Ricardo Liberato CC BY-SA 2.0

The Giza Pyramid Complex is undoubtedly an engineering marvel and work of amazing accuracy, but recently I had cause to wonder if the Great Pyramid is more exacting than previously thought. I wondered if the variations from perfect accuracy were details akin to keys designed by cryptographers that have been intentionally left ‘in the noise’.

Could these ‘keys’ be information that we should focus upon in the hope of gaining a deeper understanding of the pyramid builders?

I have been intrigued by the ideas of Graham Hancock for some time now, and recently saw one of his early lectures on YouTube. In it, he describes the ratio relationships of the Great Pyramid to the Northern Hemisphere as 1:2160 (or one precessional month) x 20, and its orientation to true north as being exact to within 3/60th of a degree. It was then that I thought 3/60th is the same as 1/20th and wondered if this 1/20th of a degree turn from perfect orientation could be intentional and connected to the additional 20 factoring in relation to the Earth’s size.

Background infoi

First, let’s refresh our memories with some details:

● The precession of the equinoxes is the motion of the equinoxes along the ecliptic (the plane of Earth’s orbit) caused by the cyclic precession of Earth’s axis of rotation. This motion is a cyclic ‘wobbling’ that makes the stars appear to shift in a systematic way through each of the 12 zodiacal signs. One precessional year is approximately 25,920 solar years.

● The length of each sign varies, but if we divide the precessional year of 25,920 by the 12 signs or months we get 2160 years per sign, or 2160 years per precessional month.

● 25,920 divided by 360 degrees of a circle gives 72, or a single degree of precession. (Also, 360 divided by 72 = 5, therefore 25,920 = 5 x 722.)

● The Great Pyramid’s height is 146.729 metres (0.146729km) and its perimeter is 921.459 metres (0.921459km).

● The Earth’s polar radius is 6,356.781 kilometres and its equatorial circumference is 40,076.608 kilometres.

Pyramid: Earth ratio

The Earth’s polar radius divided by 43,200 (or 2160 x 20) equals 147.147 metres, only 418mm (or 16 ½ inches) larger than that of the Great Pyramid; the Earth’s equatorial circumference divided by 43,200 equals 927.699 metres, only 6.24 metres (or 20 ½ feet) larger than the pyramid’s perimeter.

Let’s forgive these small distance variations (see Appendix A & C) for the moment, and formulate them by multiplying both sides of the conventional formulas by 1/20th:

the Great Pyramid’s height


one precessional month


the Earth’s polar radius


the fraction of a degree that the Great Pyramid is misaligned









the Great Pyramid’s perimeter


one precessional month


the Earth’s equatorial circumference


the fraction of a degree that the Great Pyramid is misaligned








On a side note, I wonder if constructing formulas with 1/20th on one side, rather than 20 on the other, might reflect a different sort of proclivity in the designers. That is, a more balanced view of formulas, rather than the typical method today, which might be said to favour elegance over balance. I wonder if the builders would have written Einstein’s E=MC2 as E/C=MC? (see Appendix B.)

Typically, those studying the Great Pyramid disregard this 1/20th of 1/360th of a circle from perfect orientation; certainly, getting such an awesome structure that close to perfect alignment is impressive enough. Many may also suggest that movements of the Earth since its construction could account for this detail.


Another problem to consider is the question of whether the builders divided a circle into 360 degrees, as we do today. (If they divided circles differently, the 1/20th figure would be irrelevant.) In Fingerprints of the Gods, Hancock suggests they did:

The proof of this lay in the creation of a symbolic official ‘country’ exactly seven terrestrial degrees in length, and in admirably geodetic location and orientation to the cardinal points of the Great Pyramid.

I imagine that 360 is a likely way to divide a circle, considering it very nearly equates to the number of days in a solar year.

Also, if we consider that 72 implies 360, as both multiplied give us the precessional year, 25,920, Egyptian mythology contains further reinforcement. In the Osiris myth, Set is able to kill his brother, Osiris, with the aid of 72 conspirators; this is very likely a precessional reference to 1 degree of a 360° whole.ii

Prior to finding these justifications for there being 360 degrees in an Egyptian circle, I wondered if the Great Pyramid could represent this number, and quickly and in quite an unorthodox way I found that it could. If we consider the Great Pyramid to be a reflection or interpretation of the Earth, as described above, then it highlights the poles. And if we draw an arc from the North Pole to the latitude of Giza at 29° 58′ 51″ N, that arc represents nearly 1/6th of the Earth’s circumference. If we do the same from the South Pole, this arc represents 1/3rd of the Earth’s circumference.

If we now multiply these fractions and the previous 1/20th:












or 1 degree of a circle

This method uses obvious self-referencing, or what some might consider self-reinforcement; still, others might think this is just a coincidence. However, considering the massive engineering skill brought to bear, coincidence seems unlikely. Also, since these three fractions are all related to circles and might be the only readable fractions on the Great Pyramid, I think it’s not too ‘long a bow’ to draw them together (see Appendix D).

Which way?

Then I wondered in which direction this turn from perfect orientation is. This detail was hard to find, but in a Robert Bauval video (though not verbally articulated) this screengrab shows it to be counter-clockwise (note the red lines).

I wondered – considering that the Sphinx gazes east and that the Great Pyramid site is arguably linked to the rising Sun – if the direction of variation was intentionally linked with the Sun. Since the variation from accuracy is counter-clockwise, it is the south side of the pyramid that is turned towards the rising Sun. Being in the Northern Hemisphere, and given the even chance of the north or the south sides being turned towards the east, it is the more sun-exposed face that is turned towards the rising Sun. The Great Pyramid is arguably in the correct direction relative to the Sun to imply intentionality.

This is, of course, a 50/50 shot and hardly confirmation of my theory, but intriguing nonetheless.

Latitudinal variation

Another intriguing aspect of the Great Pyramid is its latitude at 29° 58′ 51″ N. This position is conspicuously close to 30°N or to 1/6th of the Earth’s circumference when measured from the North Pole (as previously used to generate 360°). (See Appendix C.)

The variation from 30° is 0° 1′ 09″; or, as a decimal it’s 0.0191; and as a fraction, 1/52.1739; very close to 1/52nd of 1/360th of the Earth’s circumference. Initially, I thought this was a nice but unimportant nearly-round fraction/number, but while researching other details, I found that 52° is the median angle given for the incline of the faces of the Great Pyramid +/-2°.iii

Also of note is Robert Bauval’s statement that, ‘the angle of upper culmination of the pole of the elliptic has varied +/-2 from 52° depending where you stood in the desert region from Abu Ruwash to El Amarna.’ This means that at Spring Equinox, the pole of the elliptic reaches its highest inclination above the horizon, averaging 52° in the Egyptian area. The pole of the elliptic is in Draco, otherwise known as ‘the Great Mooring-post’ of the ‘Imperishable Stars’ in their precessional cycle.iv The fact that the pyramid slope points to the highest point that this post or pole reaches again appears to reflect an understanding of precession. Might the variation from 30°N latitude of 1/52nd of a degree do the same?

Which way?

The location could be explained in other ways; by Earth’s movements, topographical issues, or simply ways of measuring relevant details, including the oblate shape of the Earth. So I wondered again what the Sun might suggest, and clearly as the Great Pyramid is 1/52th of a degree closer to the equator than a neater 30°N, it might be seen to be reaching towards the Sun. Therefore, this variation might also be considered to be in the correct direction to imply intentionality.

Longitude of Giza

The longitude of Giza (31.208°E) as measured from the arbitrary prime meridian at Greenwich would not seem to be deserving of such considerations. However, we must wonder whether the builders considered Giza to be the then-prime meridian. With its connection of Earth to sky, and the Great Sphinx welcoming the day, it seems the obvious place to start.

The ancient Inzalo ye Langa in South Africa sits at the same longitude as Giza and translates as ‘Birthplace of the Sun’.v


I began with a fairly left-field contention – that the small variation of the Great Pyramid of Giza from perfect alignment to the cardinal points might actually be intentional and part of the formula that transposes the Great Pyramid onto Earth. As I considered new details, each seemed to reinforce the last. The variations point to the rising Sun, as if the Great Pyramid is saying I meant this!

The Great Pyramid’s two variations from perfect accuracy have an intriguing relationship, whether intentional or not. The multiplicative inverse of the fraction of a degree that it is misaligned is 20 (IE 1/20 x X/1), and the multiplicative inverse of the fraction of a degree that it is closer to the equator than 30° latitude is 52 (IE 1/52 x X/1). Adding these two multiplicative inverses- 20 and 52 – results in 72, which is the number of years in one precessional degree, and the number of conspirators that aided Set in his plan to kill his brother Osiris. Whether all these correspondences are amazingly coincidental or not is unclear.

If all that I have suggested reflects a reality lost long ago, what does this mean for us now? Certainly, it will make it harder for anyone to suggest that the Great Pyramid is the work of Neolithic slaves. My hope is that serious effort will be brought to answer questions that have previously been hamstrung by conventional wisdom; that other disregarded details might actually offer information that could paint a more comprehensive picture of pyramid builder culture.

Appendix A: Scale variation

I should address another variation (touched on earlier); that of the height and perimeter shortcomings suggested by the Earth ratio formulas; 418mm (or 16 ½ inches) in height and 6.24 metres (or 20 ½ feet) around the perimeter of the Great Pyramid. Without doing an exacting survey of the blocks from top to bottom, I think it’s likely that casing and capstones could well account for these variations. Certainly, without knowing the exact original outer shape, a study of these variations would surely prove fruitless.

Appendix B: Vigesimal

On another side note, I had to wonder if 20 could be more important generally to the builders, i.e. could their numbering system have been base 20 or vigesimal? 20 seems to have close ties to their division of circles, and if I was right in my earlier conjecture about their possible proclivity for balance, might they have thought to include the digits of the human feet as well as the hands to define their numbering system? The Maya had a vigesimal system; might it have been a carry-over from builder culture?

Appendix C: Inconsistent measurements / full disclosure

Some would put the variation from perfect alignment of the Great Pyramid at 0° 2′ 29″ instead of 0° 3′ 0″, which would infer the fraction 1/24. This fraction would make similar integration in the Earth ratio formula infeasible. Similarly, the latitude given as a decimal 29.9792° N would give a fraction closer to 1/48. Not being a cartographer or surveyor I am reliant on the measurements of others.

Appendix D: The Eye of Horus

Much of what I have presented here has used fractions, all with a numerator of 1. This seemed to me a reasonable method to adopt, and assumes the multiplicative inverse to generate whole integers. Subsequently, I learnt about the use of the Eye of Horus and a similar method. Apparently, the eye was also a measurement system, built on progressively halved fractions, each with a numerator of 1.

The right side of the eye = 1/2 (sense relation: Smell), the pupil = 1/4 (Sight), the eyebrow = 1/8 (Thought), the left side of the eye = 1/16 (Hearing), the curved tail = 1/32 (Taste), the teardrop = 1/64 (Touch).vi


i Taken from Fingerprints of the Gods, and converted from imperial to metric.

ii The Osiris Legend and Precession: http://ancientegypt.hypermart.net/osirislegend/

iii Ronbert Bauval, ‘THE ANCHOR OF THE WORLD: Did the Pyramid Builders of the Old Kingdom use the Pole of the Ecliptic?’: http://robertbauval.co.uk/articles/articles/anchor.html

iv ibid.

v Michael Tellinger, ‘Decoding the Hidden Ruins of Southern Africa – Discovering the True Cradle of Humankind’: https://grahamhancock.com/tellingerm1/

7 thoughts on “On The Variation From Perfect Accuracy Of The Great Pyramid Of Giza”

  1. Kevin says:

    If the pyramids were the work of neolithic slaves then someone gave them a mighty good too to meticulously cut large stones. When I look at those images of the electrical type tool or beam device depicted in some stone stories I think of ionic accelerators or beam devices. Perhaps a variation on a recently described tool producing shock waves from ion bombardment of droplets here: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/11/171122103602.htm

  2. Kevin says:

    oops that was “tool”

  3. Chris says:

    I’ve just read Ralph Ellis’s ‘Thoth ~ Architect of the Universe’ Some interesting theory in there, never seen any references to this work anywhere just wondering why and if anyone else has read it and has any thoughts on it.

  4. Will says:

    You ask why 360 degrees and don’t mention the 3s 6s and 9s as raved about by Tesla as the key to the universe. Once reduced down in numerology 72 360 and 25920 all equal 9. The number which represents everything and nothing. Any multiplication of 9 resolves back to 9. Any division by halving such as 4.5, 2.25, 1.125, 0.5625 etc ad infinitum resolves to 9. Vortex maths etc. Not sure how it relates but mind bending nonetheless

  5. IM says:

    Greetings Ashliegh – would you mind getting in touch with me regarding your calculations please. Thank you. Kindest Regards.

  6. Doug says:

    I am a surveyor and i have issues with the term “true north”. There is geographical north(where lat and long lines meet), astronomical north, and magnetic north. All three “norths” vary slightly. So saying the pyramid is not perfectly aligned may not be perfectly accurate. They obviously knew a lot that we dont. Maybe our true north is off a little. But “off” of what? Lol

  7. Ben says:

    I think you should take a look at this if you haven’t already, may explain why the pyramids (and many other megaliths are the sizes they are) – really fascinating coupld of hours, well worth a watch. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xw9lTB0hTNU

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