Who Built the Moon?

Civilization One

The World is Not as You Thought It Was

For January 2010 we are both pleased and excited to have as Co-Authors of the Month Christopher Knight and Alan Butler. Their groundbreaking theories challenge entrenched dogma and shed new light onto some of the deepest mysteries of antiquity. Their latest book, titled Before the Pyramids, is explored in this exclusive grahamhancock.com Forum offering.

Christopher Knight is known and respected worldwide for his seminal investigations into ritual and belief systems. His first book, ‘The Hiram Key,’ published in 1996 became an immediate best seller, selling over a million copies and is now published in 37 different languages. This was followed by a string of bestsellers chronicling his further investigations

Alan Butler‘s professional background is in engineering though he has been a professional writer/researcher for over two decades. His lifelong historical studies extend to an in-depth research into the Cistercian monastic movement and the Order of the Knights Templar, about which he has written extensively. As a professional writer, who has always possessed an absolute fascination for history, Alan set out on a two decade search that led to the decoding of some of the most important details regarding prehistoric knowledge and achievement in Europe. Alan Butler is a recognized expert in ancient cosmology

Full biographies of both Chris and Alan can be found at the end of the article.

Was our solar system designed to produce humans?
By Christopher Knight and Alan Butler

It is strange where research can lead you. More than a decade has passed since we joined forces to try and find out if there was any reality to a claim that highly accurate units of length had been in used during the British Neolithic. We found that these supposedly primitive people were using a highly developed science that connected them to the rhythms of the Earth.

This led us on to realise that the science used by these Neolithic people did not die out as we first assumed. In our most recent book – Before the Pyramids, we have uncovered rock-solid evidence that the powers-that-be in Washington DC – in the Whitehouse, the US military and the highest levels of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry are aware of, and secretly celebrating this ancient system of science.

But our biggest personal challenge has been to face up to the consequences of our own findings; because they have brought us to the point where we have found compelling evidence that our planet and its environment has been carefully designed for us. Stranger still there appears to be a message built into the very fabric of the solar system itself.

This was not a finding that we had looked for, or even cared for. We are very pragmatic people working in an area of ancient research that is specialised and very sober. Here was an idea that was apparently outrageous – but apparently inescapable.

In early 2009 we had decided to revisit all of out findings that had resulted in three joint books plus one still in draft manuscript form (now published). We were troubled because, despite one of us being an agnostic and the other an atheist, we could not escape the conclusion that we were looking at a message from what we called the UCA (Unknown Creative Agency) that had designed our solar system and all life on Earth.

Then in late November 2009 we were contacted by David Cumming, an expert in AI (artificial intelligence) who had studied our evidence in great detail and independently come to the same conclusion. He claimed that it formed an equation that a very clear message from the creator.

That equation has been refined to:

We will describe the mathematics at the end of this article, but the important point is this:

Hlf.π is the specification of the SETI Communications frequency for extraterrestrial messages based on a galactic aspect of the hydrogen atom. This shouts, “Pay attention – this is a message”.

Ω are the numerals of the base ten counting system. This states; “ten-fingered humans I am talking to you”.

The left-hand side of the equation equal’s the right-hand side, which is the speed of light in a vacuum measured in Thoms per second (Earth/Moon/Sun harmonic units). This says, “the message is from the creator” (because the speed of light is the most significant physical reality in the universe).

Is this credible?

The facts behind it certainly are. But we thought we should go back to retrace some of our key findings over the years to help you decide.

The origin of the Megalithic Yard

The starting point of our joint research was simply to consider whether Alexander Thom had been right or wrong in his identification of a prehistoric unit he called the Megalithic Yard (MY). He was a professor of engineering at Oxford University who surveyed British and French Megalithic sites over the course of half a century until he died in 1985. Thom’s approach was entirely different to that adopted by any archaeologist. Looking at the scale and obvious planning involved in megalithic sites Thom had been forced to conclude that the planners and builders must have been highly skilled engineers – just like himself. He therefore carefully analysed what remained of each Megalithic site and then tried to imagine what it was the builders had set out to achieve. Once he had a picture in his mind of what he thought their plan had been, he went away to create his own solution to the assumed problem. Having drawn up his own design he then returned to compare the site layout to his own blueprint. He deduced that the builders had all been working to a common set of units based his Megalithic Yard that was 2.722 +/- 0.002 feet (829.7 +/- 0.5 mm).

Thom was viewed as an unwelcome outsider by nearly all archaeologists and even today most believe, quite erroneously, that he has been proved largely wrong.

Our starting hypothesis was that, if the Megalithic Yard were real, then it is highly probable that its apparent accuracy can best be explained by it being derived from nature rather than an invented unit. If we could identify a natural origin, then Thom was probably right – if we couldn’t, the debate will continue because it is impossible to prove a negative.

It did not take to long for us to realize that there is only one aspect of nature that delivers up an near perfect means of creating measures. And that is the revolving of the Earth on its axis – something it does every 86,164 seconds. This provides the potential for creating a unit of time, which can then be used to make units of length, weight and capacity – and potentially everything else from frequency to temperature.

The most obvious way to observe the turning of the Earth is to watch the stars, which appear to pass overhead once for each rotation. They also move across the sky in an annual rotation due to the Earth’s orbit of the Sun. Megalithic astronomers could not help but notice that there where 366 of the daily star movements to one annual one.

To create a repeatable linear unit from the turning of the Earth the only tools one needs is a length of rope, a few poles, a ball of clay and a piece of string.

We knew that ancient peoples from all across time have liked to create patterns where the same values work at upwards and downwards. And we had good reason to believe that early had used a 366 day calendar and a 366 degree circle. These astronomers knew that there are 366 star rises (any star such as Sirius) over one circle of the Sun, so it was logical to divide horizon into 366 parts to measure the time in 1/366th part of a day.

They measured time in the same way that all clocks did until recent times – with a pendulum. A hand-held ball of clay on a string is a perfect instrument. When stationary it is a plumb line to gauge verticals and when swinging its beats measure time with great accuracy. The only factors that have any significant effect on the beat are the length of the pendulum from fulcrum to the centreline of the weight and the mass of the Earth (gravity). The energy put into the swing by the user has no effect – if the swing is made more vigorous it just swings faster in a wider arc but the rate of beat remains exactly the same.

A basic pendulum is a very accurate tool to measure time

Our first and most obvious assumption was that the Megalithic people had divided the horizon up into 366 equal parts and then used a pendulum length that beat 366 times.

A frame 1/366th of the horizon angled to time a star.

This proved to be spot on. A pendulum that beat 366 times during one 366th of the Earth’s turn was, much to our joy and amazement, half a Megalithic Yard in length! A circle scribed by such a pendulum would have a diameter of one Megalithic Yard. Archie Roy, emeritus professor of astronomy at Glasgow University (and a friend of the late Alexander Thom) joined us to give a public demonstration of how the Megalithic Yard is a product of measured observational astronomy.

We later refined the timing method, having realised that the Megalithic astronomers had improved their own accuracy by using the movement of the planet Venus at certain times rather than a star. Gordon Freeman, a distinguished professor of chemical physics and a much-published amateur archaeologist specialising in the Megalithic structures, was impressed with this saying; “Tying the MY to Venus path arcsecond is a major discovery. I’m an admirer of Thom, but was neutral about the MY. Now I’m a convert”.

Alexander Thom had been right all along because the chances of this technique producing a perfect fit for his unit could not be a coincidence. But there was more – much more to this system. Given that the builders of these Megalithic sites some 5,000 years ago used a 366-degree circle caused us to look at the Earth itself. Taking the polar circumference as the text book 40,000,000 metres we turned it into Megalithic units and found was this:

– Earth’s polar circumference = 40,000,000 metres

– 1 Megalithic degree (1/366th) = 109290 metres

– 1 Megalithic minute of arc (1/60th) = 1822 metres

– 1 Megalithic second of arc (1/6th) = 303.6 metres

Now, 303.6 metres for a second of arc may look a little boring but it is 366 Megalithic Yards. The actual figure is 829.5 mm, which is nicely with Alexander Thom’s definition of 829.7 +/- 0.5 mm.

We now call this beautifully geodetic unit from the 366 system a ‘Thom’ (Th) to differentiate it from the arguably very slightly less accurate Megalithic Yard.

The Megalithic second of arc appears to have been adopted by the Minoan culture of Create some 4,000 years ago. The palaces of Crete were carefully surveyed by Canadian archaeologist, J. W. Graham who identified a standard unit he called ‘the Minoan foot’, which was 30.36cm. It follows that 1,000 of these feet make precisely one Megalithic second of arc. A decimalised version of what was already an ancient measure.

Even earlier the Egyptian culture had adopted units driven by the same thinking. They took the Megalithic Yard and made it the circumference of a circle. The diameter of that circle was called a royal cubit and the hypotenuse of a square from that diameter was called a remen.

Artifact based evidence

When we wrote Civilization One we stated that the people who created the Megalithic Yard must have built very large circles and divided the circumference into 366 parts to be sure that they were viewing 1/366th part of the night sky. We suggested that they may well have understood a quick method to do this by making a circle with a diameter 233 units (any length would do if they didn’t already have a Megalithic Yard). They then knew that they would have a circle of 732 units – which is twice 366, so they could take every other pole on the circumference. This is a 99.999% accurate means of using pi in a practical manner. For all engineering purposes this means perfect.

Several years later we found that structures even older than the Megalithic structures demonstrated the use of the 233/732 circles – exactly as we had predicted. These are henges – large circular mounds such as the group near Thornborough in North Yorkshire, England. They where built around 3500 BC, well before the Megalithic builders began their stonework phase. What is more they were using the Megalithic Yard, or the ‘Thom’ as we now call the geodetically refined value of the same length. At Thornborough there are three interlinked henges that are 233 Thoms across and 732 Thoms around their outer perimeter. These structures about with units and ratios being 366 Megalithic Rods between the centers of the first two and 360 between the second. The trio, which are also exactly 3 Megalithic seconds of arc apart by latitude, have also been identified as being laid out as a copy of the stars of Orion’s Belt – exactly like the Giza pyramids. The difference is that these are a thousand years older. We also explain in ‘Before the Pyramids’ how Khufu’s pyramid builders came to this location in England to get instructions on how to plan this star pattern on the ground!

The Thornborough henges, a perfect copy of the stars of Orion’s Belt. A to B is 366 Megalithic rods, B to C is 360 Megalithic rods and the true north/south latitudinal distance (in Red) is 3 Megalithic seconds of arc.

Weights and Measures

Having established that the people of the British Neolithic had units of lengths and time, we wondered if they had other units such as capacity and weight. We knew (or so we thought) that the Metric system was devised by the French in the late 18th century when they used a pendulum that beat at the rate of one second to create a unit they called the metre(meaning to beat out time). They later made a very small adjustment so that their metre was one 10,000,000,th of the distance from the equator to the north pole. To create a unit of capacity they took a 1/10th part of the metre (10cm) and made a cube. Filled with distilled water, this cube’s capacity was called a litre and its weight was designated a kilogramme.

We applied the same logic to the Megalithic Yard, (which Alexander Thom said was divided into 40 Megalithic Inches). So we calculated what a 4 Megalithic Inch cube would contain. The answer is one pint – to an accuracy of one part in 5,000 as defined by the British government in 1601. And when carefully filled with any unpolished grain, such as barley, it weighed just one Imperial pound.

This was odd in the extreme but it appears that (unknown to history) Imperial units were indeed based on cubes because by doubling the sides of the cube to 8 Megalithic Inches holds one Imperial gallon and doubling again produced a unit equivalent to a bushel, which was used as a dry weight until recent times.

Next, we found some truly bizarre connections. We thought for thoroughness that we ought to consider the volumes of spheres with Megalithic dimensions in addition to the cubes and a 6 Megalithic Inch sphere held a litre and a 1.5 MY wide sphere of water weighs a metric tonne. The level of accuracy was not spot on, but at a level of 99% fit we were surprised to put it mildly.

We are used to modern measurements that are ad hock but the 366 system works in depth. Take just two examples:

1. Earth mass

– One Megalithic degree (366th) slice of the Earth = 360 x 1020 pounds

– One Megalithic minute slice of the Earth = 6 x 1020 pounds

– One Megalithic second slice of the Earth = 1020 pounds

2. Temperature (hypothetical scale)

– Water freezes @ 0 degrees

– Water boils @ 366 degrees

– Absolute zero @ -1,000 degrees

The Sumerian Metre

It is well known that the Sumerian culture had a 360-degree circle and a 360-day year. They knew perfectly well that this was wrong and that are 366 star turns in a complete year, but it made their system of numerical notation and they built in compensations. They also invented the hour, the minute and the second – or at least they are the earliest people to be known to have used it. (In fact we now know that the second of time was in use in the British Isles at least 2,500 years before the Sumerians adopted it.

The Mesopotamian cultures, at various times, used a range of linear measurements, depending on the item being measured but there is a general consensus that a linear unit known as the ‘kush’ or ‘barley cubit’ was the main unit of length for during Sumerian times.

The kush was made up of 180 ‘se’ meaning ‘barley seed’ and was equivalent to 49.94 cm and the often used double-kush which Professor Livio Stecchini stated that he believed should be 99.88 cm. It follows that this double-kush was made up of 360 se, just as their year had 360 days and their circle 360 degrees.

It is no coincidence that the double kush is almost identical to the modern metre because they were both based on a pendulum that swings at the rate of once a second.

The Sumerians and later cultures of the region around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers used a sexadecimal counting system of base 10s and 60s. Their divisions of time were very neat indeed:

Year = 360 days

Month = 360 hours

Day = 360 gesh (a gesh was 4 minutes of 240 seconds)

Each of the Sumerian hours represented 1 degree of the Moon’s journey around the Earth and every degree of the Moon’s journey was split again, by 60 to give minutes of arc and by 60 again to give seconds of arc.

Today we use seconds to measure many things, including the speed of light, which is 299,792,458 metres per second. If we change that to kush per second we get the amazingly round figure of 600,000,000 – which is a beautiful sexadecimal value. (99.95% accuracy).

The Jefferson Paradox

Thomas Jefferson, one of the Founding Fathers of the United States was an amazing polymath. He set out to create a new system of units for his fledgling country, which – apart from the dollar – were never adopted. He started by looking at what means nature provided for producing a repeatable unit and, like us, he quickly identified the spinning of the Earth. Furthermore he used a pendulum that beat at the rate of once per second as his starting point – completely unaware of its ancient origins. He recorded the following statement:

“A pendulum, vibrating freely, in small and equal arcs, may be so adjusted in its length, as, by its vibrations, to make this division of the earth’s motion into 86,400 equal parts, called seconds of mean time. Such a pendulum, then, becomes itself a measure of determinate length, to which all others may be referred to as a standard. “

Jefferson also carefully looked at the units of measure from Europe – and he was surprised to find that they were not in the least haphazard as generally thought. He wrote:

“This seems to have been so combined as to render it indifferent whether a thing were dealt out by weight or measure; for the dry gallon of wheat, and the liquid one of wine, were of the same weight; and the avoirdupois pound of wheat, and the troy pound of wine, were of the same measure.”

“Another remarkable correspondence is that between weights and measures. For 1000 ounces avoirdupois of pure water fill a cubic foot, with mathematical exactness.”

He was bemused by the obvious science that lay hidden behind old measure:

“What circumstances of the times, or purposes of barter or commerce, called for this combination of weights and measures, with the subjects to be exchanged or purchased, are not now to be ascertained. But a triple set of exact proportionals representing weights, measures, and the things to be weighed and measured, and a relation so integral between weights and solid measures, must have been the result of design and scientific calculation, and not a mere coincidence of hazard.”

Jefferson concluded that some very ancient but long forgotten science was behind these unexpected correspondence. He concluded:

“…but the harmony here developed in the system of weights and measures… from very high antiquity”.

When Thomas Jefferson had finished creating his own new system of measures his use of the pendulum and the second of time had connected his directly back into the system from prehistory. Though he could not know it the following is true:

1,000 Jefferson Feet = 360 Megalithic Yards

366 Jefferson Furlongs = 1 Megalithic degree of arc of the Earth

3662 Jefferson Furlongs = The exact circumference of the Earth

This is a case-winning piece of evidence.

Megalithic Yard deniers or those who wish to casually dismiss the 366 system as all being a strange set of coincidences have to explain away the ‘Jefferson paradox’. Why are the ancient measure (still described in text books as ad hock) connected in the way Jefferson described and how could his ‘new’ system harmonise perfectly with a system employed 5,000 years earlier some 6,000 kilometres away to the east?

The Sun and the Moon

Have you ever wondered how marvellous total eclipses are?

It is a very strange quirk of fate indeed that the disc of the Moon should seem, from an Earthly perspective, to be exactly the same size as the Sun. Whilst we casually take it for granted that the two main bodies seen in Earth’s skies look the same size, it is actually something of a miracle. Most people are fully aware that the Moon is tiny compared to the Sun but that it is much, much closer to us causing them to appear as equal discs. To be precise the Moon is 400 times smaller than the star at the centre of our solar system, yet it is also just one 400th of the distance between the Earth and the Sun.

The odds against this optical allusion happening at all are simply huge – but how bizarre that both values are the same, perfectly round umber. Experts are deeply puzzled by the phenomenon. Isaac Asimov, the respected scientist and science-fiction guru, described this perfect visual alignment as being:

“The most unlikely coincidence imaginable”.

This perfect fit of the lunar and solar discs is a very human perspective because it only works from the viewpoint of someone standing on the Earth’s surface. And it only works at this point in time because it was very different in the past and it will change again as the Moon moves away from the Earth.

The magic of the Moon’s movements above our heads goes to even more astonishing levels. By some absolutely incomprehensible quirk of nature, the Moon also manages to very precisely imitate the movements of the Sun. It imitates the perceived annual movements of the Sun each month.

The full Moon is at its highest and brightest at midwinter, mirroring the Sun at midsummer and at lowest and weakest at midsummer when the Sun is at its highest and brightest.

The strangeness of the Moon continues when one considers its structure. It is either hollow or made up of extremely low density material at its centre. It has its great centres of mass distributed in various place at relatively low points just below its surface. This is odd in the extreme.

Its origin is also mysterious. The material that forms the Moon came from the surface of the Earth, but there is no satisfactory explanation for how this happened. The so-called double-whack theory seems unlikely in the extreme.

Applying the Megalithic 366 system of geometry and Thoms to the Moon and the Sun produces an astonishing result:

– Polar circumference of the Moon = 13,162,900 Thoms

– One Megalithic degree (1/366th) = 35,964 Thoms

– One Megalithic minute (1/60th) = 600 Thoms

– One Megalithic second (1/6th) = 100 Thoms

The Sun produces:

– Polar circumference of the Sun = 5,271,967,000 Thoms

– One Megalithic degree (1/366th) = 14,404,281 Thoms

– One Megalithic minute (1/60th) = 240,071 Thoms

– One Megalithic second (1/6th) = 40,011 Thoms

Given it is impossible to establish an exact circumference for the Sun’s surface, this result can be considered to be 40,000 – as one would expect given that the Sun is 400 times the diameter of the Moon.

How peculiar that the Sun and the Moon comply to the same system that defines the Earth so well?

It is almost as though we are looking at the blueprint of the solar system.

The rhythm of the solar system

The fact that the 366 system worked so perfectly for the Earth, Sun and Moon caused us to look at every other planet and moon in the solar system. Nothing. None of our neighbours came close to fitting the system. We even tried using each planet’s own ‘spin to orbit’ value, rather than the Earth’s 366 – but this also drew a blank. There seems to be something very special about our planet and our Moon’s relationship with the Sun.

We stated to look closely at every aspect we could and the following values fell out:


– The number of complete rotations of the Earth in a year

– The number of MY (Thoms) in a Megalithic second of arc on the Earth

– The percentage size of the Earth compared to the Moon


– The number of Thoms (MY) in a lunar Megalithic second of arc

– The number of times the Earth rotates faster than the Moon


– The Sun is larger than the Moon

– The number of kilometres the Moon turns on its axis in a day

– The number of times the Moon is closer to the Earth than the Sun


– The number of times faster that light travels in a vacuum compared to Earth’s speed of orbit around the Sun

– The number of Earth turns in an orbit of the Sun x the number of Earth turns in one lunar orbit of the Earth

– The exact number of times that the time difference between a sidereal and solar day fits into one orbit of the Moon.


– The number of kilometres to Earth’s polar circumference

– The number of Thoms (MY) in a solar second of arc


– The number of times faster that light travels in a vacuum compared to the Moon’s speed of orbit around the Earth


– The number of Earth diameters to the Sun’s

– The number of solar diameters across the maximum diameter of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun


– The number times the Earth turns in one turn of the Moon

– The percentage size of the Moon to the Earth

– The number of Megalithic seconds of time it takes the Moon to pass across one Megalithic second of arc in the sky.

The message

Are we looking at ‘God’s blueprint’? These integer numbers could not possible fall out of the Earth – Moon – Sun relationship by accident when every other solar system body appears to have no rules whatsoever.

The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), originally set up by NASA, spends a vast amount of energy searching for radio messages from a non-human origin based on the belief that we are probably not alone. SETI has been criticised by a number of physicists who argue that radio is not a viable means of communicating across the vast amounts of space and time involved in the universe. Some have suggested that a message is more likely to come by means of large physical objects.

Consider these words by Professor Christopher Rose and Dr Gregory Wright:

“Rather than transmitting radio messages, extraterrestrial civilizations would find it far more efficient to send us a ‘message in a bottle’, some kind of physical message inscribed on matter. And it could be waiting for us in our own backyard”.

Could the Moon have been constructed as a message by integrating ratios and values of both the Sun and the Moon? The problem is that all of these values only work now -at this point in time, which means that the message sender intended for it to be discovered right at this point in time. Did they know that humans would have developed the intelligence to read the message at this point?

It all sounds very weird; especially to us because we are hard-nosed pragmatists, and certainly not wishful thinking believers in exotic ideas. Until now that is, because evidence should not be ignored just because it is not what you expected to see.

Could humans have been ‘seeded’ on a planet that would sustain us? It is a fact that the Moon has been a very accurate ‘incubator’ to nurture life at all of its stages of development. If the Earth did not have our unique Moon there would be no humans. That is certain.

Which brings us to David Cumming’s idea that all of this can be expressed as an ‘equation’ that formally identifies that there is a message.

The Equation

The equation describes a relationship between the hydrogen fine transition line, the ratio between the circumference and diameter of a circle, and the speed of light in a vacuum.

Cumming first realised the importance of the equation when he recognised the equation produced the number 361,449 – a very accurate value for the speed of light expressed in the Thom units (MY) of an ancient Stone Age measurement system.

Firstly, why is the top line of the equation, Hlf.π, significant? SETI (the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) searches on a frequency equal to the frequency of the hydrogen line multiplied by Pi (Hlf.π). This frequency was suggested by Pyotr Makovetsky, for various reasons, as the best potential transmission frequency that should be searched for signs of ETI, and this frequency was adopted by SETI. The search frequency equals 1420.405751 MHz multiplied by 3.141592653 (Pi is chosen to 10 significant figures to match Hlf) equals 4462.336272. If you check what frequencies members of the SETI alliance are listening on currently, you’ll find that Makovetsky’s frequency features in many of the lists SETI researchers are using.

Secondly, why is the value of Omega significant? This is the number 0.0123456789 – all the characters of the base 10 number system. Cumming states the message originator would know that this is a very likely number system for any life form to use. At the same time, using all the consecutive characters of any number system at all, in a message, is a very direct sign that this is a message, an ordered intelligent communication and not, he says, a random occurrence.

Take π/Ω and work this out. Our value for π is 3.141592653 (10 significant figures are used for Pi, as this is what we’re using for Ω), divided by the Ω value of 0.0123456790 (using more significant figures won’t affect the calculation), this gives us the result of 254.4690072. The result of the calculation is actually a value in Thoms (Th), namely 254 milliThoms, or more conveniently expressed as 0.2544690049 Ths.

Standard physics says that the frequency of a wave, multiplied by the wavelength of that wave, is equal to the speed of the wave. In the case of the equation, when you divide out π/Ω, the answer must be equal to the wavelength of the hydrogen line, because the hydrogen line frequency multiplied by the hydrogen line wavelength must equal the speed of light.

When we look at the overall equation, we know in advance that the equation will give the value for the speed of light very accurately because what we’re doing is multiplying the frequency of the hydrogen line by the wavelength of the hydrogen line. But remember, we’ve divided π (3.141592653) by Ω (0.0123456790) to get a result for the hydrogen line wavelength expressed in Thoms, so the fact that we get a highly accurate answer appears to be nothing short of a miracle.

The speed of light calculated using the equation is 1420,405,751 cycles per sec (frequency (Hz)) multiplied by 0.2544690072 Thoms (wavelength). This works out at 361,449,241.3 Thoms/sec. This equals 299,804,073.2 metres/sec. This result for the speed of light is 99.996% correct.

Cumming claims that the application of the razor of Occam, we are left with the simple conclusion that the Earth, Sun, and Moon must have been Created to accord with the Equation of Creation.

Ancient knowledge

One question that needs to be asked is ‘how did the people of the British Neolithic come to know all about the 366 system and the ‘magic’ of the Sun, Moon and Earth? Presumably they were told. The Sumerians, who did leave written records say they were told by strange outsiders who taught them the secrets of astronomy and science.

But amongst the many surprises we have endured over the last few years, it is one we came across in early 2009 that stumped us. As we explain in Before the Pyramids, there can be no doubt that the Founding Fathers of the USA secretly designed Washington DC using Megalithic seconds of arc for every detail of the City plan. It is still happening. The Pentagon is a perfect and inspirational exposition of Stone Age knowledge – using the 366 system and the Thom with as much perfection as Stonehenge or Thornborough.

And this was driven by the 33rd degree of the Ancient Scottish Rite of Freemasonry. Presidents and people unknown have been driven to build a city using God’s own values – a city fit for God’s great purpose.

Do the powers that be in the USA already understand this message? Are they preparing to respond?

We believe that something very special is about to happen and the world needs to know what it is.

Christopher Knight Biography

Chris Knight has over thirty years experience in marketing and advertising in consumer goods and business to business. Until 2001 Chris was chairman of Paradigm; the marketing, advertising and PR company that was named England’s ‘Advertising Agency of the Year’ in 2000.

Chris became a writer almost by accident. Back in 1976 he became a Freemason because he was curious to know what the organisation was really about and whether there rituals were as weird as people said. He soon discovered that the rituals were even more oddball as he expected, and slowly he realised that no one in Freemasonry really understood where the Order had come from or what their ceremonies meant. He decided to conduct his own private research and for the next 20 years he slowly reconstructed the origins of the Craft.

With help from fellow Freemason, Robert Lomas, Chris put his findings into a book that he called The Hiram Key – published in 1996. Within three days of release the book unexpectedly entered the UK’s top ten bestseller list and remained there for three months. This book is currently available in over forty languages.

This was followed by The Second Messiah, Uriel’s Machine and The Book of Hiram.

His researches led him increasingly backwards in time and he has spent the last ten years working with Alan Butler to investigate the origins of Megalithic metrology leading to the co-authoring of Civilization One in 2004. This was followed by Who Built the Moon, Solomon’s Power Brokers and Before the Pyramids.

Chris currently divides his time between a director of a number of companies and continuing his researches and writing books. He lives in Yorkshire, England with his wife Caroline and has three grown up daughters by his first marriage.

Alan Butler Biography

Alan Butler is 58 years of age and has been a professional writer for the last twenty-five years. Having written since childhood Alan first made his way in the world as an engineer, a background he insists has been of tremendous use to him in his writing career.

With a special interest in ancient civilizations and history generally, Alan’s work has been geared towards uncovering mysteries from the past. An expert in ancient astronomy, Alan Butler has worked hard over the years to gain an understanding of the great importance ancient civilizations put upon the stars and planets, both in a practical and a mythological sense. It was this that lead to his first major book ‘The Bronze Age Computer Disc’, published in the early 1990’s by Quantum.

Establishing a working relationship with best selling author Christopher Knight, Alan Butler co-operated over the creation of the very successful ‘Civilization One’ a groundbreaking book about the evolution of measuring systems and the true extent of ancient knowledge concerning the Earth and the part it plays in the solar system. It was out of this research that Chris and Alan made their groundbreaking recognition of just how very odd the Earth’s Moon is. The result was their much talked about book, ‘Who Built the Moon?’

Chris and Alan have also co-operated on the Masonic book, ‘Solomon’s Powerbrokers’, which in part led to the revelations at the end of their latest book, ‘Before the Pyramids’. In ‘Before the Pyramids’ Chris and Alan introduce a great deal of incontrovertible evidence supporting their earlier assumptions regarding use of ancient measuring systems and also expose what can only be described as a conspiracy at the very heart of the United States to make Washington DC the centre of a New World Order that has been planned for centuries.

As a solo writer Alan had written books on the Knights Templar, the origins and continuation of Goddess Worship and his best selling book, ‘The Virgin and the Pentacle’, which is an in depth appraisal of the true nature of Freemasonry and the way it has had a bearing on society.

Alan is also an accomplished dramatist with a string of plays to his credit and two of which he is particularly proud that were produced with great success on BBC radio. He is also particularly proud of his book ‘Sheep’ that shows just how important sheep have been to the history of our world. ‘The subject always makes people smile’, he says, ‘but readers have been very, very surprised with this title.

Alan lives with his wife Kate in the North East of England. When not at his desk he loves to stay active and enjoys working with wood, as well as tinkering with his ageing but much loved open-topped sports car.

Chris Knight is speaking at the following events in early 2010:

International Conference on Ancient Studies
‘The origins of Civilization’ to be held in Dubai February 12th – 13th

World Congress of Initiatic Societies
Macerata, Italy. April 17th

Books by Christopher Knight and Alan Butler

Before the Pyramids: Cracking Archaeology's Greatest Mystery (Hardcover)

Before the Pyramids: Cracking Archaeology's Greatest Mystery (Hardcover)

US - UK - CA

Who Built the Moon? (Paperback)

Who Built the Moon? (Paperback)

US - UK - CA

Civilization One: The World is Not as You Thought It Was (Paperback)

Civilization One: The World is Not as You Thought It Was (Paperback)

US - UK - CA

Solomon's Power Brokers: The Secrets of Freemasonry, the Church, and the Illuminati (Hardcover)

Solomon's Power Brokers: The Secrets of Freemasonry, the Church, and the Illuminati (Hardcover)

US - UK - CA

Who Built the Moon?

Civilization One

The World is Not as You Thought It Was