It is our pleasure to welcome Andrew Collins and Gregory L. Little, authors of Origins of the Gods, as our featured authors for June.
In their book, Andrew and Gregory delve into the intertwined worlds of shamanism and higher dimensional beings, examining how this ancient communication triggered the advancement of human civilisation.
From Göbekli Tepe in Turkey to the Egyptian pyramids, from the stone circles of Europe to the mound complexes of the Americas, Andrew and Gregory show how our ancestors built permanent sites of ceremonial activity where geomagnetic and gravitational anomalies have been recorded. They investigate how the earliest forms of animism and shamanism began at sites like the Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains of Siberia and Qesem Cave in Israel more than 400,000 years ago. They explain how shamanic rituals and altered states of consciousness combine with the earth’s natural forces to create portals for contact with otherworldly realms—in other words, the gods of our ancestors were the result of an interaction between human consciousness and transdimensional intelligence.
Their article here explores the mystery behind the UFO phenomenon and the deeper levels of existence that this phenomenon manifests.
Interact with Andrew and Gregory on our AoM Forum here.
When you think about UFOs what’s the first thing that comes to mind? Is it spaceships and aliens? Contact with extraterrestrials? Military cover ups, whistleblowers, and full public disclosure? Most obviously the answer is going to be yes, based on the sheer fact that ever since the first appearance of strange objects in our skies in the modern era the go to explanation for their appearance has always been to assume they are space vehicles piloted by highly evolved biological entities from other star systems. In addition to this we often describe UFOs as “flying,” “hovering,” “stationary” or “landing,” compounding the idea that they are space hardware.
As a prolific UFO investigator during the 1970s I went into the subject believing that genuine UFOs were either scout craft dispatched to earth from an orbiting mother ship or, if too small to be manned, I saw them as controlled devices, probes perhaps, sent out to monitor the actions of human beings on earth.
Very soon, however, I realized that something was wrong with this mechanistic approach to the UFO phenomenon. Witnesses to some of the best cases where objects were seen at close quarters had previously experienced either paranormal activity of some sort (ghosts, poltergeist, the feeling of presences, etc.) and/or they saw themselves as particularly psychic in nature. How could this be? Did the ufonauts single out certain types of people to show themselves, or were all these people simply liars or afflicted with some sort of mental illness? An even bigger problem was the fact that some witnesses spoke of UFOs seen at close quarters as responding to their thoughts, almost as if the UFO was sentient in some manner. This made no sense whatsoever since if you witness a Boeing 747 cross the sky it doesn’t alter its course or come to a halt simply because you are watching it, but some UFOs did just that.
Inspired by reading pulp paperbacks by insightful ufologists like Jacques Vallee and John Keel I started to realize that the UFO phenomenon was not as straight forward as I had been led to believe. In fact after seven intense years of UFO investigation, most of it on behalf of the UFO Investigators Network (UFOIN), run jointly by the British UFO Research Association (BUFORA) and the magazine Flying Saucer Review, I became disillusioned by the ET hypothesis to UFOs. In fact, I began to think the whole subject made no sense whatsoever. So I gave up UFO investigations and began focusing my attention on other types of ancient and more modern mysteries.
It was then, however, that I picked up a book that changed everything. This was Earth Lights by Paul Devereux, published in 1982.i He was at the time editor of The Ley Hunter magazine and in this extraordinary book he ably demonstrated that the appearance of mysterious lights and more structured objects (I nearly used the biased term “craft”) were generated for the most part by electromagnetic activity associated with intense geological factors such as fault lines, tectonic plates, and large deposits of certain minerals such as quartz and metal ores. This was due to the fact that some rocks have the ability, when put under pressure, to release sub-atomic particles called electrons that on reaching the open air become manifested light forms.
Devereux, in Earth Lights, refers to the manner these objects of light, which, in all honesty account for the vast majority of UFO sightings, are able to respond to human consciousness interaction. He even cites an example where an amorphous object seen in the sky when he was a student transformed before his eyes almost as if it was doing so for his sake alone.
Both in Earth Lights and in its follow up Earth Lights Revelations,ii Devereux presented ample evidence that most modern-day UFOs are simply variations of a worldwide phenomena that has haunted human kind for hundreds if not thousands of years, and may even have inspired the ancients to build sacred places at locations where strange lights would appear on a regular basis.
Such ideas revolutionized my ideas of UFOs, and over the next three decades I took the subject in new directions in an attempt to better understand the true nature of the phenomenon. Many UFOs, I concluded, were likely constructed from a nebulous substance called plasma, this being the fourth state of matter in the universe beyond solids, liquids and gases; indeed, it is from plasma that all other physical matter comes into existence. Plasma can be created through the excitation of gas, which causes electrons to split away from their nuclei. They knock into other atoms, forcing them to lose some of their own electrons. This creates a chain reaction where whole environments of freed up electrons exist within self-generated electromagnetic fields.
At the same this is happening the electrons produce millions of tiny photons of light, which act like a light bulb being switched on to reveal the presence of a shimmering object known to science as a plasmoid. They can remain visible for anything between a few microseconds to several minutes at a time; sometimes even longer. Plasmoids can be tiny, or they can be many meters across. Some are even larger. They can manifest individually or in clusters. In appearance they can be balls or ovals or light of different colors, or they can manifest as strange glowing fogs or as apparently solid structures, like classic UFOs. They can split in two, combine, vanish only to reappear, or they can rapidly disappear out of sight. They can manifest during the day or at nighttime. Those who get too close to plasma environments can expect to experience electrostatic effects, electromagnetic interference, the draining of electrical equipment, nausea and vertigo, and even transformative experiences akin to visions, day dreams or moments of epiphany.
How exactly plasmoids sustain their existence once created is still a mystery to science. What we do know is that plasma makes up around 99 percent of the physical universe and is the key to understanding everything from nuclear fusion within stars, to neutron stars, black holes, white holes, the formation of lightning, solar flares, the northern lights, and even how your smart TV works!
Physicists often refer to plasma simply as ionized gas, although this does it a great disservice since it is a highly unique state of existence that has been shown to display qualities suggesting that it can act in a sentient fashion as if it is alive, something often reported in association with UFOs.iii Just as significant is the fact that plasma would appear to be able to harbor multidimensional environments.
What this means is that instead of operating in three dimensions of space and one dimension of time, plasma environments are now thought to utilize four dimensions of space.iv If so, then it means that plasmoids might act as points of access to higher dimensional space, which suggests they could produce minor distortions in the fabric of space-time.
It was these ideas I explored in books such as Alien Energy (1994) and particularly in LightQuest (2012).v I proposed that some UFO abductions or missing time episodes might perhaps be the result of the percipients involved with such experiences entering heavily charged electromagnetic environments created by plasma constructs. In doing so they are taken outside of normal space-time into what I theorized was a four- or multiple dimensional environment, a kind of bubble universe, that is able to overlay our physical universe on a temporary basis.vi Two-way interaction between the phenomenon and the human mind creates the impression that the person or persons involved has entered a realm that adheres to their expectances of what they genuinely believe is going on, whether this be entry into an extraterrestrial vehicle, or the abode of the fairies (as was the case in medieval times), or, if a person is particularly religious, the kingdom of heaven. Such experiences inside these temporary realities will be “real.” Then, on exiting the bubble universe and reentering normal space-time hours, days, weeks and even, in some rare historical cases, years will have been found to have passed in the outside world.
Origins of the Gods
Many of these ideas are extended still further in new book Origins of the Gods, co-authored by Greg L. Little (with a foreword by Erich von Däniken),vii in which we conclude that the intelligences seen in association with plasma constructs or plasmoids, in other words most (although not all) genuine UFOs, could in fact be the outer manifestation of transdimensional intelligences able to occupy plasma environments.
The Realm of Pre-Space
Thus plasma environments are not alive in themselves, they simply express the presence within them of so-called “proto intelligences” that theoretical physicist David Bohm suspected could emerge from some deeper level of existence to manifest within plasma.viii So in many ways plasma acts like a conduit providing a step down process for transdimensional intelligences coming from four or multiple dimensional environments into our own physical reality made up of three dimensions of space and one of time. This deeper level of existence spoken of by Bohm has been seen as a kind of non-local medium (in other words, one without a direct connection in normal space-time) that Bohm’s colleague and occasional co-author Basil Hiley referred to as the realm of pre-space.ix
The suspected intelligences associated with plasma environments we have come to see as n-dimensional beings, with the n standing for the number of dimensions involved in this process, which currently remains unclear. It could be four dimensions of space, or five, or eleven, or a higher number still, we just don’t know; hence the term n-dimensional beings, or n-beings for short. These then become the best candidates for the light intelligences behind manifesting UFOs. As to where they might exist when not manifesting into our physical universe we’ll leave until later in this article.
Visitors from Space
None of this is to say that all genuine UFOs are plasma constructs into which n-dimensional consciousness can manifest. As early as 1963 American cosmologist, astronomer and NASA consultant Carl Sagan wrote a paper in which he concluded that it was inevitable that the earth had played host to extraterrestrial visitors on countless occasions since the birth of humanity.x He even advocated looking toward the literature of ancient Mesopotamia for clues regarding these visitations.
Thus we can conclude that some objects that appear in our skies could be extraterrestrial hardware, although it would be very wrong to assume that the vast majority of them can be explained in this way. The greater percentage of all genuine UFOs are almost certainly intelligently controlled plasma constructs that can interact with us on various levels, and even provide multidimensional interfaces through into four or multiple dimensional environments where direct communication with n-dimensional consciousness becomes possible.
The Rise of Civilization
The greater question regarding all these possibilities that science still struggles to understand is what impact n-dimensional beings, should they exist, have had on human evolution. Is it possible that in addition to the ancient astronauts predicted by UFO writers such as Erich von Däniken in his worldwide bestseller Chariots of the Gods,xi there has been something else going on in connection with the rise of civilization? Could it be possible that transdimensional intelligences have been responsible for sudden advancements in innovation and technology since the emergence of humanity in Africa’s Great Rift Valley as much as 2 million years ago?
The Qesem Cave
One showcase site important to this study is the Qesem Cave near Tel Aviv in modern-day Israel where, recently, the oldest evidence of shamanism anywhere in the world was unearthed in a layer dating back almost 400,000 years. It takes the form of a swan wing bone that was deliberately removed from the bird’s carcass and sequestered for use in cultic practices.xii
This alone would be enough for us to start focusing our attentions on the proto-modern human community responsible for this activity, and indeed it inspired me to go to Israel and speak with the archaeologists currently excavating the Qesem Cave to better understand the exact nature of the shamanism going on there as much as 400,000 years ago. This is the story presented in the first chapters of my contribution to Origins of the Gods, which shows also that its inhabitants were using multifaceted stone balls as points of contact with otherworldly realms.
School of Rock
At the same time, however, that all this was going on, the Qesem community were on the way to becoming the smartest people on the planet. Evidence has emerged there of extraordinary and quite innovative technological firsts for humanity. They include the earliest “canned food,” a unique means of preserving the precious and highly nutritious marrow inside deer leg bones; the earliest “freezers,” a novel method of utilizing fire ash to store fresh food and animal hides for extended periods of time; the earliest known mass production of precision-made blade tools; the first sustained use of fire within a permanent hearth; the earliest use of fire to temper and soften stone materials, and even a “school of rock” where pupils would be taught the art of stone knapping and tool manufacture.xiii
It cannot be coincidence that these innovations were occurring at the same time that the Qesem people were writing the book on how to make contact with otherworldly intelligences, who at the time might well have been providing valuable new insights into human innovation and technology.
Mountain of God
The reader at this point will be saying: yes, but what has any of this to do with UFOs and aliens? Or even ancient astronauts of the type thought to have influenced the rise of civilization? The answer is that just a short distance away from the Qesem cave is a mountain that was extremely important to the development of the much later Israelite peoples. Its name is Mount Gerizim, and it was considered the original dwelling place of God in the Hebrew Bible.xiv More significantly, according to the Samaritans who live on the mountain and claim to be the true descendents of the original Israelites, God’s presence on Mount Gerizim would take the form of the Shekinah, a divine light often mentioned in Hebrew and Aramaic religious commentaries in connection with the Ark of the Covenant. It will come as no surprise then to find out that the mountain, which towers above the nearby city of Nablus (ancient Shechem) in the Palestinian Territories, is well known for the appearance of mysterious lights. Its intense geology, similar to that predicted by the likes of Paul Devereux and his colleagues as conducive to the manifestation of plasma lights, makes Gerizim a very likely place where such phenomena will have appeared across an extended period of time.
Angels of God
On a visit to Mount Gerizim in 2019, described in the book, I was told by one of the Samaritans’ most senior priests that these lights are regularly seen today, and that most commonly they are green in colour. When asked what the Samaritans considered them to be I was told they are mal‘akh, which means angels. In other words, for this strict religious community the manifestation locally of UFOs is viewed as evidence of God’s presence on the mountain.
Can we dare to suggest that the same strange lights interpreted as the light of God by the Children of Israel were visible also to the Qesem people as much as 400,000 years ago? Were they drawn to the lights as well, and if so can this help explain the manner they would appear to have invented shamanism and become among the smartest people on the planet virtually overnight (well, certainly in evolutionary terms)? Did they use ritual practices to make contact with the light intelligences, which perhaps interacted with them in a manner similar to UFO encounters today?
Such ideas might seem far fetched, although it should be noted that a particular type of Eocene age flint used in the production of stone tools inside the Qesem Cave, as well as at the nearby open air site of Jaljulia, would seem to have been procured from the slopes of Mount Gerizim; this being despite the fact that much closer sources of good quality flint were available. So did the Lower Paleolithic peoples of these sites come to believe there was some special power in rock taken from the mountain where strange lights would appear on a regular basis? Is it possible that these rocks, and the stone tools made from them, were used to aid communication with the otherworldly intelligences associated with the lights? If all this is true, and n-beings do utilize plasma environments as an interface between multidimensional environments and mundane reality, then how is any of this even possible?
The answer is quantum entanglement. This is the ability of twinned particles to be able to retain a direct and instantaneous link no matter how far away they get from one another. Whole systems of entangled particles can create patterns of activity at one location that are repeated at a quite separate location without any kind of direct connection existing between the two. In other words, entanglement must work by utilizing a non-local medium of the type first proposed by David Bohm and christened the pre-space realm by his colleague Basil Hiley. It would be through this medium that the proto-intelligences that Bohm envisaged as being able to emerge into plasma environments came from in the first place, meaning that the same primary mechanism that allows entanglement to occur also becomes the mechanism through which n-dimensional beings are able to manifest in this world via plasma environments.
Black Holes and Worm Holes
Understanding these facts about entanglement allows us to predict the nature of everything from black holes and wormholes to the power of the mind. Quantum entanglement, until recently only thought to exist on a microcosmic level, is today known to have an impact on the macrocosmic world as well.xv
Thus entanglement can affect the world we live in, which could therefore help explain how the brain of one person might become entangled with that of another individual. Indeed, it tells us that on some level all minds must be entangled creating a kind of collective unconscious network that we can become aware of through mystical practices, dreams, visions, or the attainment of altered states of consciousness like those achieved by shamans.
What all this implies is that the existence of similar quantum states might well be responsible for the transfer of information between the higher dimensional intelligences associated with manifesting plasma constructs and human individuals who come into contact with them. This then would explain why some people claim they can make lights alter their form or get them to change course simply by observing them. All this becomes possible through the presence of shared entangled states, something that might well have been occurring as much as 400,000 years ago at places like Israel’s Qesem Cave. Such connections through both observation and purposeful ritual might well be able to trigger sudden leaps forward in innovation, as well as presumably insights into cosmology or ontology, in other words: who we are, where we come from, and why we are here.
So if n-dimensional beings have been affecting human advancement since the beginning, and continue to be in contact with us today through UFO experiences and altered states of consciousness, then where do they come from? Where do the n-beings live when they are not interacting with us?
The answer to these questions can perhaps be provided by the science of string theory, or more correctly theories relating to the allied subject of supergravity and superstrings, particularly something called M-theory. These predict that although the physical universe operates using three dimensions of space (made up of length, width and height) and one dimension of time, this is merely the manifestation of a much greater, and indeed infinite, four-dimensional realm of space referred to as the bulk that additionally harbors six further dimensions, which, with the addition of a time dimension, make eleven in total. The six extra dimensions are thought to exist in what is described as a compactified form (envisaged pictorially as so-called Calabi-Yau Manifolds—see accompanying illustration). This implies that to interact with four-dimensional environments of space these additional dimensions must first be made to unfurl from their apparently dormant state of existence. What impact they have on the bulk or on physical reality remains unclear, although one possibility is that they might relate to the nature of consciousness on all levels, especially in the knowledge that the Blue Brain Project of Switzerland has determined that the human brain is “full of multi-dimensional geometrical structures operating in as many as 11 dimensions.”xvi So in many ways our brains are hard wired to interact with multidimensional environments if and when they become available to us (a bit like smartphone handsets being made 5G ready in anticipation of the introduction of 5G phone networks).
M-theory also predicts that universes (in plural) come into existence through a type of bleeding process involving white holes. Being the opposite to black holes, white holes are thought to spew out plasma into the physical universe that quickly transforms into three-dimensional matter (a kind of alternative idea to the Big Bang Theory). The expansion of a physical universe might be compared to a balloon in a vacuum slowly being filled with air that is coming in from somewhere lying outside normal space-time. M-theorists refer to these universes as branes or brane worlds. Any number of them can exist, with our own universe being just one example. Some brane worlds could be so close they actually touch while others might well overlap with their neighbours. Whether large or small, each brane would be its own self-contained universe with its own laws of physics.
Gateways and Portals
The question then becomes whether or not the bulk, which might be described in terms of a cosmic motherboard behind all physical existence, harbors intelligence or consciousness, and if so whether this might be seen as a single entity or as the source of individualised intelligences such as the proposed n-dimensional beings under discussion here. Do n-beings operate from within the bulk? If this is their realm, then are they able to step down from their inherent four- or multidimensional environments into three-dimensional space using plasma as gateways or portals and entanglement as a means of communicating with and even manipulating life forms on earth? Remember, it is locations that exhibit intense geology that become the most common sites where plasma constructs, or UFOs, appear, making such places the most obvious points of contact with transdimensional intelligences.
There are many so-called portal locations across the globe, with the highest profile example in the world right now being Skinwalker Ranch in Utah. High strangeness paranormal activity including the manifestation of UFOs has been occurring there in one form or another for at least 150 years. It will thus come as no surprise to learn that the ranch’s northern mesa, where much of the activity seems to center around, contains a geological fault that could well utilize the high quartz content of the local sandstone rock to create an environment perfect for the manifestation of plasma, and through this the production of electromagnetic anomalies. These might be registered either by electrical equipment or by people suffering from allied effects on the body, most obviously nausea, dizziness and otherworldly experiences.
Just like at the Qesem Cave in Israel, Skinwalker Ranch has been the site of intense ritualistic activity across an extended period of time.xvii The Uintah Basin in which it sits has long been seen as sacred land by the Ute and Navajo First Nations who occupy the region. The term “skinwalker” is used to describe the supernatural form adopted by Navajo “witches” (actually shamans) when they wish to travel in animal form during intense rituals, which are often performed to curse enemies. According to Ute First Nations representatives the ranch’s northern mesa is called the “path of the skinwalker” due to the regular appearance of supernatural creatures interpreted as skinwalkers. These sightings continue today with the appearance of cryptids such as outsized wolves (wolves themselves are not native to the region) and lycaons, that is, dog-headed bipedal creatures.xviii
Do such intense geological environments make it easy for transdimensional beings to step down into our world if only on a temporary basis? If so then in all likelihood the original ancient aliens were, and always have been, the inhabitants of the bulk; they were never exclusively visitors from other planets. Most likely the existence of n-beings also helps us better understand the origins of the gods of the ancients, who were seen to be able to affect not only the world in which they lived, but also their place in it.
The term bulk is not a good one. Many people don’t like it. If you wanted an alternative name for this multidimensional realm you could call it the Outside, in other words that which lies outside of normal space-time, with the manifesting intelligences intruding into our reality being classed simply as Other. Why Other? Because at this time we do not know enough about them to label them further, or even break down their individual nature. What is more we are unlikely to know any time soon because they exist in a higher dimensional state. Three-dimensional beings like us are unable to truly perceive a four- or multiple- dimensional being in the same way that a hypothetical two-dimensional being, a Flatlander to borrow a term, would never be able to perceive the true nature of a three-dimensional being.
It is for this reason that when we see UFOs we see only lights, or the outline of constructs, or at best objects that stay within the limitations of our current mechanistic vision of otherworldly visitations. So then to us the intelligences in question are always going to be defined as planetary visitors, something predicted in connection with the human approach to these modern-day otherworldly visitations by Carl Jung as early as 1959 in his groundbreaking book Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Sky.xix
This is not to say that the world got it entirely wrong when in the late 1940s we started interpreting the first flying saucers to appear in our skies as the spaceships of aliens who in evolutionary terms appear little different from ourselves, only that we need to broaden our horizons if we are to truly understand the full nature of the intelligences behind manifesting UFOs. Don’t just see them as examples of alien hardware, consider them also as the constructs of transdimensional beings that are able to interact with human kind on multiple levels. See them as having arrived in our world not necessarily from some distant galaxy, but from the Outside, the multidimensional realm of the bulk that is around us all the time.
Becker, Katrin, Melanie Becker, and John Schwarz. 2007. String Theory and M-Theory: A Modern Introduction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Blasco, Ruth, et al. 2019b. “Feathers and Food: Human-Bird Interactions at Middle Pleistocene Qesem Cave, Israel.” Journal of Human Evolution 136 (November): 102653. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.102653.
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Canan, Eric. 2020. “Ball lightning is so strange it might just come from another dimension.” New Scientist website, October 21.
Collins, Andrew. 1994. Alien Energy. Leigh-on-Sea, Essex, UK: ABC Books. Collins, Andrew. 2012. LightQuest: Your Guide to Seeing and Interacting with UFOs, Mystery Lights, and Plasma Intelligences. Memphis, Tenn.: Eagle Wing Books.
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Däniken, Erich von. 1968/1969. Chariots of the Gods (trans. Michael Heron). London: Souvenir Press.
Devereux, Paul, et al. 1989. Earth Lights Revelation. London: Blandford Press. Devereux, Paul, and Paul McCartney. 1982. Earth Lights. Wellingborough,
Northamptonshire, UK: Turnstone Press.
Frescura, F. A. M., and B. J. Hiley. 1984. “Algebras, Quantum Theory, and Pre-Space.” Revista Brasilera de Física, Volume Especial, os 70 anos de Mario Schonberg: 49–86.
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Harcourt, Brace, & World.
Kelleher, Colm, and George Knapp. 2005. Hunt for the Skinwalker: Science Confronts the Unexplained at a Remote Ranch in Utah. New York: Paraview Pocket Books.
Neild, David. 2021. “Quantum Entanglement Has Now Been Directly Observed at a Larger Macroscopic Scale.” ScieneAlert website, May 8.
Panigrahi, D., and S. Chatterjee. 2008. “General Relativistic Plasma in Higher Dimensional Space Time.” Cornell University’s arXiv website, August 8.
Pratt, David. 1993. “David Bohm and the Implicate Order.” Sunrise magazine, February/March.
Rabinowitz, Mario. 2001. “n-Dimensional Gravity: Little Black Holes, Dark Matter, and Ball Lightning.” International Journal of Theoretical Physics 40, no. 4 (January): 875–901.
Sagan, Carl. 1963. “Direct Contact among Galactic Civilizations by Relativistic Interstellar Flight.” Planetary and Space Science 11, no. 5, 485–98.
Schuster, Ruth. 2019. “Why Archaic Humans in Israel Collected Feathers 420,000 Years Ago.” Haaretz newspaper website, September 23.
Tsytovich, V.N., et al. 2007. “From plasma crystals and helical structures towards inorganic living matter.” New Journal of Physics 9 (August).
i Devereux and McCartney 1982.
ii Devereux et al 1989.
iii Tsytovich et al 2007. See also Collins 2012, 91-98.
iv Rabinowitz 2001; Panigrahi and Chatterjee 2008. See also Canan 2020.
v Collins 1994; Collins 2012.
vi Collins 2012, 242, 248, 263, 290, 313-321.
vii Collins and Little 2022.
viii Bohm 1980; Pratt 1993.
ix Bohm and Hiley 1984; Frescura and Hiley 1984; Bohm and Hiley 1993.
x Sagan 1963.
xi Daniken 1968.
xii Schuster 2019; Blasco et al 2019.
xiii For all references to the advancements noted in connection with the Qesem Cave see Collins and Little 2022, ch. 20.
xiv See Collins and Little 2022, ch. 25.
xv Nield 2021.
xvi Becker, Becker, and Schwarz 2007.
xvii Kelleher and Knapp 2005.
xviii Kelleher and Knapp 2005, 3–9, 26–28, 49, 192.
xix Jung 1959.