seemed had been picked up by terrific winds, hurled through the air for great distances (in some cases) and slammed into mountainsides; where there was a deep crevice or cave, some were packed in there like jam smashed into a bottle. Have you read this book? Some of the information might be coordinated with your own, current studies.

  28. robert wadleigh says:

    Hello Sir as an alumus of University of Alaska Fairbanks I could give you a good lead on the direction and personalities involved in so-called genuine research in this field. My ex-wife was working on the Beringia Project along with numerous peers and mentors as a grad student at UAF in the early 90s. I am certain that she would be of invaluable assistance to you on this project. Reply to my email and I will put you in touch with her and also provide a list of professors whose research might be useful. I myself was a linguist so only who I know is of use. Btw good thoughts good words good deeds I wish them for you and your full recovery and absence of migraines.

  29. James says:

    Silly question from a world traveller, but does the standard theory over the Grand Canyon being a long-term geological development still stand up?
    Having seen the Canyon (and others in China and Mexico) I am struck by either the time, or the volume of water needed to create such a feature- especially in a region which in recent geological time has been fairly arid.
    The idea of a massive collapsing ice sheet dumping meltwater into a young canyon system is visually very appealing.
    Has anyone ever researched this possibility?
    ps- excellent work Graham, you and your website have been an inspiration for me ever since the BBC Panorama programmes…

    1. Adam Klaus says:

      Yes, the evidence is definitely there. The weathering patterns of the Grand Canyon were not formed by long, uniformitarian processes. Massive volumes of water, likely mixed with enormous blocks of melting ice, carved away the existing sandstone through pre-existing tectonic weaknesses in the sedimentary rock layers.

      When this all connected for me, the entire landscape of the Grand Canyon and Colorado Plateau looked anew. The earth that seems so solid beneath us is shifting all the time.

  30. dale says:

    The last thing you need to do now is go tramping all over Alaska. Take it easy and leave this to the young guys.

  31. dale says:

    Need to locate a cluster of these tangled animal bodies and bones that indicate a catastrofic sp. event and carbon date the mess. Possibly it already has been done.

  32. zeekwolfe says:

    There is no logical reason for the extinction of mega fauna 12K years ago. Several examples of this come to mind. In North America the prong horn “antelope,” an almost goat-like animal, evolved into the world’s fastest animal over a given extended distsnce. We are told this speed evolved as a defense against predation by the North American cheetah. These cheetahs, as in contemporary Africa, preyed on other animals that were bigger and slower or smaller and slower. But their main diet was the pronghorn as Thompsons gazelle is to the modern cheetah in Africa. Americab bison and other large herbivores did not roam in the vast quantities of the 19th century, but there were enough to feed large numbers of lions with attendent remora-like animals such as dire wolves, hyenas, foxes and coyotes. Suddenly, horses, lions, short-faced bears, sloths, cheetahs, mammoths, mastodons,camels, giant beavers, dire wolves and saber tooths went extinct. Happened everywhere! The Southern California was mild 12 thousand years ago. Animals should have thrived, yet bones of extinct species are found all over the place. Catastrophism can be the only explanation…perhaps a comet or volcano. Disease seens unlikely. What disease could discriminate in such fashion as to kill short faced bears, lions, dire wolves…all carnivores, and sloths, camels, mammoths and horses…all herbivores. Did humans over hunt? Huge numbers of game animals survived humans in Africa and India to modern times, so that happening in the Americas is not probable.

  33. John J McKay says:

    Dear Mr Hancock,

    I spent the last ten plus years researching mammoth discoveries. The resulting book “Discovering the Mammoth” came out last month (published by Pegasus Books and distributed by WW Norton, which you know is a reputable publisher). I have read catastrophist theories since the early 1970s, including your own. I have tracked down the original sources on almost every discovery of mammoth remains with soft tissues since 1692 and made my own translations just to make sure I understand them correctly. I’ve read many of the recent papers on Pleistocene soils (such as Pewe’s) I have my own copies of Hibbert’s books, including later works which you don’t site. Oh, and I live in Alaska and have seen and waded out into “muck.”

    If you’re game, I’d be happy to be your tour guide to visit the sites where bones have been found, to examine the strata of the soils, and I could arrange interviews with the appropriate experts. Pewe died in 1999, but Guthrie is still alive.

    Write to me. It’s not too late in the season to make a trip before winter sets in.

  34. John Collins says:

    Hello Graham
    I have been working on this topic as an interested engineer and have come to believe that the instigator of the ca12,800 YA catastrophe was the planet Venus. It was not a direct hit but a very close pass that twisted both bodies like dynamos. Earth changed its axis of rotation by about 24 degrees and the seas went wild. I think the previous North Pole was about N62.5 W55 in Davis Strait.

    I will send my pdf essays to your sight as I see no way to attach them with this entry.

  35. Mauri says:

    Having read three of Hanconck’s books, I’m more interested in the remains of giant humanoids and the dating of those, their artifacts, whether their remains have been found in the Alaskan muck, their role in human evolution, etc.

  36. Marcel S. says:

    Hi Graham,
    I’ll just throw some snippets in, only theories or thoughts about floods and extinctions that I find interesting and may be worthy of further research.

    1.) Verneshots:
    Interesting concept, detonation very capable of megafauna extinction in Siberia/North-America and beyond, very worth reading, I would like to hear your thoughts about this, Graham. (also alt. hypothesis to tunguska-event)

    2.) Volcanoes under Glaciers
    Melting of ice, resulting in glacial lake outburst floods without prior global warming

    Very interesting to learn about the climate of the past and it’s mechanisms.

    3) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_event
    Related to younger dryas and climate change

    I imagined an ancient civilisation traversing the atlantic ocean towards Europe on an enormous Heinrich-ice shelf calved off from the Laurentide ice sheet, living in an Inuit-like fashion with small boats and fishing, carving monuments and temples out of the ice, while in their hybris they can’t realize the slowly melting of the shelf over the decades…

    This belongs to fiction, obviously. 😀

    Keep on with the good work!

  37. Ann Harris says:

    Compartmentalization is a problem for researchers higher up the pecking order academically. Is it not possible to make the case for Catastrophism and Uniformitarianism, in the patterns of evidence in the field. Being attached to one paradigm to the exclusion of the other does not make much sense.

  38. Kevin says:


    14000 year old Canadian village… these people’s oral history probably have some recolection of this time period.

  39. John Doe says:

    Mr. Hancock, I have found what I believe to be the impact site that ended the last Ice Age. The crater itself, measures a little under 300 miles across. It is accompanied by other smaller craters in and around it. Currently, there is no study on hydrological effects on fresh impact craters other than my own. I am visiting the site within this month. May I have a direct way to contact you once my findings are secured and my experiments fully conducted? I will be starting a website fully dedicated to my work and I wish to share with you and brother Carlson first.

  40. Mitru Costea says:

    Two celestial impacts caused the disappearance of the last advanced civilization not one. The impact that destroyed the great ice sheet over Canada & North America was one. But..Puma Punku lies at an altitude of 2.3 miles above sea level. It has monolithic stones weighing hundreds of tons. A cataclysm occurred displacing these blocks. Air can’t move those blocks but water can. A cosmic impact occurred in the ocean large enough to create a wave 2.5+ miles high to impact Puma Puntu to displace those stones. The mere melting of the former ice ages ice sheet would not raise water that high.

  41. SJ says:

    What a fascinating book this will be! Thank you for thinking of it, researching it, writing it! I can’t wait to read it!

    Your books are superb, each and every one. Your research is incredible, in part because it is so thorough, but also because you seem to go into things without a fixed mind set. This is a great example to us all. I’m grateful every day for what you have taught me about principles such as that, through the way you live your life and do your work.

    In addition, you’re simply a fine writer. Engaging, intellectually honest, interesting. Every new book is a revelation and a joy. Each opens up vast fields of new knowledge, and further questions, for me to explore.

    Thank you so very much for all you do. You and yours are courageous. You and your family have, together, CHANGED THIS WORLD, as well as our view of it.

    Wishing you the very best in the years to come!

  42. Karen S. says:

    I love your “be excellent”! I want a hat that reads “Make America KIND Again”!

    About Alaska, I’ve visited my sister who’s lived there (in Haines, Southeast Alaska) many years. The land there, has a mixed-up configuration of geology. Do we think we understand earthquakes because of California? I’m a San Franciscan. Been threw that! Alaska has fault lines on fault lines on fault lines. Inland is volcanic mountains, such as Mt. St. Helens. The coastline is other kinds of land, brought on tectonic platters.

    I like to say about blame: “it’s nobody’s fault… except the San Andreas!”

    Since the entire west coast of North America has land masses scrunched into it, I wonder what cataclysms that whole mess caused?

    The Oregon Coast has the world’s third-largest free-standing monolith: Cannon Beach’s “Haystack Rock.” Lovely tide pools of starfish, etc. it’s a bird sanctuary, since so many seabirds nest there. How pleasant, for a holiday.

    What most don’t know, is that Rock traveled around the Pacific Rim for millions of years. Original source? What is now, China!

    I also have a sister, who has lived in Vancouver, British Columbia, for years.

    I’m not a scientist, but self-taught and well-traveled, especially along this coast. If I can be of any aid to research questions and uniquely unusual creative thought, please let me know!

  43. Sandra Kowall says:

    I Love you! Best wishes to your wife and family.

  44. J Smith says:


    I would expect the scars left from those mining strips in the 1930s-40s are still there (were they trying to cut across all the washes to find the gold seam then when found they follow along the wash?). Google Earth may help with that search. Once you locate a few of those cuts it seems like visual inspection and film could reveal a lot. When you can look at details of cars parked at a house on Google maps, you might get a lot of views of similarly sized mammoth piles from your armchair.

    Identified mines (I selected Fairbanks as an example but that may not be the right region) http://freegoldmaps.com/0019.htm
    Overlay “260,000” active and abandoned mines on Google Earth, of which 12,000 are in Alaska https://www.mindat.org/article.php/485/Google+Earth+Meets+MRDS%3A+A+Basic+Tutorial
    Mining atlas https://mining-atlas.com/
    Google map of the NW corner of Fairbanks, where many of those mining indicators are at, https://www.google.com/maps/place/Tanana+River/@64.818214,-148.2263346,9339m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m5!3m4!1s0x512d1bd358db8edb:0x8fbeaf3e0108af90!8m2!3d64.9552693!4d-150.5192818

  45. Ella says:

    Most of us are also probably aware that similar claims have been made for Alaska; however, the evidence there has received less attention.
    Spanish English translator https://spanishto-english.com/

  46. Sandy Hewett says:

    Hi, just stumbled across this..https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=koYWznEIV50,different location..same stuff.

  47. Susan Sampson says:

    Hi, We met briefly on an elevator at the CPAK Conference in California three years ago. I asked if you knew of any megalithic monuments in North America. You explained that the mounds are the North American mega monuments.
    There has been a discovery of Megalithic constructions, dolmans, and other constructions that appear to have astronomical alignments. That site is south of Helena, Montana. Also in Montana, there is a site of ringing rocks – a great pile of them. Michael Tellinger has discussed rocks that ring like bells. There is a woman who runs visits to these sites. The location of which appears to be quite a secret. Here is the link: http://www.montanamegaliths.com/ to her images and contact information.
    I have a 30 year history of doing past life readings and have begun past life readings of places. It was a spontaneous discovery that began at Avebury. However, I have begun doing those past life readings of places at ancient sites in the US. A few articles have been published in the Sedona Journal of Emergence. I just wanted to fill you in on the megalith’s existence. My personal goal is to not only do the readings of place, but to find megalithic sites in the US. If megalithic sites exists all over the world, then they must exist here in the US. It appears they do. My thought is that they must be located generally in the US or along non-glacial regions. However, knowing how those ancient gods built some megalithic sites after the 9700 BC event, I am sure we will discover them. I do not know if this will help with your research on extinctions in Alaska, but it is a new discovery in the western US. Kind Regards, Susan Sampson

  48. Fabien Pardo says:

    Bonjour ,une très bonne analyse dans la lignée des travaux de Hapgood/Einstein ou encore Vélikosky et tant d’autres depuis plus de 200 ans.Un jour peut être ces évidences seront admises par la communauté scientifique,qui se refuse à nous transmettre cet état de fait .F. PARDO et Jean SEIMPLE : https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1760&v=EpLN1QvFdXg :

  49. J Brian Moore says:

    Hi Graham,

    The following book has over 600 pages and more than 1000 references relevant to your project –
    Charles Ginenthal: Extinction of the Mammoth. As a bonus, it is available free from Amazon.

    You may remember we met some years ago when you gave a talk to the Society for Interdisciplinary Studies which has been investigating catastrophism since 1975. The Society publishes Chronology & Catastrophism Review and there are many useful links on the Society’s website: http://www.sis-group.org.uk/

  50. J Brian Moore says:

    PS to my previous comment. Extinction of the Mammoth is available as a free PDF download from:


    1. J Hess says:

      This is a very good and well-researched paper and am fully immersed in it. Thank you. But I cannot yet wrap my head around the author’s argument that the mammoths suddenly died not 10K years ago around the time of the Younger-Dryas, but a mere 3,000 yrs ago, the end of the Hypsithermal. It seems way too recent. But I’m reading on.

  51. William says:

    It seems painfully obvious that for animal bodies to not have completely rotted away, they HAD to have been suddenly buried, or else suddenly exposed to constant extreme cold with no carrion-eaters around until covered by 20 feet of snow or glacier.

  52. William says:

    Animal bodies all twisted up could be explained by a combination of frost heave, tectonic movement, and/or glacier movement and coverage.

  53. Ron Evans says:

    Graham, there is a crater located at, 42 55 30.64 N, 109 46 38.46 W, that is situated over a glacier track and appears to have been formed after the glacier. The glacier track is now half moon lake that was formed by the berm from the crater.

  54. prem says:

    when the laurentide ice sheet melted it made the missoula floods as the melt water flowed south.
    when the melt water flowed north it flowed mostly through the mcKenzie and the hudson bay.
    there were massive outflows and there is evidence that one outflow raised the arctic ocean 26m.
    the sudden outflow drained lake aggazis in a 2 week period.
    i believe that that was what caused what you are talking about in alaska, canada and siberia.

  55. Ed says:

    Perhaps to far astray, but might help anyway. I find your comet impact theory to be spot on and noticed that the distance in time between the two cataclysms you cite is roughly an astrological decan. I’ve never thought decans had a good reason to be noticed, but perhaps periodic run-ins with large debris would be a reason. Narrowing down the window of time might help find other occurrences of a smaller size.

  56. dale says:

    Isnt there a place in the State of Nebraska with the same piled up bones of mega animals ? I might add that while researching ancient American history you read every issue of ” Ancient America” magazine… Hope you are feeling well Graham..Ill be reading the new book. Dale

  57. Graham Moore says:


    Have you seen the video by Alan Wilson https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8GOcttn4VwE&list=PLRIGL15UJUKdwXUZ_Ndv9dJNRh0taGQxt&index=12&t=3207s He talks about an impact on Britain. He also talks of decoding the language.


  58. Tea says:

    The spirit of America/Turtle Island is to be found in the teachings of the latest Twin Teachers to humanity the Peacemaker (Huron) and Jigonsaseh (Neutral/Cat Nation) the Mother of Nations who in democratic consultation with the peoples of the original 5 nations of the Iroquois brought the Confederacy of the Great Peace the roots planted Lake Onondaga, Where the Willows Meet the Waters, in present day Liverpool, NY. Where John Lennon met in 1973 two days before he released the song Imagine as a single with Oren Lyons and Leon Shenandoah, the Tadadaho of the Iroquois Confederacy and the oldest continuous position of governance bestowed by the Peacemaker and Jigonsaseh in what is now called America. It was the original Peace Hymn that led the procession of canoes across this lake to transform the heart of the original Tadadaho. So it is not coincidence that this spot was later to named Liverpool. The Great Mystery has always sent Twin Teachers male and female to humanity i.e. Moses/Zipporah (Ikhnaton/Nefertiti), Jesus/Mary Magdalene, Muhammad/Khadijah, Buddha/Mahāpajāpatī Gotamī etc. And we see how the golden pyramid (Devil/Evil) way of thinking transformed the original teachings of these teachings where women were diminished and the female Great Teacher relegated to obscurity or turned into i.e. a prostitute just as the golden pyramid (gold being at the top of the pyramid) way of thinking has transformed Mother Earth to be a dead repository of resources to be exploited. We see this in the major religions as well as the current isms – capitalism, communism, socialism – all creating an elite, a Court of Versailles, a golden top to the pyramid. This is seen also in the Andes, Mexico and the Mounds of North America where priesthoods and kingship arose against the cross within the circle way of thinking where the cross is male/female, breathe/blood and represents all humans two spirits the intersection of which gives each human their uniqueness and sexuality. This point of intersection is a point on the Great Circle of Mother Earth’s consciousness. We see this in the Egyptian cross with the cross and the circle above it. This represents true democracy, freedom, liberty where men and women share equally in governance as seen in the Teachings brought by the Peacemaker and Jigonsaseh. This is governance that flows with the current of life not against it. It is seen in true family – the clans reestablished by the Peacemaker and Jigonsaseh where all clan children have many fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, mentors. And each clan member must marry outside of the clan thus making governance – FAMILY and consolidating familial unity amongst the nations. Karl Marx in his later years in his notebooks was fascinated with clans seeing this as true family. Unfortunately the writings on the Haudenausanee that he studied did not reveal the spiritual foundation of this League brought by the Peacemaker and Jigonsaseh. That was first revealed to the world when Seth Newhouse in 1885 (Mohawk/Onondaga) gathered the various teachings of the Peacemaker and Jigonsaseh and wrote them down in English. The early contact with Europeans and their dismissal at dealing with the Clan Mothers (one of whose role was to carry on diplomacy) as well as their derision at the gift or mother economy/spirituality of the Iroquois caused them to never speak of the Peacemaker and Jigonsaseh to the Europeans.

    There is so much more but if you contact folks like Oren Lyons, Tom Porter and Barbara Mann you will learn much of why America is the true Promised Land and that the Way of Peace for all humanity and the nations can be found in the principles that the Peacemaker and Jigonsaseh – sent by the Great Mystery – blessed this land with and where the roots of Peace were planted Where the Willows Meet the Waters with a Song of Peace that stirred the imaginations of the original 5 nations and can in the future all the nations of this Earth.

  59. Tea says:

    A correction to my previous post: John Lennon released the song Imagine in the US on October 11, 1971 two days after meeting with Oren Lyons/Leon Shenandoah near Liverpool, NY on Lennon’s birthday. On September 11, 1971 – 30 years before 9/11 – John Lennon premiered/performed the song Imagine in NYC on the Dick Cavett show to America.

  60. Hameed says:

    Hello Graham,

    Very sorry for posting this in the wrong area. I couldn’t find a relevant article or your email address.

    I wanted to ask what you think of the quran’s description of how the pyramids were built? Or maybe better stated as a description of how ancient Egyptions built high rise structures.

    Best regards

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  62. Pierre Adler says:

    Herewith, an interesting passage from an article about the Mandan people of America, who inhabited the region of the Missouri River in what is present-day North and South Dakota.

    The Mandan claimed to be descendants of a figure that is reminiscent of the great civilizers Quetzalcoatl, Viracocha, and Osiris. The ancestral civilizing figure also appears after a great flood.

    Here then is the passage:

    “Even some of the legends of the Mandan people themselves expressly mentioned that they had been descended from a strange white man who had appeared to them aboard a canoe in ancient times after an enormous flood had wiped out everything in sight. They claimed that this stranger had taught them about medicine and had influenced their religion, which oddly featured many of the same beats as Christianity, such as a great flood, a virgin birth, and a child born who could work magical miracles, among others.”

    Source of the article:

  63. Mark says:

    YouTube presentation as well on meteor impact around the Great Lakes, up to 30 cm of ice ended up covering half of the USA after impact. Also these ice impact bays in Nebraska at elevations of 800 plus feet. http://www.scientificpsychic.com/pubs/carolina-bays-presentation/carolina-bays-presentation.html

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