Map of giant reports in North America. Created by Cee Hall.

Map of giant reports in North America. Created by Cee Hall.

Books by Jim Vieira and Hugh Newman

Giants on Record America's Hidden History, Secrets in the Mounds and the Smithsonian Files

Earth Grids

Jim and Hugh are speaking at various events and hosting book launches in November, including the Origins Conference in London on 7th, Glastonbury (UK) on 10th, CoSM in New York on 14th, Ashfield Massachusetts on 17th and Earthkeeper Conference on 21st-23rd in Arkansas. Full details can be found at

Giants on Record is published by Avalon Rising Publications (UK) and is available in hardback, paperback, Kindle and other ebook formats.
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The Iroquois, the Osage, the Tuscaroras, the Hurons, the Omahas, and many other North American Indians all speak of giant men who once lived and roamed in the territories of their forefathers. All over what is now the U.S. are traditions of these ancient giants.” 1

Did Giant humans roam Ancient America in the past? Did the Native American’s have a royal class of giant rulers entombed in massive burial mounds?


Selection of news accounts featured in the book.

The historical record certainly seems to support this reality. Over a two hundred year period, more than 1000 accounts of seven-foot and taller skeletons have been reported unearthed from ancient burial sites in North America. Newspaper accounts, town and county histories, letters, scientific journals, diaries, photos and Smithsonian ethnology reports have carefully documented this. These skeletons have been reported from coast to coast in burial chambers, stone crypts, caves, ancient battlefields and massive mounds. Strange anatomic anomalies such as double rows of teeth, jawbones so large as to be fit over the face of the finder, and elongated skulls, were documented in virtually every state. Smithsonian scientists identified at least 17 skeletons that stood at over seven feet in their annual reports, including one example that was 8 feet tall, and a skull with a 36-inch circumference (an average human skull has a circumference of about 20 inches). The Smithsonian Institution is mentioned dozens more times as the recipient of enormous skeletons from across the United States.

In late 2014, an article from a satirical website claimed that a Supreme Court ruling forced the Smithsonian Institution to admit to the historic destruction of giant skeletons. It was published not long after our Search for the Lost Giants TV show that aired on History Channel. The headline read: “Smithsonian Admits to Destruction of Thousands of Giant Human Skeletons in Early 1900s.” 2 The article was convincing, and this apparent exposé of the National Museum hit a chord with people. Right away, we were inundated with emails from people believing the story was real. In reality, if such a story were true, it would surely be front-page worldwide news. However, when an Internet post is mentioning a startling find and not verifying any of the professionals involved, or real organizations or institutions they belong to, one can quickly conclude that it is a misrepresentation of facts or an outright lie. Maybe someday, however, the Smithsonian will admit to the irony of this story.

The over-willingness to believe seems to be the culprit for such stories gaining life. This is the reality we have had to deal with when researching the strange case of the North American giants, as hoaxes and exaggerations were often reported as truth. This is further complicated by the lack of physical evidence, and the moral and ethical implications of investigating human remains. When the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) was passed in 1990, any remaining giant skeletons and bones were removed from public display and buried according to the traditions of individual tribes.

We often get asked: “where are the bones?” and we reply: “ask the Smithsonian and the Native Americans.”


Old postcard showing 7 ft. skeleton discovered at Serpent Mound, Ohio.

Even with these obstacles, we have done our best to chase down every account to the end and to be as impartial as possible. The book Giants on Record, is not trying to be a long scientific paper but rather an assemblage of data and documents that have been hidden in libraries and local historical societies, and quietly shunned by orthodox anthropology and archaeology for over a century. The following accounts are part of this forgotten legacy, which carry implications that may someday shake the foundations of American academia.


Most of the reports we have uncovered are from well-known newspapers such as The Washington Post and The New York Times, but we begin our analysis with this account from The Worthington Advance (November 18, 1897, pg.3) that describes the ethnological work of the Smithsonian Institution’s Division of Eastern Mounds, and quotes the Director of the Bureau of Ethnology at the time, John Wesley Powell. The image below accompanies the news report,

It is officially recorded that agents of the Bureau of Ethnology have explored more than 2,000 of these mounds. Among the objects found in them were pearls in great numbers and some of very large size… It is a matter of official record that in digging through a mound in Iowa the scientists found the skeleton of a giant, who, judging from actual measurement, must have stood seven feet six inches tall when alive. The bones crumbled to dust when exposed to the air. Around the neck was a collar of bear’s teeth and across the thighs were dozens of small copper beads, which may have once adorned a hunting skirt.”


Illustration of the discovery of a giant.

As part of the Search for the Lost Giants show, Jim and fellow researcher James Clary investigated the following account that had this heading:

An Ancient Ozark Giant Dug Up Near Steelville: Strange discovery made by a boy looking for arrowheads, gives this Missouri Town an absorbing mystery to ponder.”

Highlights of the lengthy report from The Steelville Ledger (June 11, 1933) are given:

“…he turned up the complete skeleton of an 8 foot giant. The grisly find was brought to Dr. R. C. Parker here and stretched out to its enormous length in a hallway of his office where it has since remained the most startling exhibit Steelville has ever had on public view… An appeal to Dr. Aleš Hrdlička, anthropologist of the National Museum in Washington and celebrated authority on primitive races is expected to help. Dr. Parker has written to him, offering to forward the skull or the whole skeleton, if necessary for scientific study.”

Jim and James Clary found the exact location where the 8-foot skeleton was removed, which was from along the north wall of a cave. They met with several relatives of Billy Harmon, who all professed to the legitimacy of the find. They also found where R. C. Parker’s office once was, and ran into an old timer, who was Dr. Parker’s patient in his youth.

While reading through the microfilm at the Steelville library, three reports of the find where uncovered, including the photo that shows Les Eaton, a 6-foot man laid out next to the 8-foot skeleton in Dr. Parkers office (see image below).


Photo of Les Eaton next to giant skeleton.

The Steelville Ledger also reported that the skeleton was packed up and shipped to the Smithsonian, never to be heard of again.


The San Diego giant was purchased by the Smithsonian for $500 ($14,000 in todays money) in 1895, although they later claimed it was a hoax.

The Smithsonian Institution is continually linked to giant skeletons, or at least the lack of them. Most of the reports end in something like this: “The bones were shipped to the Smithsonian Institution for further study.” This ongoing problem of the “missing bones” has become a matter of legend, as there are dozens of reports of the Smithsonian receiving artifacts and giant skeletons. Today, however, they deny their existence. We investigate this thoroughly in our book, and conclude that a cover-up may have been instigated in the late 1800s because it did not fit in with their new ideologies of ‘Manifest Destiny’ and ‘Evolution.’ Although the giants were sidelined in the early stages of scientific discovery, they were, thanks to earlier explorers of America, already in the written record.


As far back as the 1500s when the Spanish navigators were exploring the coast of the Americas, sightings of live giants were being recorded. Three captains of Spanish ships reported these taller-than-average native people on their expeditions to America, as well as Sir Francis Drake, Captain John Smith, a Smithsonian professor, and several other notable eyewitnesses.

In 1519, Spanish explorer Alonzo Álvarez de Pineda was mapping the coastline of the Gulf Coast, marking the various rivers, bays, landmarks, and potential ports, declaring that they belonged to the king of Spain. Not far from where the river empties into the Gulf of Mexico he “found a large town, and on both sides of its banks, for a distance of six leagues up its course, some forty native villages.”3 He also noted that other than giants, the tribes also had a race of tiny pygmies. Pineda described the tribes that settled near the Mississippi river as: “A race of giants, from ten to eleven palms in height and a race of pigmies only five or six palms high.” (Webster’s Dictionary defines a palm used as a unit of measurement to range from seven to ten inches, so the giants were at least 6 feet 7 inches to 8 feet tall).

On his return from Tampico to the Mississippi, Pineda unknowingly sailed right past a tribe of equally huge Texas Indians.3 A report on the Karankawas, John R. Swanton, of the Bureau of American Ethnology, describes the men as being:

…very tall and well formed…Head-flattening and tattooing were practiced to a considerable extent.”

However it was also recorded that they:

…do not eat men, but roast them only, on account of the cruelties first enacted against their ancestors by the Spanish.” 5

So that’s OK then!

A few years later in 1523, as the Spanish fleet discovered, dominated, and overran the Caribbean Islands, a strange report came forth via historian Peter Martyr who assisted at the Council of the Indies. The account was originally shared by a native who was Christianized and taken to Spain:

The report ran that the natives were white and their king and queen giants, whose bones, while babies, had been softened with an ointment of strange herbs, then kneaded and stretched like wax by masters of the art, leaving the poor objects of their magic half dead, until after repeated manipulations they finally attained their great size.” 6

In early 1521, Francisco Gordillo and Pedro de Quejo undertook a secret voyage from Spain. They sailed over to America and along the Carolina coast to capture Native American slaves, and to scout out potential locations for new Spanish colonies. They managed to capture seventy members of the Chicora tribe to bring back to their homeland:

The chiefs of the province of Chicora, a portion of what is now South Carolina, were famous for their height, which was supposed to prove their royal blood.” 7

While Gordillo and Quejo treated the enigmatic Chicora Indians with treachery, their relationships with the Duhare peoples were much more gentlemanly. This was probably because the inhabitants of Duhare were described as looking European, with red or brown hair, tanned skin and gray eyes. Strangely, for this part of the world, the men had full beards and towered over the Spanish. They did not appear to be Native American. He visited with many of the Native American tribes in the area and recorded their customs, rituals and ways of living. The report on the Duhare stated:

Ayllon says the natives are white men, and his testimony is confirmed by Francisco Chicorana. Their hair is brown and hangs to their heels. They are governed by a king of gigantic size, called Datha, whose wife is as large as himself. They have five children. In place of horses, the king is carried on the shoulders of strong young men, who run with him to the different places he wishes to visit.” 8

The Spanish describe Datha as being the largest man they had ever seen. He had a wife as tall as him. He wore brightly colored paint or tattoos on his skin that distinguished him from the commoners.

This was all happening at the same time that the Patagonian giants (pictured below with Dr. Frederick A. Cook in 1898) were being witnessed on the southern tip of South America. For “Giants” became fashionable in the 1500s. In the summer of 1579, just north of San Francisco, Sir Francis Drake recounted his witnessing of living giants in his diary. In 1602, the California Channel Islands were ‘discovered’ by the Spanish, an area that has become a mecca for giantologists. Over 3,000 skeletons were discovered on the islands in the early 1900s, some being between 8 and 9 feet tall. Numerous mysterious reports of skulls containing ‘double rows of teeth’ were also reported on the neighboring islands.


Dr. Cook with two Patagonian giants standing at around 7 ft. tall.

Double Rows of Teeth


Reconstruction of skull showing double rows of teeth

Hundreds of skeletal exhumation reports across the United States have demonstrated some very unusual anatomical features. These include macrocephalic (large) skulls, elongated craniums, enormous jaws that were fit over the face of the finders, and double rows of teeth. They come from official Smithsonian reports (with one account describing a third set of teeth), newspaper articles, and letters and journals from doctors and respected members of the local community. The ‘double row of teeth’ phenomenon is what we will briefly look at here, as it has been described in multiple accounts with evidence going as far back as 6,000 years, from the area of the Canadian Great Lakes. 9

This first account from the California Channel Islands is reported in The Scientific American (Volume 6, 1862. pg.227). The finds were dated to between 3,362-8,000 years old:10


The Indian skulls with double rows of teeth are said to have been found not only abundantly on San Clemente Island caves, but also often still on the neighboring Island of San Miguel, the San Bernardo or Juan Rodriguez of Cabrillo.”

Jim also uncovered further accounts from the opposite side of the country in New England. In The Town History of Deerfield, Mass (pg.78, 1895), Historian George Sheldon writes:

At the foot of Bars Long Hill, just where the meadow fence crossed the road, and the bars were placed that gave the village its name, many skeletons were exposed while plowing down a bank, and weapons and implements were found in abundance. One of these skeletons was described to me by Henry Mather who saw it, as being of monstrous size—‘the head as big as a peck basket, with double teeth all round.’ The skeleton was examined by Dr. Stephen W. Williams who said the owner must have been nearly eight feet high.”

The Story of Martha’s Vineyard, by Charles Gilbert Hine (pg. 136, 1908):

Some 15 years ago the skeleton of an Indian Giant in almost perfect preservation was dug up in the same locality (Cedar Tree Neck), the bones indicated a man easily six feet and a half possibly seven feet high. An unusual feature was a complete double row of teeth on both the upper and lower jaws.”

History of the Town of Rockingham, Vermont, by Lyman Simpson Hayes (pg. 338, 1907):

When the earth was removed from the top of the ledges east of the falls, a remarkable human skeleton, unmistakably that of an Indian, was found. Those who saw it tell the writer the jaw bone was of such size that a large man could easily slip it over his face and the teeth, which were all double, were perfect.”

History of the Town of Middleboro, Massachusetts, by Thomas Weston (pg. 400, 1906):

A few years ago when the highway was straightened and repaired, remains were found. When his skeleton was measured by Dr. Morrill Robinson and others, it was found that the thigh bone was four inches longer than that bone in an ordinary man, and that he had a double row of teeth in each jaw. His height must have been at least seven feet and eight inches.”


Map of New England states with tribal territories, circa 1600.

After scrutinizing the possibilities, the ‘double row of teeth’ phenomenon could be explained by there being either: 1) Literally two sets of teeth (double); 2) molars and premolars in the front of the mouth resembling ‘double’ teeth—an unusual anomaly in itself; 3) supernumerary teeth that are just occasional ‘extra’ teeth in the mouth, that could be seen as double sets of teeth, but not ‘full sets’; 4) teeth so worn down that only two roots exist that resemble two separate teeth. Further investigation clearly needs to be carried out before we can understand the origins of these unusual traits. Some accounts could be due to the parlance of the time, but it is notable that the historical record so frequently links the ‘double row of teeth’ phenomenon with giant skeletons.

Origins of the Tall Ones

The origins of the North American giants are shrouded in mystery, but we know that they were involved in the sophisticated Mound Building cultures of the Mid-West, as the royal tombs are often found within them. There are legends that place them in the era of the Megafauna (mammoths, mastodons, sabre-tooth tiger etc.) at around 13,000 years ago. There are dozens of oral histories that revere them as gods, and sometimes as fearsome cannibalistic warriors. Great wars took place between these titans, and archaeologists have uncovered prehistoric battlefields containing oversized bones and weapons. They often possessed double rows of teeth and other anatomic anomalies; so who really were these people, and where did they come from?

This is the big question.

The origins of the North American giants are hotly debated by independent researchers, academics and skeptics, but there is now enough data to begin serious research into the subject. We cover the theories of their origins in our book, ranging from the Denisovans of Siberia to the Nephilim of the Bible Lands. There is also compelling evidence that the giants may have originated from the Americas.11 Hundreds of creation myths and oral histories attest to this, and the giants are in stories from remote times. One example can be found in the writings of Tuscarora Indian David Cusick in his book Six Nations (1825). He states that when the Great Spirit made the people, some of them became giants. Ross Hamilton commented on this:

It seems that the tall people at least shared the status of being the first inhabitants of Indian memory, and that the smaller-in-stature folk lived among or in proximity to them from remotely ancient times.” 12

Most people do not believe in giants, however, but rather scoff at the idea, regarding it as folklore that has been mixed up and sensationalized by newspaper journalists. We disagree, as there is ample evidence within Native American mythology, genetic data, ethnological studies, scientific reports, early excavation records, first-hand accounts, and discoveries featured in newspapers and Town History books. Now is the time for academia to take a look at this data, and to expose what really happened at the Smithsonian; for an important chapter in human history is on the verge of being lost forever.

  1. Wilkins, Fate Magazine, January, 1952
  3. Woodbury Lowery. The Spanish Settlements, New York: Russell & Russell. 1959, p.149.
  4. Danial Garrison Brinton. Notes on the Floridian Peninsula, 1859.
  5. ibid
  6. Pietro Martire d’ Anghiera. 1457-1526; MacNutt, Francis Augustus, 1863-1927. De orbe novo, the eight Decades of Peter Martyr d’Anghera; New York, London, G.P. Putnam’s Sons.
  7. Frederick Webb Hodge. ed. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, Part 1, 1971 pp. 657-658.
  8. Daniel Garrison Brinton, ed. Library of Aboriginal American Literature, 1884
  9. Wright, J. V. A History of the Native People of Canada: 10,000-1,000 BC. Gatineau, Quebec: Canadian Museum of Civilization, 1995. p.257, and
  12. Ross Hamilton. A Tradition of Giants: The Elite Social Hierarchy of American Prehistory. 2007.

6 thoughts on “Giants on Record: America’s Hidden History, Secrets in the Mounds and the Smithsonian Files”

  1. C. Lenz says:

    One of the sources at the end of the artikle, 2. Refers to a fake/satire news site worldnewsdaily report… otherwise awesome work on the book! 😉 cheers!

    1. Hugh Newman says:

      Yes, we know. In the above article we point this article out as being satirical, not as being a true story!

  2. Congratulations on your work, my article exploring time, history and giants may be of interest….

  3. Daniel Moore says:

    Recently finished reading Richard Dewhurst’s book “The Ancient Giants Who Ruled North America”. I look forward to reading yours. I incline toward the Nephilim origin, but there’s much room for intelligent speculation. I wish DNA studies could be done on giant remains. Michael Cremo told me he would be happy to believe in the giants, but he needs to see remains first-hand. Thank you for your work.

  4. Yvonne Whiteman says:

    Although I still have a few chapters to go, I’m so excited by the thorough research in your book (which I rushed to buy) that I must congratulate you.

    My own article is two below yours on this website. Although I have only referred to giants a couple of times in own piece, the Kolbrin refers to them several times:

    “God passed through the spaces of the Heavens above with a mighty roar and a loud trumpeting. Then came the grim dead silence and black red lit twilight of doom. Great fires and smoke rose up from the ground and men gasped for air. The land was rent asunder and swept clean by a mighty deluge of waters. A hole opened up in the middle of the land, the waters entered and it sank beneath the seas. The mountains of the East and West were split apart and stood up in the midst of the waters which raged about. The Northland tilted and turned over on its side. Then again the tumult and clamour ceased and all was silent. In the quiet stillness madness broke out among men, frenzy and shouting filled the air. They fell upon one another in senseless wanton bloodshed; neither did they spare woman or child, for they knew not what they did. They ran unseeing, dashing themselves to destruction. They fled to caves and were buried and, taking refuge in trees, they were hung. There was rape, murder and violence of every kind. The deluge of waters swept back and the land was purged clean. Rain beat down unceasingly and there were great winds. The surging waters overwhelmed the land and man, his flocks and his gardens and all his works ceased to exist. Some of the people were saved upon the mountainsides and upon the flotsam, but they were scattered far apart over the face of the Earth. They fought for survival in the lands of uncouth people. Amid coldness they survived in caves and sheltered places. The Land of the Little People and the Land of Giants, the Land of the Neckless Ones and the Land of Marshes and Mists, the Lands of the East and West were all inundated. The Mountain Land and the Lands of the South, where there is gold and great beasts, were not covered by the waters.”

    “We sailed with a large company towards the West and had nothing to fear, except the whirlpool, for the Red Men [Phoenicians] with us knew the way of the waters. For long days we saw only the sea, and the landsighting birds all came back.We went out through the mouth of the sea into the sea of the Great River. Past the lands of white copper to the Place of Painted Men [Picts?], where we drew up the ships and staked them. Among the fighting men were some from Sparsia [Sparta?] whose leader was Korin, called the axeman, but whom we named ‘the cunning one’. These went out into the forests to hunt and the king of that place sent men to take them, but they refused to go and there was a loud dispute. The bodyguard with the leader of the Painted Men were bowmen and one shot an arrow at Korin. He slewed aside behind his shield and the arrow turned into the throat of a Painted Man who held a sword against him. This started a great fight between forest and sea, and though surrounded by many enemies Korin fought through them. The battle was his because he went forward through the forest and attacked the houses of the Painted Men. The ships were divided and those who wished to set up the eagle and serpent went to the Harbour of Giants in Belharia. The same giants are builders of great temples and they are six cubits tall. The ship with Korin stayed with us and he hunted them out of their caves and slew them all, save one giantess. She came to us, bound as a surety for the life of the wife of Albanik. We came to a bay on one side of which was a forest and on the other a plain where herds grazed. For the men of that place it was the time of the feast of fires and they held games upon the shore and ran races in cleared land behind. At this time they would not fight, so we met them in peace. They wore garments woven in two parts and belted with hide. They had caps of skin or leather, and the tunic which hung about them was darkly coloured in blue, green and brown. They enclosed their legs and feet in dressed skins bound in front with throngs. They had many ornaments of copper, but little gold or silver, though their armbands and brooches shone like silver. They had the art of making copper like silver or gold. These people hold a great feast before the beginning of the heat, when their god Mago appears. Inside the god were the spirits of men whom the god had eaten, and their voices could be heard calling for deliverance from darkness. Because of the feast these people demanded the giantess, and she was given over to them for the days of feasting. We did not know the ways of these people and when we saw they wished us to drink blood, we drew apart from them. The headman sent a messenger to us and Korin and the giantess wrestled together, but the giantess was the stronger, so Korin lured her towards the cliff edge. Korin taunted her and laughed at her clumsiness, and then at the break of the cliff he tricked her, so that she rushed forward. As she passed beside him he turned behind her and pushed, so that she fell over the cliff edge on to a large black rock below. Her back was broken. The same black rock was later split and taken up to be worshipped. In the place to which we came the deathless stars ride high. The adze rests on the morning and the watchman at the gate of the sky sits at the eastern tiller in the evening. The falcon is rarely seen clearly. This is the Land of Dada [Dodonesse/Totnes?].”

    “The same lord Torka is he whose father, now in port, took his vessel south of Pontas from Ofir towards the sunsetting, past Kindia to the land of Bemer. He returned when the waters had risen four times and fallen thrice, and sorrow gave way to rejoicing. To the rim of the great circle he went, to where the fires of the Netherworld were revealed and men were the brothers of dwarfs. He it was who brought back the great hairy giant who rests with Thosis.”

    “None knows in truth the Old Motherland or where it was, there are tales, but they disagree. The Nine Bows say it was Southward, the learned priests are not united in thought, some say towards the West where the sun now sets, while others say towards the East where the sun rises. Southward are great mountains and forest, monsters and men covered with hair. Here winds are formed within the Earth and issue forth from a black cavern. It is a place of chaos where water, soil and air are not separate, the Old Motherland could not have been there. To the left hand side there is a great wilderness, the land of Amua, the Old Motherland could not have given birth to such as these. To the right hand is the wide plain of man-eaters, which stretches out to the far reaches of Old Kahemu, this was barren even in the oldest times. To the North of the wilderness the land is occupied by deformed men and dwarfs. Where amid this could have been the fertile pastures and ploughlands well watered from the sky river, where men lived in peaceful content? The Old Motherland was never there, nor, as some say, in the waters beyond, which boil at the extremity. Beyond the wide river there once was a land graced with all riches needful to men, crowned by many walled Meru, but it was not the land of our birth. Northward is the home of the cool breeze, but beyond the lands which skirt the slat water are the one eyed peoples and the giants with white hair and eyes. Here the rocks and stones are of the whitest marble and the trees bear white fruit, thus in the whiteness the eyes of men are blinded in their youth, for even the grass grows white. Before this is the land of Hosugia, a place unproductive and barren, where fruit never appears on the trees and crops will not ripen. How could the Old Motherland lie in this direction?”

    “In the early days Egypt was bounded in the West by the green bitter waters. There lay the land of Nilar, where men learned to bend the dead bodies, so that the earthbound spirits of departed ones should not wander to molest them. Out here was the city of Merow from whence came the mighty men who smote the giants in the days of yore. Northward lay the entrance to the Kingdom of Darkness Under the Earth. The portal lies behind a veil of airixed with water, it is covered with a mantle of cloudy thickness, which eyes can scarce see through. The floor is of water, not too deep that the dismal stoney bottom cannot be seen, hence men require a boat. Both sides of the entrance are flanked with giant blocks of stone from which rise huge pillars set one against the other, so that there is no space between them. The whole is overset with an immense rock greater than any cut by mortal hands, and it is shaped like the rump of a man. It is in a cold region of long darkness, where the Calf of God shows his displeasure. Now to the West of Egypt all is barren and sandy, except to the North, which is the habitation of wild men who dwell in holes within the ground.”

    “Wise, hoaryheaded men have treasured these tales belonging to our first great race, the wise and noble, having its birthplace in great forest-girt mountains bespangled with green, skypointing pinefingers. These are tales of times before men were men, when the bigbellied murkymother ruled the world-covering
    Netherfolk, sharing the land with giant Endlings.”

    It is looking more and more as though ‘the land of the giants’ might have been the American continent in prehistoric times.

    I am extremely interested in the accounts you reproduce of horned skulls and the skeleton with claw-like protuberances on the ends of its toes. Do let me know if you come across any other references to animal-like bony growths on skeletons.

  5. Tanis Schertzinger says:

    Where is the conference in Arkansas on Nov. 21-23 ??? I am interested in attending.

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