Deep History and the Ages of Man

It is our pleasure to welcome Mark Gaffney, author of Deep History and the Ages of Man, as our featured author for December. In his article, Mark shares some insights into his research that presents new evidence in support of Charles Hapgood’s theory of crustal displacement. In his book, Mark introduces a new earth climate model that calls into question preconceived notions about ancient history and challenges what he believes are false assumptions about the nature of the planet we inhabit. 

Interact with Mark Gaffney on our forum here.


Holographic Britain

Surely you can’t be serious! Some will respond. Admittedly, it is a radical idea. Yet, it also happens to be true, as I will now show.

I am specifically referring to the bone caves of Britain. There are at least twenty of these caves and taken together they hold an invaluable fossil record of the last 120,000+ years. This includes precise information about regional climatic shifts and cataclysmic changes that were planetary in scale.

Kirkdale, a natural cavern in Yorkshire, was the first cave to gain notoriety. In 1821, road workers stumbled into it by chance. The cave was pristine, and it soon drew the attention of scientists. They found it loaded with fossils of many species, including stag, bison, horse, hippopotamus, woolly rhino, woolly mammoth, spotted hyena, and many others.

Later that year, a well-known Oxford geologist, William Buckland, was called in. Professor Buckland had just completed two tours of the continent during which he explored a number of similar sites. Buckland had conferred with Europe’s leading naturalists, and on occasion, he had also been privileged to inspect private collections, including one owned by Goethe. These experiences well prepared him to investigate Kirkdale cave.

Although Buckland was a catastrophist and agreed with George Cuvier that a major deluge had brought about a geologically recent earth-wide extinction of large mammals like the woolly mammoth, he found no hint of a deluge at Kirkdale cave. There was no evidence that the animals had been swept into the cavern by a flood or tsunami. The sediments convinced Buckland they had died at or near where they had lived. Although the cave contained the bones of many species, the greatest number belonged to the spotted hyena. Also, many of the large bones had been visibly chewed and/or disarticulated. Buckland concluded the cave had once served as a hyena den.

In 1822, the professor presented his findings to the Royal Society. His presentation was so detailed it occupied three successive weekly meetings. Buckland’s report stirred great interest in England and Europe and was widely regarded as a gold standard on how to conduct a scientific investigation.

In subsequent years, many other bone graveyards came to light in the British Isles and were independently investigated. I won’t run through them here. I refer the reader to a helpful table from geologist William Boyd Dawkins’ 1874 book, Cave Hunting. Someone thankfully posted the book on the Internet in its entirety.

Similar finds also occurred in Europe.

By the 1850s, earth scientists were in a quandary because the Pleistocene bestiary included northern species such as the musk ox, Arctic fox, lemming, wolverine and grizzly bear, but it also included southern species like the spotted hyena, straight-tusked elephant and hippopotamus. The bones of these very different faunal groups had come out of the same bed and, at least initially, it appeared that both had existed simultaneously. To be sure, excavation methods were less meticulous in those days. The stratigraphic layers were not always properly identified.

Early attempts to explain the paradox were less than satisfactory. Some scientists, including Dawkins and Charles Lyell, argued that seasonal migrations explained the puzzling association of northern and southern species. Dawkins, for example, cited the well-known long-distance migrations of reindeer, elk and moose.

The hippo fossils presented a major problem, however, because hippos are not migratory. No one could say how the lumbering water-browsers had relocated from Africa where they presently live to Britain and Europe. Did the animals navigate down the Nile River, swim the length of the Mediterranean to Gibraltar, then paddle north to Britain? The idea seemed preposterous. None of it made any sense.

Perhaps not surprisingly, a number of prominent scientists rejected the seasonal migration theory. Louis Agassiz was one of these. In 1839, he had proposed a new theory of the Ice Ages, and true to his theory, he argued that rapid climate change explained the replacement of southern forms by cold-adapted northern ones.

A well-known geologist from Edinburgh, James Geikie, agreed with Agassiz. The Pleistocene, Geikie noted, was characterized by alternating periods of glacial advance and retreat, and during the latter interglacial phase, as it had come to be known, the climate of Europe and Britain had been much warmer. Surely the fossils of ancient hippos, elephants and rhinos dated to one of these warm periods which apparently had lasted for thousands of years. With the return of the next cold epoch, the southern fauna retreated and were replaced by the cold-adapted northern forms. Agassiz and Geikie took it as self-evident that the southern and northern species never co-inhabited Europe at the same time. Their ideas foreshadowed the evolution of scientific thinking down to the present day.

But the current science model did not really take shape until the advent of isotopic dating in the late 1940s and 1950s. The promising new methodology made it possible, for the first time, to determine the age of organic material, including fossils, within a reasonable margin of error. Fossils from the bone caves have been isotopically dated and confirm that Agassiz and Geikie were correct. The northern and southern adapted species never shared the land in the same epoch, nor did they migrate seasonally. They lived at different times.

In 1998, calcite from Kirkdale cave was dated to 121,000 years BP using the uranium method, which means that the hippopotamus inhabited England during the warm interglacial period known as the Eemian. (English scientists refer to it to as the Ipswichian, while in Europe it is known as the Riss-Wurm. US scientists refer to it as the Sangamon.)

This is not the end of the story, of course. The case illustrates how science advances. Even as one question is resolved, many new issues arise. For example, why was England subtropical in the first place? And why did the climate later deteriorate and turn cold?

Today, nearly all earth scientists take it for granted that England and Europe were subtropical during the Eemian due to a general warming of the planet. And they likewise assume that a general planetary cooling explains the presence of a two-mile deep ice sheet over North America during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) between 25,000 – 18,000 years BP. This supposedly explains the weird orientation of the Laurentide ice sheet, the greater part of which was well south of the Arctic Circle. Judging by the map, the ice sheet reached the latitude of present-day Indianapolis, Indiana and Des Moines, Iowa (40° and 41° N, respectively) both of which are in the temperate zone, very far from the Arctic.

But I believe scientists have been misled. One would reasonably expect that the same general cooling that produced an enormous ice sheet over North America would simultaneously have produced an ice cap of roughly the same mass and at similar latitudes on the other side of the planet, i.e., in Tibet, especially considering Asia’s extraordinary terrain. It is for good reason that Central Asia is called the “roof of the world.” The average elevation in Tibet is 14,700 feet, which is 200 feet higher than Mount Whitney, California, the highest point in the lower 48 states. However, analyses of ice cores recently recovered from high elevation ice fields in Asia indicate otherwise. The data shows that glaciers in Tibet and in the Altai Range were actually receding during the LGM, at the very time they were expanding in North America!i How do we account for this?

The bone caves as a holographic record

The bone caves of Britain are one of the keys to the answer. During the twentieth century, research continued in the caves. And in 2001, two paleontologists, Andrew Currant and Roger Jacobi published a paper summarizing 180 years of research.ii Unfortunately, these two outstanding scientists, both of whom are deceased, never received in life the credit they richly deserved. Their 2001 summary paper is so important that I obtained permission to reprint it in full as an appendix to my book.

Over the years, improved methodologies enabled scientists to take stratigraphic analysis to the next level. The fossil record turned out to be more complex than was originally believed. The initial resolution of faunal assemblages into southern and northern species was further differentiated. As of today, scientists have identified five separate and distinct faunal groupings, the so-called mammalian assemblages, each one representative of a uniquely different stratigraphic layer with its associated climate. Scientists named the assemblages after the cave or site that is most representative of each.

The stratigraphy determines the climatic sequence and chronology.

The oldest bed dates to the Eemian and contains the southern species found at Kirkdale cave, including the hippopotamus. The next layer holds a different assemblage of mammals indicating that Britain enjoyed a temperate climate during this period. The presence of the woolly mammoth at this time means that a land bridge also linked Britain and Europe. The third layer holds a very different assemblage indicative of a cold climate and corresponds with the European Ice Age. The assemblage from the fourth layer is indicative of another temperate period (and another land bridge) which persisted until the end of the Pleistocene. The last stratigraphic layer corresponds to the Holocene. But here is the crucial question that scientists, thus far, have failed to answer: why did the climate of Britain change from subtropical to temperate, then to an ice age and back again to temperate, all over a period of 120,000+ years?

My just-released book Deep History and the Ages of Man offers an explanation. The book introduces a revelatory idea: that each of the mammalian assemblages and its associated climate correlates with a different north pole position. I am saying, in other words, that the crust of the earth moved four times during the last 120,000+ years. And each time it moved the location of Britain changed in relation to the pole. There was neither a general planetary warming nor a general cooling. The climatic sequence recorded in the bone caves precisely mirrors the successive changes in north (and south) pole positions.

The changes in pole position also correlate with changes in sea level. It is well known, for example, that the highest sea level during the entire Pleistocene occurred during the Eemian interglacial. At that time the world sea stand was about twenty-six feet higher than at present. Scientists have never explained why. But the explanation is straightforward. To assist the reader, I have included a map of Antarctica showing the locations of the present and last four south pole positions. The map shows that a picture is indeed worth a thousand words.

The record high sea stand of the Eemian occurred because both pole positions were then “at sea.” The location of the south pole was in the South Atlantic Ocean, more than nine hundred miles from the nearest continental landmass. The north pole position was also over water, in the midst of the Bering Sea. It is well known that an ice cap will not form on the ocean. A continental landmass is required for an ice sheet to develop. The classic case is the present north pole position in the Arctic Ocean, which supports only a floating seasonal ice pack that is never more than 10-12 feet thick. The absence of a continental landmass at both pole positions accounts for the exceptionally high sea stand during the Eemian.

Changes in pole position also explain the emergence of land bridges between Britain and Europe and also between Alaska and Siberia during the periods when Britain enjoyed a temperate climatic, and an ice sheet simultaneously covered North America. As the ice caps developed, sea levels dropped accordingly.

If the answers are so straightforward, why have earth scientists failed to put all of this together? The reason is that they simply cannot get their heads around it. Like most people, scientists are prisoners of their own limiting beliefs and assumptions, especially the unexamined false assumption that the crust of the earth and the pole positions are immutable. Not so. There is no law of physics or Nature which requires that the crust of the earth be fixed in perpetuity. The only unchanging natural law is that change is the order of the universe.

References

i See Chapter Seven of my book.

ii Andrew Currant and Roger Jacobi, “A formal mammalian biostratigraphy for the Late Pleistocene of Britain”, Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 20, (2001), p. 1707-1716.

30 thoughts on “Holographic Britain?”

  1. Kennan says:

    Fascinating!

  2. Renegade Prophet says:

    All because of the approaching Planet X that the criminal bastard governments hide with their toxic chemtrails every day globally for thirty years. This is also the reason for the FAKE virus. This time around, Planet X will end the coming, planned WW3 that is going to destroy America and kill 90% of Americans. Execute the criminal bastard government or die very soon in WW3!

    1. Wm G Thompson says:

      Yeah, Nibiru is gonna take care of that so we need not soil our hands.
      Science knows full well that every rock layer has a unique magnetic signature and maybe they pretend to ignore it but the Geologists all know better. And if they know, surely they drink and dine out with others they have academic associations with and talk about their findings. Religion is the same, it has kept the Sumerian knowledge a dark secret for a couple of thousand years now so people are unprepared for the catastrophic consequences that visit earth on a regular cycle, hence the underground tunnel systems around the world dating back to ancient times. The new underground system has highways and cities they plan to inhabit.

  3. Chris Dennis says:

    Being a geologist, paleontologist, I find your presentation interesting. Please consider this: (1) the ice-caps moved; (2) the only way for the ice-caps to move is for the earth’s axis to move in relation to the sun; (3) a comet or meteorite impact is not likely sufficient mass to make a significant change in the axis orientation even if hit at the optimal orientation, but the resulting melt of the ice caps and rapid redistribution of the miles of frozen water into the oceans is sufficient mass. I think this is correct thinking with details needing to be fleshed out more. Some graduate or PhD thesis modeling work could find something really interesting.

    1. Huey says:

      “(3) a comet or meteorite impact is not likely sufficient mass to make a significant change in the axis orientation even if hit at the optimal orientation…”

      I would beg to differ, considering Newton’s 2nd Law, plus 1st Law of Thermodynamics.

      Were you aware that the comet plasma coma has not been completely accounted for when adding up the impact energies of a comet traveling at least 40,000kmh+, smashes into the magnetosphere and then a planets lithosphere? The velocity is so great, a planets atmosphere can’t move out of the way fast enough.

      Hypersonic entry of an ET object, spacecraft, meteor, or comet will Force the planets atmosphere to conform to the hypersonic speeds of the object entering. This will be fact until the object’s speed is reduced below high Mach velocities.

      A comet also has a plasma tail and due to the high-hypervelocity trip through solar winds as it nears our sun, a mass loaded plasma piles up at the leading edge of the comet. Even more plasma?

      All of that plasma energy and mass, combined, enshrouds the internal, denser nuclei of solid H20, H30, C02, rock, dust, heavy metals & hydrocarbons. A meteor is not a comet, why should their craters share same name? Comet impact equals; ‘Plasma-Crater.’ The plasma coma fuses the compressed magnetosphere into the lithosphere. Impact temps exceed melt point and vaporization point of crustal granite.

      If it is a large enough comet mass that impacts Earth, then fluid mechanics & Planetary Collision Dynamics will rule that day. With several thousands of millennia to recover, how could we expect the surface of a planet to remain the same?

      Newton’s 3rd; Impact ejecta that doesn’t achieve escaped velocity nor vector, will re-impact the Earth, where ever gravity wants it to. Ejecta creates “new” topography.

      -best
      Huey C.
      @dustyWayneJr

      Science is not a belief system.

    2. Jerry says:

      Axis of spin did not change or is very difficult to change. Lithosphere moves over liquefied mantle due to electro magneto hydrodynamic effects. Electricity is stronger than gravity. Planet orbits are primarily an electrical phenomena. Due to relative charge equalization of current solar configuration, it appears as if mass and velocity of planets and the sun’s rotation is driving/dragging planets along, when in fact planets are still reflecting electron orbital behavior. If an extrasolar gravity wave or electrical wave penetrates the heliosphere it charges the whole system which has to reconfigure to reflect charge differential. The earth is a single pole motor. An influx of electrical charge influences the liquid and solid material inside the earth making what was solid, frictionally sticky, viscious, into a slippery movable skin that will redistribute according to center of gravity (polar ice freezing or melting, crust moving and bunching onto mountains). I am not a scientist, this comes from an inner vision or memory).

  4. Mark Gaffney says:

    Thanks to all of you. I appreciate the feedback and comments.

  5. Ray Briggs says:

    Thanks, Mark,

    I really appreciate the way that you’ve resurrected Hapgood’s model with a completely different line of evidence, well developed in a historical narrative, and an interesting new theory.

    Most of us at GHMB are catastrophists interested in a time frame not much earlier than 20,000 years, and possibly less than 10,000 years ago, but this deeper background certainly helps.

    Ray

    1. Mark Gaffney says:

      hello Ray,

      Thanks for your comments.

      If I am correct that the stratigraphic layers from the bone caves in Britain correlate to different pole positions, and if the isotopic dates are valid, then human civilizations are much older than anyone has imagined.
      Mark

  6. Derek Lilly says:

    Graham, you are asking questions of the mainstream elite that they do not want to listen too. Your work is not definitive, but you are still asking the questions. The correct questions will lead us to the correct answers.

  7. Ronald Sechler says:

    The tectonic plates move, ice ages come and go, land masses rise above the sea, and land masses sink bellow the sea, mountains rise, volcanos rise and erupt, the poles move, magma flowed from the steppes of Russia for 1 million years 200 million years ago, and there are volcanic eruptions and earth quakes, because the earth has an active fission core. The active fission core causes the earth to grown and expand, and to experience extreme wobbles. The growing and expanding earth has caused five major mass extinction events and many smaller extinction events during the evolution of the earth.

  8. Bill the Engineer says:

    I need to get the book. Reading this raises so many more questions that may already be answered. For example, do these shifts in the poles follow a regular pattern spatially or over time? Can they be used to predict future movements and their results? Can they be used to predict where anthropologists should look for early signs of human activity? Soooo many questions!

    1. Mark Gaffney says:

      hi Bill,

      I have not identified any regularity, thus far. It seems the crustal displacement events are not cyclical. To be sure, our present sample size of four known events, for a total of five pole positions, including the current pole, is very small. My guess is that the timing of these events is random. This is what one might expect assuming the events are caused by close encounters with planetary size comets.

      I am hopeful that the next generation of earth mapping software will allow us to take Hapgood to the next level. We need software that allows us to slip and swivel the surface of the earth around in any (and every) direction with respect to the pole. If we could do that we could identify the meridians of maximum displacement (MoMDs) of earlier events. Knowing the MoMDs precisely could guide us in looking for more supporting physical evidence. And it might also help, as you suggest, in predicting where archeologists and anthropologists should look for signs of early human culture, and also vanished civilizations.

      Thanks for your thoughts!

  9. simon...DEE says:

    I remember a few years back , when Scientists were trying to work out a time in the Earths History when the whole Earth was covered in Ice ….And they couldnt understand or find away that the icesheet melted , it took them i think years to come up with a pluseable answer ..But stright away i concluded its had to be something Volcanic ??? ..The Scientists eventually concluded that Volcanic activety melted the ice ..Anyway ……….ILL have to get this book great theory , we need more like you in theis field Mark !!

  10. Huey says:

    Dr. Einstein supported Prof. Charles Hapgood’s Earth Crust Displacement theory for a reason.

    They just lacked Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 supercomputer simulations from @NASA Ames Research Center & knowledge of Hydrogen-iceberg comets.

    Newton’s 2nd:
    F=ma, comet impacts crack tectonic plates. High-hypervelocity > Mach30

    Universal comet facts:
    -Posses plasma coma shell
    -Mass Loaded Plasma
    -Elementals, heavy/precious metals
    -JISC Shock hypersonic flow
    -hits planets

    1st Law Thermodynamics: Energy can’t be destroyed, only transferred.

    At planet impact, Comet’s plasma “vortex-engine” coma conforms to JISC Shock pattern, during hypersonic atmospheric entry. The planets atmosphere will be compressed by the comets plasma corona/coma mass, due to the extreme velocities of the entire cometary mass & dynamic instabilities.

    Magnetosphere is compressed into the lithosphere, fusing a hard surface crust due to the impact temps exceeding MeltPt & VaporizationPt of crustal granite.

    Comet collision dynamics should be evident in geomorphological anomalies record.

    Science is not a belief system.
    🖖🏽🤓🧬

    -best
    @dustyWayneJr

  11. Klaatu says:

    In the beginning, the Earth was a hot, molten, ball of nickel and iron magma, flying through freezing space. In the sub-freezing cold of space the outside of this ball hardened as the magma contracted from the cold. As it traveled through space, it picked up so much ice that it appeared like a giant snowball. It then settled into an orbit around a star, our sun, whereby the ice began to melt, and the warmth of the sun caused the inner molten core to expand. This expansion made the Earth grow in size until it cracked the hardened surface crust into separate continental plates, which pushed apart. Then the surface ice and water began cooling the underlying magma into continually new forming hardening crust. As the magma pushes up from the core, pushing plates together, it creates subduction that pushes cooled crust underground, while forcing magma to the surface to be cooled by the earth’s waters.

  12. Aloys Eiling says:

    Very interesting insights. Congratulations! I agree, scholarly history is disregarding some significant facts in their view of prehistory. During the last 20thousand years Earth changed to a much lager degree than even be thought – also in terms of geology. To my opinon, the only answer possible for the changes is a pole shift. To move the poles is hard stuff and requires a major cosmic event. May be of interest for the present discussion, I pospose such an event which moved the North Pole from Baffin Island to its present position in the Arctic sea. In parallel, the South Pole moved from the coast of Antarctia into inland. Last week, I submitted a paper regarding this very idea to this website. (Not accepted yet.) The proposed theory rests on interaction in the system consisting of Moon and Earth. In short, the model connects the captur eof the Moon and the inclination of Earth’s axis. No wild guessing, but sound reasoning and employing hard physics.

    1. Mark Gaffney says:

      hi Aloys,

      As I told you, I was impressed by the originality of your paper on the Mayans. So, I am eager to read your thoughts about the last pole shift – though I usually refer to it as a crustal shift for sake of clarity. The term Pole shift is ambiguous because it can also refer to a magnetic reversal. Things are confusing enough as it is.

      I will keep an eye out for your paper. Thanks for your constructive comments!

      🙂

      Mark

  13. Scott Creighton says:

    Excellent research, Mark. You may be interested to know that my next book, ‘The Great Pyramid Void Enigma’ (Inner Traditions – Bear & Co, July 2021) also presents some new research in support of Hapgood’s theory.

    Best wishes,

    SC

  14. Mark Gaffney says:

    hi Scott,

    I just consulted the Inner Traditions – Bear & Co. catalogue for 2021 and read about your forthcoming. Very interesting indeed! I stake out a similar view in Deep History: that the Great Pyramid was constructed as a geodetic marker aligned to the “new” pole position after a crustal displacement at the end of the Pleistocene. I will definitely check out your book. If as you suggest the void turns out to be the famous hall of records then we truly are on the threshold of mind boggling revelations about ancient history and human origins. I am especially interested in any evidence you may have found about the frequency and/or regularity of the crustal shifts. I found no evidence that these are cyclical events. But who knows? Thanks for your kind comments! And best of luck with your timely book. 🙂 Mark

  15. Aloys Eiling says:

    Hello to you supporters of an alternative view on the past,

    in fact, science agrees that a shift in the crust has taken place (https://www.spektrum.de/lexikon/geowwissenschaften/asthenosphaere/1005 – sorry, the article is in German). According to this classical understanding, the last crustal shift was around 500 million years ago. The physical reason for the crust shift is: If the mass distribution of the earth’s crust becomes too asymmetrical in the course of the continental drift, the entire crust shifts over the asthenosphere into a new position in order to compensate for the arose imbalance in the moment of inertia.
    Regardless of what the official doctrine says, I assume that in geologically more recent times either a crustal shift or, alternatively, a pole shift has taken place. For various reasons, I tend to believe in a pole shift. To prove it, I am making historical, geological, and physical arguments in an article which I have submitted to this website and which will be published shortly.

    Wish a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year,
    Aloys

    1. Ashley Edwards says:

      Hi Aloys,

      Where can I read your paper on the Mayans rhat Mark is referring to? (or any of your work?) I am intrigued.

      Thank you,
      Ashley

      1. Aloys Eiling says:

        Hi Ashley,

        most easy, just go to: https://grahamhancock.com/eilinga1/
        Don’t hesitate to leave a message in case of questions.

        Best regards,
        Aloys

  16. Mark Gaffney says:

    Yes, Merry Christmas to everyone!

  17. michael linhart says:

    what did cayce say?

  18. Ronald Sechler says:

    The earth has a fission core. Stars, planets and moons are all created in a bubble of the blast area of a supernova, and they are all created with a fission core. Because the earth has an active fission core the mantle becomes less and less dense over time and requires more and more room to expand. Volcanos and magma flows allow the expanding mantle to flow out onto the solid crust. But, the outflow of mantle material cause the earth to go out of balance and to experience extreme wobbles. It is the expanding and growing earth that causes tectonic plates to move, weather systems to change, ice ages, creation of deserts and forests to to appear and to disappear. While the idea of a fission core is foreign to modern accepted science, serious consideration of the fact will make the evolution of the earth much easier to understand.

  19. Віктор Березяк says:

    Graham, congratulations from Ukraine, Kyiv. You have an interesting site. I always follow your posts on Facebook. I want to give you and the community my thoughts on the search for the Planet of the Gods. Short. For calculations, he took the speed of a UFO, which was calculated by Danish scientists. The time of movement from Them to us took us from geneticists – the cyclic origin of male and female haplogroups is about 4000 Earth years, because the Gods are our Creators! The distance was calculated for two cases. 1. Provided that UFOs fly only to us for 4000 years. 2. A UFO flies to us and comes back to analyze the results of the trip. The first case is the planet of the Gods near the Pleiades. The second is near Hyades. I prefer – near the Pleiades. I will be glad to hear your opinion and the opinion of your friends. Regards. Viktor Berezyak is a researcher of history and not only – Congratulations from Ukraine!

    1. Aloys Eiling says:

      Hi Viktor,

      No need to go that far. The planet of the gods was the Venus, which was transformed by a huge collision with a Moon-sized asteroid into a glowing planet. Now cooling down again. Geology, mechanics and climate serve for proof. Given the present surface temperature the collision dates back a few thousend years only.

      Добрыи вечер!
      Aloys

  20. Joshua in Alabama says:

    Earth’s crust does indeed move, hence all of the mountains…

    Pole positions have moved, and will continue to move…

    Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/True_polar_wander

    Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=true+polar+wander

    Nature:

    Isothermal species redistribution in the fossil record (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-020-1198-2)

    we have even observed this in our own moon; Lunar Polar “Wandering” (https://www.nature.com/articles/nature17166)

    Palaeomagnetic results and late Precambrian glaciations (https://www.nature.com/articles/248557a0)

    …as the crust moves, the poles move (https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-78183-8)

    “Whole-mantle convection models, without non-adiabatic density jumps at 670 km depth and with viscosities less than 1023 P, would produce wandering rates in excess of 5° per Myr.” (https://www.nature.com/articles/339373a0)

    Mantle Plumes, Movement of the European Plate, and Polar Wandering (https://www.nature.com/articles/239082a0)

    Does Polar Wandering Occur ? (https://www.nature.com/articles/241497a0) free .pdf btw

    [possible] Mechanisms for oscillatory true polar wander (https://www.nature.com/articles/nature11571)
    “Palaeomagnetic studies of Palaeoproterozoic to Cretaceous rocks propose a suite of large and relatively rapid excursions of the rotation pole relative to the surface geography, or true polar wander (TPW). These excursions may be linked in an oscillatory, approximately coaxial succession about the centre of the contemporaneous supercontinent Within the framework of a standard rotational theory in which a delayed viscous adjustment of the rotational bulge acts to stabilize the rotation axis”

    Mythology:

    Before “The Flood” in the Bible, there were 2 seasons… after the flood there were 4 seasons- this could only occur if there was a polar shifting…

    The “Greek” myth of Hyperborea

    Boôtes (the Wagon-Driver) following his oxen around the poles

    The Long-Forgotten Science of Polar Wandering by Kyle Bennett (https://grahamhancock.com/bennettk1/)

    …things just keep getting older

    (I’m over here wondering why our ancestors ever gave up their hair… and Polar Wandering you say…? Well everybody knows about that… )

    Cheers… I am poor, I will bootleg your audiobook later

  21. Mark Gaffney says:

    hello Joshua,
    You just posted a lot of material. It appears that you have been researching Hapgood. Have to check out these sources. Thank you!
    Mark

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