Our Unknown Ancient Past

Thoughts and Reflections on the Unexplained Mysteries of Prehistory

We warmly welcome Alexandros Angelis, author of Our Unknown Ancient Past: Thoughts and Reflections on the Unexplained Mysteries of Prehistory, as our featured author for August. In his book, Alexandros presents evidence supporting the theory of an advanced prehistoric civilisation lost to a natural disaster. The remnants of its existence having been preserved in ancient mythology and knowledge passed down through the ages. In his article, Alexandros explores ancient Greek mythology, artefacts and language, presenting the historical truths and advanced ancient knowledge hidden within. 

Interact with Alexandros on our AoM Forum here


Eric Schliemann started seeking Troy with Homer’s Iliad being his only guide when scientists were convinced that Homer’s story was fiction. Had he lived today, the establishment would have thrown names at him like pseudoscience and fringe. However, it is not just Troy nor just Knossos nor just the Mycenae; most major archaeological findings in the entire world, despite the references in the ancient texts, were a complete surprise for the scientific establishment. If that establishment had full control, all those discoveries would simply never have happened.

My main purpose was to present as much evidence as possible supporting the theory that during prehistory, there was a relatively advanced civilization, which was, however, lost due to some natural catastrophe. This was mainly attempted by presenting knowledge of the ancient people, which they are not justified to have had, and similarities between very distant cultures that should not have existed. Conventional science would have us believe that all this is a series of incredible coincidences, but, statistically, it is more probable for a little green man to land on your lap. The funny part is that science accepts the Indo-European theory, meaning that there was an Indo-European / Arian race that started traveling around the world during prehistoric times, spreading civilization but left no single finding behind. But how different is the Indo-European theory from that of a lost civilization?

It is clear to me that the explanation for the ancient mysteries is a human civilization and not something extraterrestrial or supernatural. This is the same civilization that produced the accurate maps Piri Reis used to draw his own map. I fail to see why it is so hard to believe that a prehistoric civilization could have traveled all around the world, even to Antarctica. It is proven that the prehistoric Greeks were traveling in the Aegean Sea around 10.000 BC, transporting obsidian from the island of Milos to mainland Greece. Even older than that and even less – theoretically – advanced human species than us were able to cross the seas. The Neanderthals were living on Naxos island before at least 200.000 years ago. Homo Heidelbergensis and Homo Erectus had reached Crete by sea 130.000 to 700.000 years ago. Is it really so strange that tens and hundreds of thousands of years after that, Homo Sapiens had mastered seafaring? And is Plato’s report so absurd, that in 10.000 BC the big port of Atlantis was full of ships and merchants who were coming from all over the world?

The lost civilization we are looking for may be of Greek origin. There are actually several references in the ancient Greek texts, besides Plato, talking about a lost Greek civilization. One of them is from the historian Diodorus Siculus, saying that Aktis (one of the seven Heliades, children of Helios and Rhodes), carried the knowledge of astronomy from Greece to Egypt, while, in the meantime, this knowledge was lost from Greece due to a cataclysm. In fact, scientists who analyzed the DNA from human remains found in the area of Stonehenge came to the conclusion that the ancestors of the men who built Stonehenge were farmers who had come from the eastern Mediterranean. Those men who were mostly of Aegean origin – based on the DNA – seem to have moved towards the Iberian Peninsula and then headed north, reaching England around 4.000 BC.

What I wish to bring to the table is a Greek perspective on the “lost ancient civilization” topic. And trust me, Greek mythology and the ancient Greek texts have a great deal to offer. Most of the Greek-specific information presented in my book is widely unknown.

GREEK MYTHOLOGY

There are many cases where modern science proved the ancient Greek myths right. Therefore, a significant portion of my book deals with mythology (mainly Greek mythology). It was important to establish that Greek mythology is a credible source, despite the veil of phantasy that encapsulates the actual facts, in order to support the claim of a lost ancient civilization. Through mythology, I also prove beyond doubt that people can retain in their collective memory events that occurred many millenniums before their time.

According to Greek mythology, goddess Demeter sent Triptolemus on a mission to teach agriculture to humanity. Triptolemus flew across the land on a chariot drawn by dragons given to him by the goddess Demeter. Coincidentally, the most recent studies, based on ancient DNA research, prove beyond doubt that the spreading of agriculture throughout Europe is due to immigrants from Greece and Asia Minor 7.500 years ago.

The distant land of the Hyperboreans is mainly known from the myth of Apollo, as the god, before founding his oracle in Delphi, visited that unknown land of the north and stayed there for almost one year. Hyperborea was a blessed land with a never-ending spring, while the sun would never set within a 24-hour day. The never-setting sun implies that this land was somewhere in the Arctic Circle, possibly in northern Scandinavia. Despite its location, though, this country is described as fertile, which sounds crazy. Surely, if someone wanted to make up a country in the north, he would have thought of a more plausible story. Based on the most recent research, however, we know that during the last ice age, parts of the areas close to the arctic (of Siberia, Canada, and Alaska) were ice-free. So, these areas, approximately up until 10.000 BC, had a better climate than they do today, while they supported many animal species and rich flora.

There are some ancient toponyms that reveal knowledge of geological events of prehistory, thousands of years before Classical Greece. Take Bosporus, for example, a narrow sea passage separating Europe from Asia. Bosporus means, ‘the place cows pass through’. Indeed, thousands of years ago, when the sea level was lower due to the last ice age, this was a piece of land connecting Europe with Asia. According to Greek mythology, Io passed through here while she was transformed into a cow by Zeus.

While most nations remember only one major cataclysm, the Greeks have retained the memory of three large-scale cataclysms: The cataclysms of Ogygus, Deucalion, and Dardanus. Regarding the cataclysm of Dardanus, we have a description from Diodorus Siculus, who reports that the water which flooded the Aegean came from the Black Sea, with entire towns sinking under the sea. Recent research showed there was a sudden rise in the sea level in the North Aegean and the Black Sea. More precisely, two such rises had occurred, the first in 5.600 BC and the second in 6.400 BC. In both cases, the water flow was from the Black Sea towards the northern Aegean, as the analysis revealed sudden drops of salinity level, which means that the saltwater of the Aegean was diluted from the freshwater of the – up until then – lake but is now the Black Sea.

Recent DNA analysis showed that the Mycenaeans and the Minoans had a high genetic kinship, as they had common ancestors. Another conclusion of the analysis is that modern Greeks come from the Mycenaeans and the Minoans. Consequently, the distinction between the various Greek races seems to have had more cultural/regional criteria and less racial ones. Last but not least interesting is the conclusion of the analysis that the Mycenaean, Minoans, and modern Greeks had some kinship with the ancient people living in the Caucasus, Armenia, and Iran. The proven kinship between Greeks and Iranians (Persians) is one more confirmation of Greek mythology. According to mythology, the Greek Perses, son of the hero Perseus and Andromeda, was the forefather of the Persians, and Medus, son of the Athenian king Aegeus, was the forefather of the Medes. In fact, the Persians called upon this exact kinship asking the Athenians to surrender, with the Athenians replying that based on genealogy, the Persians should surrender to them instead (since their ancestor was Greek). It is no accident that Iranians and Armenians are genetically similar to Greeks. Most ancient nations of Asia Minor and the Middle East are related to each other, which is described by Greek mythology, as it mentions their forefathers as being Greek.

ATLANTIS

I devote quite a large part of my book to Atlantis, a topic that always fascinated me. There are actually some indirect references to the story of Atlantis in Greek mythology, some of them even pointing to the northwestern edge of Africa, very close to where Plato places Atlantis. Interestingly enough, the god Hermes (Hermes being the Greek equivalent of Thoth, the Egyptian god of knowledge) is called “Atlantiades” in Greek mythology. Since I mentioned northwestern Africa, the ancient texts reveal that the people of the Atlas mountain range had advanced knowledge of astronomy. Diodorus Siculus calls those people Atlanteans. What is their relationship with the mythical Atlanteans? And is it a coincidence that the Dogon, a people with inexplicable astronomy knowledge, inhabit this part of the earth?

Another “lucky guess” by Plato was that Attica had a very different landscape during the fall of Atlantis (around 9.500 BC). Modern research confirms that this is true, as the international conference “The prehistory of Athens and Attica” was held in 2015, where over 120 Greek and foreign scientists gathered, to discuss geophysical research, revealing important changes on the Attica landscape during the past 10.000 years.

GREEKS & EGYPTIANS

In Plato’s story of Atlantis, we also learn that the Greeks and the Egyptians are related. Modern science confirms this kinship, as genetics reveals that Egyptian mummies have more in common with modern Europeans than with modern Egyptians. Unknown to most people, there are Greek pyramids, one being the pyramid of Hellinikon that was dated with the thermoluminescence method to 2.720 BC with a deviation of +/- 580 years.

‘Elliniko Piramid’ by Egerváry Gergely (CCBY3.0)

The pyramid of Daskalio is even less know. Although it is not an actual pyramid but rather a pyramid-shaped islet, the islet-mountain was geo-formed, giving it the form of a stepped pyramid. There, the ruins of a huge religious center of 2.600 BC with 60 marble buildings were discovered, the oldest religious center on an island in the world. This discovery was so important that it completely overturned the beliefs of archaeologists concerning prehistoric Greece. Under the ground, a complex system of sewerage works was found, approximately 1.000 years before the famous interior hydraulic system of the Minoan palaces, and traces of advanced metallurgy. In order to transport the 7.000-10.000 tons of white marble from the nearby Naxos island (10 kilometers away) to complete this work, it took almost 3.500 sea trips; by far the largest prehistoric sea transport in the entire world. It cannot be an accident that during this period, pyramids were being built in Egypt, which is only 700-800 kilometers away from the Cyclades. Due to the white marble, which was intentionally used with the purpose of reflecting the light, scientists believe that from many kilometers away the islet would have looked like a shinning pyramid coming out of the sea. Let us not forget that the Egyptian pyramids initially had a coating of smooth white casing stones with the purpose of glowing under the sun. This similarity can hardly be a coincidence.

GEODESY

The ancient Greeks were very careful in choosing the places for important temples and towns so that they would form isosceles triangles. For some unexplained reason, this was very important for them. From the work of Dr Manias, here is an example of some locations that form isosceles triangles, with the Delphi Oracle being at the top:

  • Delphi is equidistant from Athens and Olympia by 660 stadia.
  • Delphi is equidistant from Eleusis and Iolcus by 550 stadia.
  • Delphi is equidistant from Smyrna and the Ideon Andron of Crete by 2.198 stadia.
  • Delphi is equidistant from Knossos and Ephesus by 2.288 stadia.

Although they are millenniums apart, there is a connection between Gobekli Tepe and ancient Greece. That connection has to do with triangulation, which was apparently an even older tradition, as in 2020 it was discovered that Gobekli Tepe’s construction was based on geometrical knowledge, with the centers of three basic circles forming an isosceles triangle.

THE GREEK LANGUAGE ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE GLOBE

While reading about the Aztec, I came across a clue that really impressed me: the name of the Aztec town Teotihuacan means “place of those who became gods”. The first component of the town’s name (teo) strongly reminds us of the Greek word “θεό” (pronounced as theo, Greek for god). I eventually realized that indeed in the Aztec language, the word “god” was “teotl“. By removing the ending “tl” the Aztecs used to append almost everywhere, a very suspicious similarity emerges.

Easter Island is also called “Mata Ki Te Rani” by the locals. Doesn’t it sound like the phrase “matia pu kitane ton urano” (Greek for “eyes gazing at the sky”), and isn’t it strange that those statues do indeed seem to be gazing at the sky? If you are thinking that I am exaggerating, let me inform you that the name “Mata Ki Te Rani” really does means “eyes gazing at the sky”. In fact, one of the books written about the mysterious island is “Mata Ki Te Rangi: Eyes Towards the Heavens”, while on the island, there are even rooms to let under this name. The Greek traces that exist on the Easter Island have not gone unnoticed by scientists, with the German Professor Nors Sigurd Josephson having written a book titled “An Archaic Greek Civilization on the Easter Island”. In there, the professor has recorded 1.059 words of the Polynesia islands, which he considers to be Greek. The similarities of those words with the equivalent Greek ones are often impressive.

HOW PRIMITIVE WERE ANCIENT PEOPLE?

In my book, I present only a few cases in many where scientists are surprised by the abilities of ‘primitive men’. So, what we see is a recurring pattern, that scientists have repeatedly underestimated primitive man, resulting in their estimations being permanently wrong. No wonder they cannot even consider the possibility of an advanced ancient civilization. But were prehistoric people as helpless as we think?

In the prehistoric cave of Theopetra, 23.000 years ago, the so-called primitive men put together a stone wall to narrow down the cave entrance. In the same cave, 130.000-year-old child footprints were discovered, proving that the primitive men of that age were using footwear.

Heron of Alexandria invented the first steam-engine about 2.000 years ago as he built a sphere, which revolved using the power of steam. Using the same steam technology, Archytas of Tarentum about 2.500 years ago built the first object which could have autonomous flight capability, the so-called flying pigeon of Archytas. Thanks to the steam pressure and its aerodynamic shape, the artificial bird could travel a distance of 200 meters.

‘Hero’s Aeolipile’ by Gts-tg (CCBYSA4.0)

The famous Phaistos Disk, which is dated to the 2nd millennium BC, is an early sample of typography, the oldest in the world. The designs on it had been printed on soft clay before being placed in the fire in order to harden.

The Antikythera Mechanism that is dated to the 1st – 2nd century BC is the first computer ever built. The scientists who studied the mechanism were shocked, as it functions with gears and it is quite complicated, having the ability to calculate and depict the movements of the celestial bodies. It calculates even the most complex movements, for example, it locates with precision the position of the moon, although its elliptic orbit makes it move at a variable speed (faster when it is closer to earth and slower when it is away from it). There are indications that the gear technology was transferred to Europe of the Renaissance (through the Byzantines and the Arabs), making one of the scientists state that the Antikythera Mechanism is the cradle of modern technology.

‘Antikythera Mechanism’ by Tilemahos Efthimiadis (CCBY2.0)

The black-figure pots of red-black style of the ancient Athenians were so popular in antiquity that they have been found from Iraq to Germany. Their composition began being decrypted just during the 1990s by scientists, thanks to the development of modern microanalysis techniques. Their dye belongs to the state-of-the-art materials of technology, those we nowadays call nanomaterials. The dark glazing of the Attic pots has special chemical and mechanical properties, unique endurance but also exceptional quality. Such properties recently attracted the interest of NASA, which is seeking secrets in its composition in order to improve the insulation of its spaceships.

Trepanning, as its name suggests, is a surgical practice according to which tools are used to open a hole in the “patient’s” skull for medical purposes. The oldest trepanning is dated in the range 8.000 – 7.600 BC. It got its name from Hippocrates, who was the first to systematize trepanning and provided clear instructions in his works. It seems it was something of a routine, as in a group tomb of 6.500 BC in France, 40 out of 120 skulls bore signs of trepanning. From those skulls, it was proven that men usually survived the surgery. There were special tools for this purpose, while before the use of metals, the tools were mostly of flintstone, which shows that the lack of metallurgy was not such a big obstacle for primitive men. In fact, the “primitive” Inca had significantly higher survival rates than the American doctors of the 19th century, as the relevant scientific article mockingly mentions.

‘Crane Trepanation’ by Rama (CCBYSA3.0)

According to Greek mythology, Melampus was a man with impressive skills, like divination skills, the ability to understand the language of the animals, and amazing medical skills (which include the healing of impotence & the healing of madness). It was Melampus who first mixed wine with water. Today we know that if you mix one part of wine with nine parts of water, the polyphenols contained in the wine within four hours neutralize the dangerous microorganisms the water might have (salmonella, cholera, etc). In ancient Greece, the mixture of wine and water happened several hours before the symposium would begin. But how on earth could the ancient sage have known that?

CONCLUSIONS

It is obvious that ancient people possessed far more knowledge than we thought up until now. What is less obvious but true, nonetheless, is that our advanced civilization was based on that knowledge. For example, if the gear technology of the Hellenistic Age (used in the Antikythera Mechanism) did not exist, would the industrial revolution ever had happened in the first place? It is quite clear that primitive people have been systematically underestimated by modern science. However, they were just as able and smart as we are. Therefore, an advanced human civilization was inevitable and not a fluke. So why did it take so long to emerge? Or did it?…

25 thoughts on “Our Unknown Ancient Past: Thoughts and Reflections on the Unexplained Mysteries of Prehistory”

  1. Aloys Eiling says:

    A highly interesting collection of clues and finds pointing to a different and extremely distant appearance of man. Congrats! It is interesting that official paleontology is slowly revising the origin of Homo Sapiens to at least 250,000 years BC by now.
    I like your concept to use mythology and etymology as signposts to elucidate a prehistoric past. An approach to which tenure scholars pay far too little attention. In fact, to explain all your arguments as result of coincidences overstretches the same. You don’t mention it, but most likely you are aware of the fact that the presence of Homo Sapiens in Greece is now dated back to 210,000 years ago (https://www.latimes.com/science/story/2019-07-10/oldest-modern-human-skull-in-eurasia)

  2. Alexandros says:

    Dear Aloys Eiling, Thank you for your kind words! I am always very suspicious whenever I hear the word coincidence, and in fact, this is the subject of the most recent article on my blog: https://ourunknownancientpast.blogspot.com/2021/08/plato-atlantis-probability-of.html Actually, in my book, I mention the human skull from Apidima Cave (page 255, chapter “Second Shock: Homo Sapiens in Greece 210.000 Years Ago”). It is a very exciting find and I would kick myself if I had let something like that slip by me! I have been reading a lot of Anthropology books lately and I have come to realize the size of our ignorance. Not to say that scientists are not working hard, far from it. They simply have too little information to work on. They estimate the appearance of Homo Sapiens based on our genetic variation (small variation means that we are dealing with a new species), but this can be way off for a number of reasons (I intend to write an article on this too).

  3. Séamus+Casey says:

    Very interesting. As I’m sure you know, Plato says Solon was told by the most ancient of the Egyptian priests of Sais that the Athenians who defended against the Atlantians had lost their ancestry(older than Egypt) & history by cataclysm & are plagued by an amnesia similar to one plaguing whomen(sic) of today, of their true past because of this loss.

  4. Josh says:

    “The story of Typhon known to Apollodorus would seem to be a conflation of details otherwise present in the Hittite “Song of Ullikummi” and the two versions of the battle between the storm-god and the dragon Illuyankas. The scheme in Hesiod would be represented by his dynasties of the gods, war between Zeus and the Titans, and the last struggle against Typhoeus. This final battle parallels the Storm-god’s fight with the stone monster Ullikummi. The Greek poet did not adhere slavishly to his eastern sources. The Hittite legend of Kumarbi has four generations of the gods, but Hesiod only the three, Uranus, Cronus, and Zeus. In both traditions the decisive battle is fought at Mount Hazzi.”

    https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/classical-quarterly/article/abs/text-of-hesiods-theogony-and-the-hittite-epic-of-kumarbi1/68BBD64557D16FBD0963D23B159B97A9

  5. Alexandros says:

    Well said Séamus+Casey! I had read this story of Plato decades ago and I still get excited every single time I read it. Other ancient Greek writers besides Plato, like Diodorus Siculus, say the same thing: that a Greek civilization was lost by a natural catastrophe and the old knowledge only survived in Egypt.

  6. Mark Gaffney says:

    Alexandros,

    I was unaware that the Greeks remember three cataclysms. Does this translate to three world ages? Possibly. Nor was I aware of the Greek connection to Easter Island.

    All of this is extremely interesting because the Parthenon happens to be accurately aligned to a former North Pole position in North Greenland (actually in the Nares Strait) that was current ~87,000 years ago, the same world age when the famous moia statues were being created on Easter Island!

    The Parthenon long predates what we take as the golden age of Greece. Doubtless, it was reconstructed numerous times over its long history. But the original alignment was preserved.

    The ~87,000 year date is determined as follows. The north pole position in the Nares Strait correlates with the second deepest and oldest stratigraphic layer of the bone caves of Britain, when mammoths roamed the British Isles. A fossil from this layer has been isotopically dated to 87,000 years BP. A land bridge connected Britain to Europe during this period – when a large ice cap covered North America. Greece was then at approximately the same latitude as today.

    This third age was followed by the European Ice Age, during which time the North Pole position was located in the Norway Sea, about 200 miles off the Norwegian coast. Greece was cooler during this age, and was then at the latitude of northern Scotland. The flood you refer to probably occurred when the earth’s crust shifted again at the end of this age. After the ice cap moved south out of the Arctic zone rapid melting ensued, with terrible flooding south into the Black Sea.

    This great flood event could explain why we have no human remains or artifacts from this age. That Greek civilization was mostly swept away. The original Parthenon was probably reduced to its foundations. I suspect, however, that archeologists will one day discover physical remains of this former age.

    Thanks for posting! I will check out your book.
    Mark

  7. Aloys Eiling says:

    Hello to the author and commentators!

    The fight of a great god against a giant demon is mythologic substrate in various global myths. Among them I count also the fight of Indra against Vritra vividly described in the Rig Veda. TThe pattern of the story describing Indras battling against Vritra is very similar the events characterizing the fight of Zeus against Typhon. Also the battle of Marduk against Tiamat (Babylon) or of Ra against Seth (Egypt) fit into the same picture. I believe that these myths passed on the horric cataclysm when an accretion disc traversed the solar system. A paper dof mine dealing with this topic is upcoming on this website
    The three cataclysms of the Greek mythology can be assigned more exactly with the help of other myths. According to my understanding they are: 1. the biblical Flood (capture of the Moon), 2. the Deucalian Flood (connected with the lighting up of Venus and the passage of a foreign star), and finally the Flood caused by a comet impact (Dryas meteorite – Phaeton). Later and smaller asteroid impacts revived the prehitoric event in the historic ancient texts.

  8. Alexandros says:

    Hi Mark,

    Thank you for your comment!

    Actually no, although there are three cataclysms, there are 5 world ages in Greek mythology.

    There are many interesting facts about the Parthenon, but the truth is that I have not written about it in my book. Perhaps in the next one. You are correct, before the marble Parthenon there was a wooden one, which was burned down by the Persians during their invasion. However, I cannot tell for sure when the original Parthenon was built.

    I know that Britain was connected to Europe through Doggerland, but Doggerland disappeared under the sea around 6.500. So I guess you are referring to something else?

    Yes, actually Diodorus Siculus tells this exact thing: that entire cities were swept away by the cataclysm. And this is why, in later years, some fishermen would find in their nets stone capitals.

    It is an interesting coincidence that a couple of days ago my copy of Hapgood’s book, “Earth’s Shifting Crust” arrived. I can’t wait to read it!

  9. Mark Gaffney says:

    Alexandros,

    Five ages? That is very interesting. Well, perhaps Greek civilization is older than I thought! Actually, I’m not a bit surprised.

    It so happens that five stratigraphic layers have been identified in the bone caves of England. I argue in my book Deep History and the Ages of Man (2020) that each of these layers correlates with a different and successive north pole position. Four previous north pole positions have been identified — for a total of five, counting the present pole. I argue there is a match: five known former pole positions and five stratigraphic layers.

    The research in the bone caves started in the 1820s and has continued, ever since. In 2001 a key summary paper by Roger Jacobi and Andrew Currant identified and described the five stratigraphic layers, each with its own unique climate and mammalian assemblage. I attempted to show in my book that each assemblage correlates with one of the poles. The succession of layers from deepest (oldest) to youngest gives us the proper sequence of world ages. Fossils from each layer have been Isotopically dated so we know the approximate timeline.

    Hapgood was forced to abandon his proposed mechanism for the crustal shift events. He thought the ice caps built up and up until the weight of the ice caused the crust to shift as the ice moved toward the equator via centrifugal force. However, when Hapgood and his colleagues crunched the numbers they realized that no amount of ice could ever trigger such an event. But though he gave up his mechanism he never abandoned his theory of crustal displacement because the evidence is so compelling. Indeed, evidence is still accumulating. My book presents some that I found — and I’m sure there’s a lot more evidence out there just waiting to be identified. It’s all around us. We need only learn to recognize it.

    Be sure to also check out Hapgood’s second book The Path of the Pole. When you have absorbed what Hapgood has to teach us, then check out my book and also Mark Carlotto’s book, Before Atlantis. Carlotto is an aerospace engineer and does careful work. He’s plotted the alignments of many archeological sites using Google Earth pro – and in his second edition he incorporates the paleontological work from the bone caves. The stratigraphic layers give us the proper sequence or chronology and the isotopically dated fossils from each layer give us the approximate timeline.

    The only sane conclusion is that human civilizations have been around a lot longer than most realize — including some of the short sighted posters in this board. 🙂
    Mark

    1. Aloys Eiling says:

      Hello Mark, hello Alexandros,
      short comment of a physicist. Since the angular momentum is a constant of motion, any movement of Earth’s axis reqiures an external force. However, although the axis of rotation is fixed in space the globe or its surface can tild or even rotate. The event does not rely on the ice shield, but, occurs when as a result of continental drift the distribution of mass in Earth’s crust gets out of balance. In that case the crust slips over the asthenosphere to compensate for that imbalance. These shifts have happened in the far geologic past. (https://www.scinexx.de/news/geowissen/kippte-eine-polverschiebung-gondwana/) Unfortunately the article is in German, but I think self-explanatory, otherwise I refer to Google translator.
      I doubt that such an effect can take place several times in the course of a few millennia. The time scale is rather in the range of hundred million years.
      Aloys

      1. Mark Gaffney says:

        Hello Aloys,
        That’s an interesting theory. I’ll check out the link. I want to see the evidence.
        Thanks for the comment!
        Mark

      2. Alexandros says:

        Wow Aloys, I did not know that crust displacement is proven to have happened. Hapgood was a great man and ahead of his time, that’s for sure. The article may be in German, but Google Translate did a good job!

        Under normal circumstances no doubt such events are extremely rare, as you point out. But I wonder if/how extreme external conditions could make such movements more frequent. And I also wonder how a human being your experience such an event…

      3. Mark Gaffney says:

        Aloys,
        I studied physics in collage and since then, but cannot pretend to be a physicist. So I am trying to understand what you are saying. Correct me if I am wrong, but it appears that what you are saying agrees with Hapgood’s work, and my research also. The crust of the earth can move without changing the axis of rotation (the tilt).
        You suggest this occurs as a result of continental drift. I assume you mean plate tectonics. If so, there is a big problem, because according to geologist the plates only move a few centimeters/year.
        Yet, we have compelling evidence that the crust moves vastly greater distances in a much compressed timeframe. For example, the north pole moved at least 16,000+ miles (and possibly as much as 2000 miles) at the end of the Pleistocene. And it’s clear the movement occurred in a matter of hours, or possibly days. It was very rapid.
        This tells me the force applied to the planet had to come from outside.
        Best, Mark

        1. Aloys Eiling says:

          Hi Mark,

          basically your comment is correct, and Hapgood was indeed right in assuming that the crust can slide into a new position. But he overestimates the role of the ice caps at the poles. The crust can and did slip because of an imbalance in the mass distribution of the crust. Even if the tectonic plates move slowly (a few centimeters per year at most), once the movement begins, it will become rapid. The repositioning of the crust – not of the axis – can occur within a few days. During this process, the equatorial bulge moves across the crust, accompanied by tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and unimaginable earthquakes. For all life, a cataclysmic event.
          To tilt the Earth’s axis requires an external force, or more precisely, an external torque. Important to note that a sphere is inert to a homogeneous external force since no torque is exerted. The Moon and the Sun exert a torque and cause the precession of the axis only because the Earth is not a perfect sphere.
          All this explaned in detail in my book.
          Best regards from Germany,
          Aloys

  10. Alexandros says:

    Thanks Josh for the interesting article you shared! There are actually many similarities between the Greek and Hittite mythology, it’s extremely interesting. In my book I have an appendix just for that topic.

  11. Alexandros says:

    Hi Aloys,
    I share your belief that a global catastrophe triggered those myths, and I look forward to reading your paper!
    If you care to have a look at a more conservative approach regarding the Cataclysm of Dardanus in particular, search for the flooding of the Black Sea which led the water to the Aegean Sea (5.600 BC & 6.400 BC).

  12. Alexandros says:

    Hi again Mark,

    I am convinced, just like you, that the human civilization indeed goes further back than currently believed.

    Don’t be surprised, many mythologies all around the world have 4-5 ages, and the Golden Age is usually their first one. What you mention about the 5 stratigraphic layers is truly exciting! I am dying to know more, and I most definitely will have a look at your book! It just so happens that I just got my copy of Hapgood’s Earth Shifting Crust, and it seems your book will be the next one.

    Wow, the Path of the Pole is insanely expensive for some reason, thank God there is the Kindle version… I see Mark Carlotto’s book is rather short, should be a quick read! Thank you for the book suggestions, they all look very promising.

    1. Mark Gaffney says:

      Alexandros,
      Yes, Carlotto had to keep his book short because it includes a lot of color graphics which runs up the price of publishing. Still, parts of his book are very interesting. His alignments are accurate and well done.

      Also, I want to comment about the flood myths. You mentioned the evidence of sudden sea level rise in the Aegean and Black Sea. No doubt, when the crust moved at the end of the European Ice Age, the ice cap moved south out of the polar zone into the temperate zone. A rapid melting of the cap ensued with heavy flooding through the Black Sea into the Mediterranean. We had a similar flood in North America after the Last Glacial Maximum when the crust shifted at least 1600 miles. The polar cap had been centered over Hudson’s Bay-Baffin Island. When the cap moved out of the polar zone, again, rapid melting and flooding ensued.

      In the 1920s a geologist named Harlen Bretz reported evidence of massive flooding down the Columbia River. That flood is estimated at 10 times the total volume of all the rivers on earth. It was so massive it created the amazing network of channeled scablands and coulees in central Washington State. Monster sized erratic boulders were transported by the flood and by icebergs as far as the Willamette Valley, south of Portland. The entire Willamette Valley must have flooded because one of these monster erratic boulders is located just north of Eugene, OR. Bretz encountered huge resistance in the science community, was ridiculed etc. But he persisted and lived to see his flood scenario confirmed.

      When I visited Missoula, Montana a few years ago I observed the shore lines of the huge glacial lake one thousand feet or more above the city. The lake had filled up the entire Missoula valley until the glacial dam burst.

      We know that similar flooding also occurred down the Mississippi River, the Hudson River, the St Lawrence River, and also down the Yukon River in Alaska. During the Alaskan gold rush at the turn of the 20th century, miners uncovered massive deposits of megafauna like woolly mammoths, bison etc. The bodies had been chewed up by the cataclysm and were mixed up with pieces of trees, ice, rocks etc. All was jumbled together in what became known as muck beds.

      The only difference with this and the European Ice Age flood was that the former occurred more recently – so we have a lot more evidence. The flood that impacted Greece probably occurred ~50,000 years BP so much less evidence remains. Time is the great leveler.

      Nice to chat!
      Mark

  13. Loxie Lou Davie says:

    Have just discovered Billy Carson’s “Compendium of The Emerald Tablets”. In it Thoth describes how the balance of the Earth was purposely changed so that the Atlantis civilization was drowned. Then Roger Spurr, of Mudfossil Univ. shows how The Eye of Africa was a part of Atlantis that slid into the ocean!

    1. Alexandros says:

      Hi Loxie,
      I have heard of the Emerald Tablets of course, but I was never able to locate a credible source. This book has great reviews and I will check it out since this topic is so interesting. Thanks!

  14. hayden says:

    Hello,
    do you know much about this subject….
    Why are the walls vitrified and expanded in the King’s chamber of the Great Pyramid at Giza?
    https://www.quora.com/Why-are-the-walls-vitrified-and-expanded-in-the-Kings-chamber-of-the-Great-Pyramid-at-Giza

    Is there any truth in this Kings Chamber..
    Just doing research.

    1. Alexandros says:

      Hi Hayden,
      Not having been inside the King’s chamber I would be lying if I said I knew. However, even if I had been there, I do not think I would be in a position to tell if the walls have been vitrified. The most conservative assumption on my side, assuming it actually is vitrification, would be that they set – for some reason – a fire in there. I believe fire can produce a temperature high enough for such an effect.

  15. Séamus+Casey says:

    Hey Alexandros and Cosmic Cabal: I’m so glad Graham set up his website so a ‘forum’ like this can occur during our Time in the Masked Apocalypse.

    Keep up the Search, fellow speculators, and know there are plenty more wags like me out there who also find your research worthy of a gander, as looking behind us in the rearview mirror helps propel us forward, safely(w/a few speed bumps, perhaps) into the next Golden Age.

    Don’t be surprised if it comes to your neighborhood in this lifetime. It was one of my demands for incarnating into this current era, lol.

    And next time I’m asked to go to a planet to help cheer up the denizens, I will look at the small print, and not just the pretty pictures. And one further bit of advice from a fellow traveler: Don’t Curb Your Enthusiasm!

    Slainté, Sonas, Solas agus Gra!
    That’s the Irish for Health, Happiness, Light and Love. And just now Horatio, as I call my Higher Self, suggested I add the word Eagna or Wisdom to this, my standard ‘blessing’, as knowledge itself cannot blossom without it.

    And don’t stop your search when you come upon a wall or blockage, but may you also, when appropriate, do what a 10th c. Mayo Scribe in the Kingdom of Connacht, Ireland ascribed to my Casey ancestors, “…who always go beyond every road before them.”

  16. Mark says:

    Hate to be all when will this be on audible, but I don’t have much time that i actually read hard copy books. but love to have them read to me while i drive around doing my job. So when is this coming to Audable? Either read by the author Please or Graham Hancock if he would lol Love that mans voice!

    1. Alexandros says:

      That would be great Mark, Graham reading my book… I wish! I am afraid my own voice is dreadful, so I cannot really tell if/when it will come on Audible. I am looking into it but sadly cannot promise anything.

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