Authors’ website: nazcasolution.com

Part I: The Nazca Great Circle Map Hypothesis

The lines and geoglyphs carved into the Nazca plateau represent a map of the Earth. The map is a Great Circle Map: a gnomonic projection with the center of the Earth as its cartographic view point. Each line on the Nazca Plateau represents a great circle of navigation centered at the center of the Earth and encircling the entire planet.

The majority of the lines on the Nazca Plateau radiate from five loci of origin called radial centers. The five radial centers are labeled C, A, T, G and R on the complete blueprint of the Nazca Map-Plateau as presented in Plate-1. Each radial center represents a specific geographic location on the surface of the Earth. The unicursal geoglyphs drawn amidst the straight lines function as eco-geographical markers—each figure representing a different geographic region of Earth. Using the geoglyphs as guides one can orient the Nazca map and infer the precise geographic locations of the radial centers on Earth. Once the exact radial center locations are known, the lines of the 2-Dimensional map-plateau can be projected as 3-dimensional great circles that circumscribe Earth.

Plate-1

To orient or key the Nazca map one begins with the geoglyph that depicts two llamas (Figure-1). The figure on the right of the llamas, often referred to as their “pen” or “corral”, will be addressed in a later work. The llamas suggests a clear and particular association with South America, specifically with the Andean region where the map itself is found. Therefore the llamas geoglyph is cartographically assigned as representing the Nazca-Andean region of Earth.

Figure-1

Figure-2

Picture-1 (PD0)

The nearest geoglyph eastward of the llamas is that of a spider-monkey seen in Picture-1 and Figure-2. The monkey appears hanging inverted from a jagged line formation that resembles a mountain chain, suggestive of the Andes mountains. This is geographically reasonable—as one moves eastward from Nazca over the Andes mountains one drops into the western Amazon Basin, where spider-monkeys abound. The spider-monkey glyph is therefore cartographically assigned to the southwestern region of the Amazon Basin.

Northward from the spider-monkey one finds the geoglyph called the grampus, or dolphin (Figure-3). The dolphin figure borders the southwestern edge of a large quadrangular polygon, labeled “Amazon River” on Plate-2.

Plate-2

Figure-3

One tends to associate dolphins with oceans, yet before one reaches the Caribbean Sea to the north of the Amazon, one encounters a particular and anomalous species of dolphin: the Amazon River Dolphin. These fresh water dolphins inhabit the western headwaters of the Amazon River.

Considered thus, the Amazon River Dolphin figure becomes a highly specific identifier for the Amazon River — the largest river of Earth—allowing one to infer that the large rectangular polygon adjacent to the river dolphin is a cartographic representation of the Amazon River itself. From this inference one may further infer that: all polygonal and triangular geometric shapes on the Nazca map are cartographic representations of rivers and water ways. The shallow tapering of the Amazon River Trapezoid towards its western end—is suggestive of the easterly flow of the Amazon River current—leading to an additional hypothesis: water currents flow in the direction of widening of polygonal or triangular figures.

Eastward from the river dolphin, towards the eastern end of the Amazon River Polygon is the figure of a downward diving fish (Figure-4). The downward orientation of the fish is suggestive of the Amazon River waters “falling” into the Atlantic Ocean. We therefore cartographically assign this fish to the Amazon River Delta region.

Directly beneath the easternmost end of the Amazon River quadrangle is the radial center labeled “A on Plate-2. The mouth of the Amazon River occurs at the terrestrial Equator—providing a “natural” cartographic location that allows one to infer the geographic location of the first radial center. The Amazon Radial Center (A) is therefore assigned equatorial coordinates at the center of the largest island in the Amazon River Delta: 0 North, 50 West.

Figure-4

Towards the northwest of the Amazon River radial center is the geoglyph of a hummingbird (Figure-5). These birds are unique to the Americas and exist in abundant numbers and variety in the Northern Amazon and Central American region, as indicated by the figure’s relative position in relation to the Amazon River.

Figure-5

Southward from the Amazon River is the figure often misidentified as a dog (Figure-6). The rounded ears and its inverted “hanging” orientation are strongly suggestive of a Tamandua, a semi-arboreal mammal that is unique to South America, inhabiting a vast range of forests and savannas south of the Amazon River (Picture-2).

Figure-6

Picture-2 ‘Tamandua mexicana’ by Dick Culbert (CC BY 2.0)

To the southeast of the Amazon River polygon is the geoglyphic figure often called a condor (Figure-7). From a biological standpoint the figure lacks all bird of prey characteristics. The beak and legs are too long and thin, not short and robust like a condor’s, and it lacks the large wing span in relation to the tail. The bird represented is actually a Willet—a coastal bird that ranges the Atlantic coasts from southern Brazil to the coasts northward of Florida (Picture-3). When viewed from above, flying low along the shore, Willets look very much as depicted by the geoglyph drawn on the plateau. Willets are unique to the eastern shorelines of the Americas, indicating that eastward from this point is the Atlantic Ocean.

Figure-7

Picture-3 ‘Willet’ by Andy Reago & Chrissy McClarren (CC BY 2.0)

Adjacent to the northeast of the willet and spanning eastward is a large polygonal shape labeled “ATLANTIC” (Plate-3). Applying the hypothesis that polygons and triangles represent water-ways, the large polygon must represent a portion of the Atlantic Ocean—from the easternmost shore of South America to the western shores of the African continent. The sub-hypothesis that water currents flow in the direction of polygonal widening finds congruency—the Atlantic South Equatorial Current flows westward from the Bight of Africa towards South America’s easternmost shore—as indicated by the Atlantic polygon widening towards the west.

Plate-3

Further eastward on the map, beyond the Atlantic polygon is the geoglyph often referred to as a lizard (Figure-8, Plate-4). The long narrow snout is more representative of a crocodile and of the Bight of Africa.

Plate-4

Figure-8

Towards the south of the crocodile in Plate-4 is the figure commonly referred to as a tree, seen in (Figure-9). The figure is drawn at the eastern end of a long thin triangle. Trees are not the only natural phenomena with “branching” morphology. Following the sub-hypothesis that the triangles and trapezoids represent waterways, and the fact that the figure in question is found at the end of a long narrow triangle, suggests that there is a unique element south of the Congo region and at the end of a water way with an eastward inland flow, as indicated by the triangle broadening towards the East.

Picture-4

Figure-9

The unique element in question must be the anomalous Okavango River Delta (Picture-4). The Okavango River and its delta are geographic anomalies—the Okavango River the only major river on Earth that flows inland, away from the sea to empty into the African savanna. As the only major river on Earth with an inland river delta—its uniqueness provides a highly specific geographic location. Even in our present day, from a high vantage over modern day Botswana, the Okavango River Delta bears an uncanny likeness to the delta geoglyph.

Plate-5

South of the Okavango Delta numerous lines converge at the easternmost radial center of the Nazca map, labelled “C” on Plate-5. Further south the figure of a Right Whale (Figure-10) suggests the Southern Ocean. The location of the radial center is therefore somewhere south of the Okavango River Delta yet north of the Southern Ocean—at the southern end of the African Continent.

The African continent reaches its southernmost geographic extreme at “Cape Agulhas”, Portuguese for “Cape Needles”. The topography of the cape narrows southward into a specific and precise geographic location (Picture-5). The Cape Agulhas Radial Center (C) is therefore assigned the coordinates at southernmost point of the African continent: 34.839 South, 20.004 East.

Having identified the easternmost radial center at Cape Agulhas, we return westward to the radial center composed of only three lines to form a triangle, as shown in Plate-6. The triangle’s location south of the Andean llamas may suggest that the radial center in question is within the South American continent or near its western shoreline. Yet its apparent location on Plate-1 in relation the Amazon River suggests a location a considerable distance to the southwest—in the South Pacific Ocean. The reason for the cartographic ambiguity in the location of figures will be addressed in a later work. There is in fact a very famous and rather anomalous island in the South Pacific Ocean with triangular topography—the island of Rapa-Nui, commonly known as Easter Island as seen in Picture-5.

Plate-6

Picture-5

Easter Island is considered one of the most geographically isolated islands on Earth—having wide expanses of ocean between itself and other shores. It is also the location of the anomalous cyclopean stone monuments known as Moai. The Rapa-Nui Radial Center (R) is therefore assigned a location at the geometric center of Easter Island: 27.109 South, 109.366 West.

To the northwest of Easter Island is the map’s westernmost radial center, labelled “G” on Plate-1. There are no geoglyphic figures in this part of the map to give eco-geographic clues to identify the radial center. Its general cartographic location far to the northwest of Easter Island, suggests perhaps a location in the vicinity of the Hawaiian Archipelago, such as its highest point at the volcanic summit of Mauna Kea. This would be a reasonable proposition in keeping with the theme of the anomalous extreme—measured from its base at the bottom of the ocean, Mauna Kea is the tallest mountain and largest shield volcano on Earth. Before settling on this conclusion, cartography itself provides yet another clue to infer the identity of the westernmost radial center.

Plate-7

The extremely long line labelled “Antipodal Orient” in Plate-1 and Plate-7 connects the easternmost radial center at Cape Agulhas with the westernmost radial center in question. This line is categorically different from other lines—connecting the two distal non-adjacent radial centers—suggesting an elementary cartographic relationship between them. Their positions at opposite ends of the primary grid indicate that the radial centers are Geodesic Antipodes—representing locations on exact opposite sides of the Earth. The antipode to Cape Agulhas is a point on the Pacific Ocean north of the Hawaiian Islands. The westernmost radial center is therefore assigned the geographic coordinates at the Geodesic Antipode to Cape Agulhas (G): 34.839 North, 159.996 West.

The lines that connect adjacent radial centers are called primary lines. The primary lines form the primary grid of the map and are drawn as wider lines on Plate-1. The primary lines are named and labelled according to the radial centers they connect: G-R, R-A and C-A. The primary lines represent primary great circles that can be projected into virtual orbital imagery as shown in Image-1, Image-2 and Image-3.

Image-1 Map data © Google

 

Image-2 Map data © Google

This primary grid of great circles is the key anchoring element of the Nazca map. The lines of the primary grid represent primary great circles that transect the geographic locations of the radial centers. The angular alignments of these primary great circles are geographically determined by the radial centers they transect.

Image-3 Map data © Google

The numerous other lines that radiate from the radial centers are called secondary lines. The secondary lines represent secondary great circles that are angularly aligned in relation to the primary great circles of the primary grid.

The Antipodal Orient great circle transects antipodal radial centers and is therefore not locked into a determined alignment. The Antipodal Orient great circle, as its name implies, follows the Orient Rule—the Antipodal Orient great circle is aligned to East-West at Cape Agulhas. It is a property of great circles to mirror angular alignment at any antipodal point—therefore the angular alignment of the Antipodal Orient great circle is also due East-West at the antipode (G) to Cape Agulhas. Before projecting the antipodal orient great circle, or any other secondary great circles of the map, we draw attention to the last radial center—at the central and capital position on the map—the radial center labelled “T” on Plate-1 and Plate-8.

Plate-8

Its central position on the map, to the south west of the Amazon River, suggests the vicinity of the Nazca Plateau itself. Yet not far from Nazca is another unique and monumental terrestrial anomaly—Lake Titicaca. Lake Titicaca is the highest lake on Earth and its salty water a remnant of its oceanic origins. On the shores of this anomalous and extreme lake are the ruins of the most elevated ancient megalithic structures—the ruins of Tiwanaku, the cradle of Andean civilization. The ruins are of enormous megalithic proportions and of great uncertain age. The Tiwanaku Radial Center is therefore assigned the geographic coordinate location of the largest central monument at the site—the Akapana Pyramid: 16.558 South, 69.657 West.

Upon close inspection the Tiwanaku radial center is categorically different from the other radial centers on the map—none of its lines directly connect to any other radial center. Tiwanaku is central and disconnected from the primary grid, implicating it as the Capital of the Nazca Map. Yet this lack of connection to a second radial center leaves no reference to geographically anchor the angular alignment of its many radiating great circles. The situation is similar to that of the Antipodal Orient requiring the Rule of Orient. One must infer which line of the Tiwanaku lines represents the great circle aligned towards Orient—due East-West—at Tiwanaku.

Here we call attention to yet another anomalous line labelled “Tiwanaku Parallel” seen on Plate-1 and Plate-8. The Tiwanaku Parallel is the longest line on the Nazca map-plateau. The Tiwanaku Parallel nearly transects the central Tiwanaku radial center, yet truly transects the Amazon radial center. This extreme long line cannot represent only a great circle from the Amazon radial center—for it continues far beyond it across the entire map. Any line that transects a radial center and radiates on its opposite side represents one same and single great circle. The cartographic anomaly of transecting the Amazon radial center and traversing the entire map-plateau suggests a cartographic meaning. The Tiwanaku Parallel line runs in perfect cartographic parallel with a Tiwanaku line labelled “Tiwanaku Orient ” shown in Plate-8. This cartographic paralleling of lines indicates the Tiwanaku Orient as the line that follows the Rule of Orient and represents a great circle that geographically anchors the Tiwanaku radial center. The Tiwanaku Orient Line represents a great circle that is angularly aligned to Orient—East-West—at Tiwanaku. All secondary great circles that radiate from Tiwanaku are angularly aligned in relation to the Tiwanaku Orient great circle. Since the Tiwanaku Parallel has a double function as a cartographic guide and as a secondary great circle from the Amazon radial center, it is labelled “A-2” at the Amazon radial center.

Having determined the three primary and Tiwanaku Orient great circles, one is ready to project all the great circles of the Nazca map. The method of angular measurement of secondary lines and their projection into great circles is graphically demonstrated in Plate-9, showing line C-1 measured in relation to primary line C-A and projected as a great circle in Image-4. The secondary lines from the other radial centers are similarly measured and projected in relation to the primary great circles. The method for each radial center is graphically demonstrated in the Data section of this work as well as numerical tables providing the angular alignments of all the Nazca lines and corresponding great circles.

Image-4 Map data © Google

Plate-9

Before projecting the complete array of Nazca map lines into great circles we call attention to a pattern along the path of primary great circle R-A. The course of primary great circle R-A traverses the coast of Peru and nearly transects the Nazca Plateau itself. Further discernment reveals that along the path of great circle R-A are the ruins of many famous ancient monumental structures, shown in Image-5 to Image-7.

Image-5 Map data © Google

Image-6 Map data © Google

Image-7 Map data © Google

The virtual imagery shows that the Nazca Plateau, Machu Picchu, Sacsayhuaman, the Giza Plateau, Petra, Ur and Eridu, Persepolis, Mohenjo-Daro, Angkor-Wat, and other ancient sites of great renown are in close geographic alignment with the great circle as its circles back to Easter Island and its ancient monolithic Moai. In summary: A significant number of cradles of civilization and ancient sites of great renown are found along the course of primary great circle circle R-A.

This “CyclopeanGreat Circle—named thus after the gigantic scale of masonry and structural ruins found along its course—was first noticed by a man named Jim Alison. Alison had noticed the cyclopean and many other great circle alignments from the empirical evidence provided by the geographic locations of the sites themselves. Such great circle alignments of ancient sites had previously been ignored, as had their profound historical implications. Alison found that sites of import were located at equidistant intervals of geometric significance along the course of the cyclopean great circle. Other investigators such as Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock had previously noted equidistant longitude relationships between ancient sites of note, echoing Jim Alison’s findings. Jim Alison had strongly suspected that Nazca—itself a site in the Cyclopean Great Circle Alignment—represented a diagram of the great circles alignments. Jim Alison was not only correct, but was himself directly involved in the development of this present work, which owes much to his insight and collaboration.

The purpose behind the great circle alignments of the ancient sites and the Nazca map becomes clearer when the other phenomena under the great circles are discerned: Impact craters and volcanic calderas. These two “cataclysmic” categories of phenomena are also in great circle alignment with the great circles of the Nazca map. A fourth category of submerged monuments includes submerged archeological sites of recent discovery or rumor that are found suggestively near the courses of the great circles of the Nazca map. The complete site list of all ancient monuments, volcanoes and impact craters and their geographic coordinates are provided in the Tables section of this work.

We are now ready to project all the great circles of the map and all the ancient monuments, volcanoes and impact craters in virtual imagery. After their presentation all the great circle alignments that are to be scientific tested and analyzed in the next section of this work.

The great circles from each radial center are virtually projected in different colors for visual differentiation:

Primary great circles: red;

Tiwanaku great circles: white;

Cape Agulhas great circles: green;

Amazon great circles; yellow;

Geodetic Antipode great circles: orange.

Tiwanaku Orient great circle: dark grey

Antipodal Orient great circle: black.

Easter Island great circle(single): purple.

The different categories of sites are also projected in different colors for visual differentiation:

Monuments: black

Volcanoes: gold

Impact craters: red

submerged monuments: black / aquamarine center

The virtual orbital imagery in Image-8 to Image-18 shows all the great circles of the Nazca Great Circle Map and the ancient monuments, major volcanoes and impact craters in its global construct, projected on the virtual Earth.

Image-8 Map data © Google

Image-9 Map data © Google

Image-10 Map data © Google

Image-11 Map data © Google

Image-12 Map data © Google

Image-13 Map data © Google

Image-14 Map data © Google

Image-15 Map data © Google

Image-16 Map data © Google

Image-17 Map data © Google

Image-18 Map data © Google

 


Part II: The Random Simulation Experiment – A Statistical Analysis of The Nazca Great Circle Map-Plateau

To prove that the Nazca Lines represent a great circle map that draws attention to volcanoes, impact craters and ancient monuments, one must design a unique scientific experiment. The goal of the experiment is to test for geographic correlation between the phenomena and the great circles proposed by the Nazca Great Circle Map Hypothesis. To do this one must gauge the correlation between the phenomena and the Nazca great circles and compare it to the correlation between the same phenomena and “random” great circles. By comparing the great circles alignments of the Nazca map with the great circle alignments that result from a randomized version of the map, one can scientifically test the validity of the Nazca Map Hypothesis.

In statistical terminology the random version of the Nazca Map Hypothesis is called the “Null Hypothesis”, and the Nazca Map Hypothesis is called the “Alternative Hypothesis“. The Null hypothesis is the anti-hypothesis that assumes that the Nazca Map Hypothesis is not true. The Null Hypothesis states: “There is no relationship between the sites and the great circles proposed by the Nazca Map Hypothesis. The great circle alignments observed are as likely to occur by random great circle patterns”.

In order for the Nazca Map Hypothesis to be accepted as “true”, the Null Hypothesis must be rejected as “false”. The Null Hypothesis experiment can be said to be the experiment that shows the results of random chance. If the Null Hypothesis experiment results show that the great circle alignments proposed by the Nazca Map Hypothesis are statistically “unlikely” to result from random chance, then Nazca Map Hypothesis must be accepted as true.

Such an experiment that can compare random great circle patterns with those proposed by the Nazca Map Hypothesis can be achieved with a computer program, or computer simulation. The program simulates a virtual Earth with its ancient monuments, volcanoes and impact craters at their exact latitude and longitude locations. The simulation then generates radial centers at random locations on the virtual Earth, with great circles that radiate from them at random angles, or headings.

The Random Simulation program generates a perfectly randomized version of the Nazca Map Hypothesis that can be repeated like any testable and verifiable scientific experiment. The great circle alignments of the random simulation can then be compared with the great circle alignments of the Nazca Map Hypothesis to answer the following question: What is the probability that 79 “randomly” aligned great circles will geographically correlate with as many phenomena as those that result from the Nazca Map Hypothesis?

Before moving on to the Random Simulation experiment some important concepts and terms must be elaborated and defined.

GREAT CIRCLE BANDWIDTH AND SITE DISTRIBUTION

A great circle alignment is the geographic correlation between specific sites, or locations, and the course of a great circle on the spherical surface of Earth. This geographic correlation is measured and analyzed in reference to the distance of the sites in question to the path of the great circle. If one imagines each great circle as an infinitely thin geometric line encircling Earth, the great circle could be said to encompass, or transect only locations that fall precisely in its path. Due to the large scale and numerous sites involved in the global construct, it would be unreasonable to expect precise linear transections of sites, since the number of phenomena far exceeds the number of great circles proposed by the hypothesis. The Nazca Map Hypothesis claims that each great circle has multiple sites in great circle alignment. The global map construct is of a “Best Fit Line” design similar to the Statistical concept of the “Linear Regression Line” as shown in Diagram-1.

Diagram-1

As can be seen in the diagram, several of the points are precisely transected by the thin dark line. Yet the correlation, or association between the line and the other points is evident, and the points are said to be scattered about the line. To draw the analogy with the Nazca Map: the “points” are the Site locations of ancient monuments, volcanoes and impact craters and the “line” is analogous to the path of a great circle that circumscribes Earth.

To understand the correlation between the sites and the great circles it becomes useful to visualize each great circle as a great circle “band” having width, or bandwidth as shown in Diagram-1, which shows many more points being encompassed, or transected by the wider grey line. Each great circle band can likewise be visualized as encompassing multiple sites along its course. An example of great circles encompassing (transecting) more sites as they increase in bandwidth. can seen in the comparison between Image-19 and Image-20, which show the same Nazca great circles projected at different widths.

Image-19

Any comparison of great circle correlation becomes self limiting at the opposite extremes of bandwidth. If the test bandwidth is extremely narrow neither random great circles nor those proposed by the Nazca Map Hypothesis will encompass any of the sites, nullifying any comparison of great circle correlation. The finite surface area of Earth sets an upper limit to great circle bandwidth. If the great circle bandwidth is wide enough such that 79 random great circle bands cover the entire terrestrial surface, both the random great circles and those of the Nazca map would encompass all the site locations on Earth nullifying any great circle alignment comparison.

Image-20

The finite spherical surface of Earth also sets a theoretical limit on the geographic distribution of the sites being tested. This limit is best illustrated by its most extreme example: that of an Earth uniformly and completely covered in sites that are equidistant from each other. In such a case any great circle, regardless of its spatial alignment, will encompass the same number of sites, again nullifying any comparison test between random great circles and those proposed by the map hypothesis. Fortunately, the combined total number and geographic distribution of all the sites tested by the random simulation are not extreme enough to induce this “crowded Earth” effect and allowing the simulation yields significant comparative results.

SITE CATEGORIES

The term “site” is used in this work in reference to any location of interest for testing geographic correlation with the great circles of the Nazca map and with random great circles. Three principal categories of sites are tested for great circle alignments with the global construct of the Nazca map: Volcanoes, Impact Craters and Ancient Monuments. The Random Simulation program can perform great circle alignment tests on any of these categories individually or in combination.

Monuments

The monument category is an amalgam of anomalous and extreme structural sites of great age, magnanimity and civilizational import. The Nazca Great Circle Map suggests that the ancient monuments were constructed at specific locations on Earth in order to intentionally generate geographic correlation with the great circles of the map. This implies that the monuments and cradle cities were purposefully placed in order to cartographically reinforce the great circles of the map, and draw attention to the volcanoes and impact craters. The global construct of monuments is therefore a cartographic element of the Nazca Great Circle Map; a map whose primary subject is the natural phenomena of Earth.

Many of the monumental sites in the Nazca global construct are part of large structural complexes that were often ancient centers, or cradles, of civilization. The geographic placement of ancient monuments and cities is somewhat locally limited by the terrain and structural needs of each construction – such as stable ground foundations for extremely heavy monuments, the proximity of water sources for cradle cities and other geographic considerations. The global scale of the great circle construct allows for monuments and cradle cities to be placed at cartographic locations that nonetheless reinforce the great circles of the Nazca map. The monumental category can be further divided into sub-categories: monuments, geoglyphic monuments and submerged monuments. The geoglyphic category consists of “graphical” constructs that are either carved into, or formed from the terrain. Nazca, being the most monumental geoglyphic site on Earth as well as the blueprint of the global construct, is categorized as a monument in this work.

The submerged monuments category consists of a growing list of intriguing undersea structures representing the remains of past civilization. Unlike the land monuments, which were geographically placed to reinforce the map; the submerged monuments, like the volcanoes and the impact craters, were the intentional targets of the original great circle alignment.

An additional category of sites called “Other“, contains certain structural and natural phenomena and locations of mytho-historical interest. Some are archeological sites suspected to be locations mentioned in ancient mythology, others are natural phenomena that are central to a particular mythology – such as Mt. Olympus, or Uluru.

Volcanoes

The term “volcano” is a very broad categorization requiring finer definition. If one were to consider every lava vent on Earth to be a volcano, these would be so numerous and broad in geographic distribution as to induce the crowded Earth effect previously mentioned, nullifying the test. It is logical to expect that the mapmakers would intend to draw attention to the more anomalous and extreme volcanoes of great eruptive power and global climatic significance.

Establishing the eruptive power and catastrophic potential of a volcano is a complex matter. In some cases the eruptive power has been calculated from the remnant signs of past eruptions. The true measure of the eruptive power and potential global climatic effect of a volcano involves the volume, viscosity and chemical composition of the lava in its magma chamber. The general correlation between the volume of the magma chamber and the volume of the mountain-volcano itself, makes volume an ideal attribute for determining the volcano population to be tested. Yet the current scarcity of volcanic volumetric databases leaves “height” as the only practical attribute by which to estimate volume and define the test population for the experiment. The height of a mountain or volcano can be measured in two ways: topographic elevation and topographic prominence. The peak elevation of a mountain is its altitude above sea level, while its peak prominence is its height as measured from its base. A relatively small volcano rising from the top of a high continental massif may present a high elevation from sea level, yet have little eruptive power and global consequence. Peak prominence is the therefore a better indicator of the volume and power of a volcano, and is therefore chosen as the inclusion parameter for the great circle alignment test. The established geophysical category known as “Ultra-Prominent” constitutes volcanoes with peak prominences exceeding 1500 meters. The Ultra category of volcanoes is a clear, established and well defined geophysical category—a suitable and defined population for statistical testing.

An additional subcategory of volcanoes included in the experiment data set are the 16 volcanoes called “Decade Volcanoes“, by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earths’s Interior (IAVCEI). This list is comprised of volcanoes known to be regularly destructive or of particular scientific interest. It is worthy of note that many of these Decade Volcanoes are also Ultra volcanoes.

Volcanoes are indeed categorically different from monuments and cities—Nature alone determines their geographic locations. Yet these natural phenomena are not necessarily found in a “random” geographic distribution and under careful inspection certain geographic patterns become readily apparent. Mountain ranges are often associated with tectonic plate boundaries and exhibit the same linear tendency in their geography. It is along these plate boundaries and mountain chains that the majority of the Earth’s volcanoes are found. The linear geography inherent to mountain ranges results in volcanic belts: linear chains of volcanoes that allow for a single great circle to encompass multiple volcanoes. An example of such a volcanic belt is seen in Image-21, showing the Antipodal Orient great circle (black) encompassing beneath its course the linear belt of volcanoes (gold dots) that ridge the Central American Isthmus. The mapmakers made use of the natural linear tendency in volcanic geography to align the great circles of the Nazca map and thus draw maximum attention to these natural phenomena.

Image-21

Impact Craters

Impact craters are the remnant lithospheric scars of cometary or meteoric impacts. The 189 (at the time of writing) currently accepted impact craters accepted in the field of Geophysics provides a well defined and established population for experimental testing. The general correlation between impact crater diameter and impact force allows for selection of crater populations of varying diameter, representing different levels of planetary climatic effect and significance.

Impact Craters present a more random geographic distribution than volcanoes. Their scattered random distribution is intermittently interrupted by crater “clusters” in certain regions of Earth. An example of such a cluster is seen (red dots) in the densely cratered region of Northern Europe around Scandinavia, shown previously in Image-19 and Image-20, or the densely cratered continent of Australia seen in Image-16 of the hypothesis section (Part 1). The Nazca great circles seen transecting the crater cluster exemplify how great circles can be aligned to encompass multiple impact craters beneath their courses, enhancing the best fit pattern and drawing attention to these phenomena.

Volcanoes and impact craters abide by other geographic patterns that are implied by the Nazca map and the global construct it illustrates. These geographic patterns suggest great geophysical import and will be addressed in a following section, after the Random Simulation puts the Nazca Great Circle Map Hypothesis through its scientific test.

THE RANDOM SIMULATION

The Random Simulation is a JavaScript computer program that runs on any modern Web Browser. An updated version with an improved interface will be available for anyone to run on nazcasolution.com and to download for anyone who wishes to inspect the code and mathematical calculations.

The Random Simulation uses two main data sets to perform its calculations: the Great Circle Data Set and the Site Data Set.

The Great Circle Set

Once the program is active it displays a series of boxes as seen in Picture-6. The box titled “Nazca Parameters” lists the latitude and longitudes of the five Nazca Radial Centers (RCs) and the number of great circles (CGs) that radiate from each. These parameters represent the data of the Nazca great circle map which are provided in Table-8 in the Data section along with the angles of each line on the plateau relative to its anchoring primary line and the true headings of their corresponding great circles. The Nazca parameters are a part of the simulation program and are not user alterable.

Picture-6

The small box titled “Settings” contains the input parameters the user can interactively change. The first input box titled “number of runs“, is the number of times the random version of the great circle map is to be simulated in the trial. Each run represents one cast of 79 randomized great circles. The default is set at 10,000 runs per trial. The higher this number off runs in an experimental trial, the longer the experiment run time, but the more statistically accurate the results yielded.

In each run the simulation generates four radial centers at random coordinates on the virtual Earth, with a fifth radial center at the antipode of one of these. The simulation then generates 79 great circles that radiate from these five radial centers at random angles, or headings. Each “run” thus represents one “random instance”, or random version of the great circles pattern of the Nazca map. The results of each trial forms a Bell Curve for statistical comparison of the pattern of chance with the pattern of the Nazca map. The greater the number of runs simulated per trial, the more complete the Bell Curve that forms from the results. From the Bell Curve produced by the results one can calculate the statistical probability of “random chance” resulting in great circle alignments comparable to those of the Nazca map. The greater the number of runs in a trial, the more statistically confident one can be in the calculated probability of random occurrence.

The input parameter, “Bandwidth” is the width of each great circle band in kilometers. This bandwidth applies to both the Nazca great circles and their random counterparts. If one inputs a 20 kilometer bandwidth the simulation will make each of the 79 Nazca great circles into bands 20 kilometers in width, and count the number of sites they encompass. The simulation then assigns the same 20 kilometer width to each great circle in the randomly generated sets of 79 and counts the number of sites encompass in each random iteration.

The Site Set

The large scrollable box labeled “Sites“, lists the monuments, volcanoes and impact craters available for the random simulation test and their latitude and longitude coordinates. Each site has a check box for individual inclusion or exclusion from the test. The sites appear on the list in order by category.

Ancient monuments and cities are listed first in alphabetical order. This list of ancient monuments and their coordinates is also provided in Table-5 in the Data section. There are several subtypes of monuments that are grouped together under categorical labels such as, “Pyramid“, “Menhir” or “Dolmen” in order to facilitate locating them on the list. There are exceptions to this grouping such as the Great Pyramid of Giza which is found alphabetically under letter “G” and not with the other pyramids.

The monument names which are written in capital letters represent those that serve as capitals of their monumental groupings. The capital groups are defined by a 50 kilometer radius from the capital monument and between satellite monuments in the group. If a monument is within 50 kilometers of a monument that is within 50 kms of a capital monument, both satellite monuments belong to that capital group. Therefore, if a monument is 50 kms or more from a capital monument or any of its satellites, it does not belong to any group and is considered a lone monumental site. All the monuments that are in the immediate vicinity of the Giza Plateau, for example, are part of the “Giza” group. This allows one to select the Great Pyramid as the single representative of the entire Giza group that would otherwise include the other many pyramids and monuments of the Nile Delta region. One can thus test entire groups or only the “Capital” monument of each group. The capital of a monumental group is, as best determined, the most anomalous or extreme structure of the group, as best determined. At the end of the monuments list is comprised of the subcategories, “Geoglyph”, “Submerged Monuments” and “Other”, followed by the impact craters as seen in Picture-7.

Picture-7

The currently accepted impact craters are numbered in order according to crater diameter to facilitate selection of test populations in terms of impact force and global climatic effect. The impact craters list with their coordinate locations, diameters, approximate ages and force of impact if available are also provided in Table-7 in Data section.

The volcanoes of Earth comprise the end of the site list and are grouped according to the continental plate on which they are found. Within each continental grouping the volcanoes are roughly in order by decreasing topographic elevation, not according to topographic prominence. The “Ultra” volcanoes with a topographic prominence exceeding 1,500 meters are in their respective continental plate groups in capital lettering for easy identification. The list of volcanoes with their coordinates, topographic elevation, topographic prominence and Volcanic Explosive Indexes (VEIs) is provided in Table-6.

The box labeled “Selections” allows the user to select and deselect entire categories and subcategories of sites to facilitate management of the list. All monument groups and capitals combined into a group, are available for selection. The impact crater selections constitute divisions at different crater diameter by “tens” of kilometers groupings. The volcanic subcategories “ULTRA” and “DECADE“, as well as by continental plates groupings, all are available as selections to customize the random simulation test.

Results Output

Once the great circle parameters and sites have been set the random simulation is ready to run. The box labeled “Results” seen in Picture-8 the output boxes for various numerical results and the simulation “Run!” button. The empty window within the box is where the results of each run are outputted. Each number is the total number of “Hits“, or sites encompassed by the 79 random great circles in one simulation run. If the trial consists of 10,000 runs, 10,000 results will be displayed in the scrollable box at completion.

Picture-8

Below the results box a series of output boxes display the results of the following statistical calculations:

Sum Total: The sum of the hits of all run results in the trial.

Mean: The statistical mean, or average of the total number of “Hits” (sites encompassed) for all run results.

Max: The maximum number of sites encompassed by a single simulated run in the trial.

Min: The minimum number of sites encompassed by a single simulated run in the trial. At the great circle bandwidths and number of runs per trial that are adequate for the test, this minimum tends to remain zero—at least one cast of random great circles not encompassing any sites.

Variance: The statistical Variance of the results of all runs in that trial. Also known as “Sigma Squared”.

Nazca Hits: The total number of sites encompassed (transected) by the great circles of the map at the bandwidth being tested.

CDF: The Cumulative Distribution Function result is the calculated Probability of Random Occurrence, or the probability that random chance has of achieving the same results as the Nazca Great Circle Map Hypothesis.

In addition to these numerical results the random simulation graphically displays a Distribution Curve of the results, seen also in Picture-8. The X-Axis of the curve is the discrete number of possible encompassed sites, or “Hits”; the Y-Axis is the total count of random runs that resulted in that number of encompassed sites. The distribution curve displayed is cursor-interactive; numerically displaying the number of runs for each “Hit ” value at the lower left corner of the Distribution Curve window.

As previously mentioned, the Random Simulation yields the results of each trial in a the Results box along with a distribution curve as seen previously in Picture-8, which shows a well defined distribution curve.

At narrow great circle bandwidths of only a few kilometers, few sites are encompassed and the distribution curve is therefore incomplete, as can be seen in Picture-9, which shows the results and distribution curve from a test trial on all impact craters at 1 kilometer great circle bandwidth. The incomplete “half-bell” shape of the distribution curve is due to the fact that at narrow great circle bandwidths there are many random great circle sets that yield “Zero Hits“—no sites being encompassed, or transected by any of the randomized great circles.

Picture-9

The Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) requires a complete distribution curve to accurately calculate the probability of random occurrence. The probability results of the simulation are therefore not valid at very narrow great circle bandwidths. As one increases the width of the great circles the simulation results in less instances of “zero hit” runs and a complete distribution curve begins to form. Picture-10 shows a complete distribution curve begin to form at around 8 kilometers of great circle bandwidth for the impact craters trial. It is at this great circle width, or greater, that one may have statistical confidence in the results for that particular category of sites (all impact craters). The specific bandwidth at which a complete distribution curve forms varies with site category being tested, yet all categories show a clear distribution curve forming by a great circle bandwidths of 8 kilometers.

Picture-10

THE NULL HYPOTHESIS EXPERIMENT

The Random Simulation provides the experimental data for the statistically analysis of the Nazca Great Circle Map Hypothesis. The initial experiment entails a complete scan of great circle bandwidth on the following four site categories: 1. Monuments, 2. Volcanoes, 3. Impact Craters, and 4. All three categories combined.

This initial experiment excludes the subcategories of monument sites: submerged sites, geoglyphic sites (with the exception of the Nazca Geoglyphic Monument itself), and the category “OTHER”. These excluded subcategories are available for selection in the simulation for any user to test individually or in combination. A few new monuments have been added to the list since this experiment. These additions only improve the result. The population tested for the experiment were the Capital Monuments of each monument group and those not satellites of a monument group (non-satellite monuments). The volcanoes tested were are all those belonging to the “Ultra” and “Decade” categories. All impact craters accepted in the field of Geology were included in the experiment.

Each experimental trial consisted of 100,000 runs, or 100,000 random map iterations, at each bandwidth tested. This number of runs was determined, through trial and error, to balance statistical accuracy of the results with computation times. At 100,000 runs per trial there is very little variance in the trial results and these produce well-defined Distribution Curves that allow the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) to yield accurate calculations of the probability of random occurrence.

In order to reduce computation times each scan begins at 1 kilometer great circle bandwidth, then 5 kms, then 10 kms and increasing by 10 kilometer increments each trial thereon. The 10 kilometer increments allow the scan of the entire range without the thwarting computation times involved in doing all 1 km increments. However, in the attempt to precisely locate the great circle bandwidth at which the exact maximum(s) occurs, several spans of the scans are in 1 kilometer increments. In the future we hope to provide complete 1km resolution for all data—until such a time a user may test the Random Simulation at any missing great circle bandwidth in question, or use it to verify the results of the experimental presented below.

RESULTS ANALYSIS

The complete results of the Random Simulation scans are provided in Table-1 thru Table-4 in the Data section, where the experiment results for the monumental, volcanic, impact crater and all categories combined are tabulated. The right side columns of the tables give the probability of random occurrence and can be seen to vary with both great circle bandwidth and between site category—each category peaking in probability by different amounts and at different great circle bandwidths.

In statistical analysis “statistical significance” is the point at which the probability of an event occurring randomly is considered to be sufficiently unlikely for rejecting the Null Hypothesis and accepting the Alternative Hypothesis. This significance level is often set at .05 (5%) or .01 (1%). This is to mean: If random chance reproduces the effect less than once in twenty, or less than once in one hundred times, the Alternative Hypothesis (Nazca Map Hypothesis), must be statistically accepted as true.

The probability of occurrence of great circle alignments shown by this experiment is far above the threshold acceptance level for each category of sites, within a broad range of great circle bandwidths.

To help visualize the data, graphs of the probability of random occurrence according to great circle bandwidth for monuments, volcanoes, impact craters and all three categories combined, are presented below.

The horizontal axis of the graphs represent great circle bandwidth in kilometers. Since the Continuous Distribution Function (CDF) yields results as decimals, the graph plots 1 / CDF, to represent the Probability of Random Occurrence and avoid graphing a decimal on the Y-axis. The higher the probability peak on the Y-axis of the graph, the less likely that the Nazca great circle alignments could be the result of random chance for great circles of that bandwidth.

The first graph for the ancient monument category shows a peak at 40 kilometers great circle width with a probability of random occurrence of 2112—the random great circles only achieving geographic correlation with monuments, equivalent to the Nazca map’s great circle alignments, only once in 2112 random iterations. This is 100 times greater than required for statistically significance. The strength of correlation is evidence of the monuments being in purposeful great circle alignment with great circles of the Nazca map.

The second graph shows the result for the volcanic category. The peak occurs at 28 kilometers great circle bandwidth, with a probability of random occurrence of once in 612 random iterations; 6 times greater than required for statistical significance.

The last graph shows the results for the impact crater category. The peak occurs at 1 kilometer greats circle width and a probability of random occurrence of once in 161 random iterations. As previously mentioned, however, the distribution curve is incomplete until about 8 kilometers of great circle width. We therefore consider 8 kilometer great circle width to be the start of statistical confidence. The maximum is therefore at 9 kilometers great circle width and probability of random occurrence of once in 37 random iterations. This is still nearly twice the generally accepted, ” once in 20 “, minimum threshold. This is clear evidence of correlation with the great circles of the Nazca map, but not as strong as the other two categories. The lack of both natural and artificial linearity in the geographic distribution of impact craters—their geographic randomness—is the likely explanation. Volcanoes, having more geologic linearity, are more easily incorporated into great circle alignments, snd the monuments are purposefully placed in order to reinforce the the great circle alignments.

The last graph shows the results for the monuments, volcanoes and impact craters combined category. At a great circle bandwidth of 29 kilometers the probability of random occurrence is once in 42,028 random iterations…. 420 times the required statistical threshold.

The fact that all categories combined reaches a probability of random occurrence far greater than any individual category constitutes overwhelming evidence that all the categories have great circle alignment with the great circles of the Nazca Map.

This initial experiment does not take into account triangulation or hierarchy. In other words, it does not test for the fact that in many cases the larger volcanoes and impact craters are “triangulated”, or transected, by more than one great circle. An example of this prioritizing can be seen in Image-21, where the third largest known meteor crater (red dot) Chicxulub – nemesis of the dinosaurs -is triangulated by two Nazca map great circles at the tip of the Yucatan Peninsula. A volcanic example of the same principle is seen in Image-22, showing the triple great circle transection of Mount Kerinci—largest volcano in Sumatra and one of the largest on Earth. Random simulation tests that include multiple transections upon single sites will be run and added to this work in the near future.

It is worth noting that the ancient monuments for testing by the random simulation experiment are a broad population in an attempt at being inclusive and non biased. In other words, the list of monuments gives the Null Hypothesis the advantage. It is a fact that if one selected only the sites known to be encompassed by the great circles the experiment would retain scientific and statistical validity—the Random Simulation would still calculate an accurate probability of occurrence of even greater statistical significance.

Image-22

CONCLUSION

The Nazca Great Circle Map Hypothesis, as tested by the Random Simulation program, yields overwhelming statistical evidence of being true. The geographic correlation of ancient monuments, volcanoes and impact craters with the great circles of the Nazca map is statistically unarguable.

The empirical evidence in the form of newly discovered accepted impact craters and ancient monuments will continue to strengthen the proof presented here. In fact, we encourage all people to use the Nazca great circle map to assist in the rediscovery of our past, and all that remains hidden in Earth’s majesty.

DATA

Table-1: Monumental Category Random Simulation Results

Great Circle

Nazca Map

Mean

Max

Variance

CDF

Prob. of Random

Width (Kms)

Transects

Random

Random

Occurrence (1/CDF)

1

1

1.02117

8

1.065102

0.5081828785

1.967795536

5

10

5.05436

23

6.146025

0.02302583716

43.42947416

10

16

10.05015

34

13.964595

0.05567226352

17.96226589

15

22

14.94994

48

23.140274

0.07138181693

14.00916988

20

30

19.79984

55

33.873076

0.0398364322

25.10264963

25

40

24.58318

66

44.752521

0.01059590645

94.37606916

26

42

25.55066

66

47.158674

0.008302414272

120.4468926

27

46

26.52405

69

50.044822

0.002951859247

338.7695403

28

47

27.45412

77

52.057455

0.003374015161

296.382782

29

49

28.40861

70

54.694328

0.002682249567

372.8213856

30

51

29.34177

72

57.410663

0.002128754118

469.7583397

31

52

30.31206

77

60.033299

0.002562069602

390.3094589

32

53

31.2058

80

62.383526

0.002895869506

345.3194275

33

54

32.12268

80

64.82677

0.003292131537

303.7545702

34

57

33.08361

84

67.591259

0.00181267657

551.6703953

35

59

34.01746

81

70.436815

0.001456790543

686.4404803

36

60

34.9362

86

72.91023

0.001666119912

600.1968963

37

61

35.96296

87

75.687908

0.002001911018

499.5227016

38

63

36.83956

90

78.085459

0.001535874147

651.0950145

39

65

37.73091

90

80.825121

0.001209976229

826.4625172

40

69

38.6493

91

84.28515

0.000473314772

2112.758906

41

69

39.57325

92

87.174274

0.000811549119

1232.211306

42

69

40.52519

100

89.741445

0.001324288495

755.1224705

43

71

41.42047

104

92.301835

0.001039066504

962.4023064

45

72

43.25039

101

98.466695

0.001882195946

531.2943119

50

75

47.80773

109

113.940582

0.005425617128

184.3108307

55

80

52.2583

111

127.849121

0.007073883722

141.3650605

60

86

56.70239

122

143.206298

0.007178120057

139.3122422

70

100

65.52776

132

177.307389

0.004814918106

207.6878522

80

112

74.03965

153

207.270258

0.004185766991

238.9048416

90

129

82.52369

163

239.173399

0.001326976378

753.5929174

95

135

86.56765

170

258.085703

0.00128588917

777.671998

96

139

87.50512

177

261.726134

0.000728716781

1372.275246

97

141

88.2559

174

264.803115

0.00059503681

1680.5683

98

142

89.05034

172

270.952386

0.00064826808

1542.571709

99

144

89.93731

177

275.9765

0.000568300706

1759.63181

100

145

90.80907

180

276.470356

0.000558762887

1789.667895

101

145

91.66319

174

278.915689

0.000702373611

1423.743695

102

145

92.45056

168

282.631536

0.000886684413

1127.796976

103

147

93.24157

182

288.557414

0.000776255282

1288.236001

104

147

94.00979

180

291.370714

0.000953441684

1048.831844

105

148

94.89148

181

295.227043

0.00099772606

1002.279123

110

154

98.87309

183

310.885484

0.000884394405

1130.717239

111

155

99.7239

185

315.047309

0.00092215475

1084.416688

112

157

100.61823

199

318.859262

0.000795723998

1256.717156

113

158

101.30142

192

321.355606

0.000781151455

1280.161476

114

159

102.08883

191

323.749699

0.000780886027

1280.596611

115

160

102.91424

194

331.526345

0.000858610706

1164.672177

120

163

106.86447

194

344.326202

0.001242381067

804.90602

130

174

114.78037

208

379.878153

0.001189229289

840.8807362

140

183

122.37565

217

412.194277

0.001413062672

707.6826951

150

188

129.98368

228

447.046494

0.003035377107

329.4483567

160

197

137.53499

242

486.315496

0.003503488017

285.4298331

170

203

145.00025

248

515.69263

0.005323784325

187.8363095

180

211

152.08705

269

548.807932

0.005955276812

167.918307

190

215

159.37151

266

585.49373

0.01075289324

92.99822638

200

223

166.00976

276

615.751545

0.01081893095

92.43057418

210

227

173.16618

290

647.696024

0.01720268676

58.13045451

220

236

179.82913

292

684.907233

0.01592356911

62.79999121

230

242

186.61424

306

713.384989

0.01905576134

52.47756741

240

247

193.24783

311

743.45985

0.02434101669

41.08291829

250

252

199.51142

320

770.38527

0.02930655829

34.12205521

260

257

206.17046

338

797.460283

0.03593386954

27.82889828

270

264

212.33561

338

825.596916

0.03608273244

27.71408739

280

269

218.58519

349

860.947243

0.04288145728

23.32010299

290

280

224.72634

345

874.20547

0.03078082995

32.48775299

300

285

230.56728

363

900.570613

0.03485047906

28.69401015

310

292

236.54587

365

937.834216

0.03508578521

28.50157105

320

297

242.51655

371

954.029726

0.03887109384

25.72605762

330

302

248.15849

387

986.530291

0.04324580705

23.12362905

340

308

253.85356

387

1006.156715

0.0439097195

22.77400109

350

317

259.27308

387

1029.225247

0.03597920088

27.79383576

360

318

264.80199

402

1056.194722

0.05082519261

19.67528205

370

321

270.47386

404

1083.241617

0.06237234942

16.03274543

380

331

275.90581

408

1100.734938

0.04839713609

20.66237965

390

336

281.08383

417

1116.950463

0.05017357297

19.930811

400

345

286.34046

439

1138.189527

0.04104140838

24.36563557

410

350

291.47928

443

1161.900531

0.04300587835

23.25263518

420

354

296.43749

435

1173.99149

0.04647942138

21.51489778

430

358

301.63634

443

1189.244591

0.05108537366

19.57507459

440

363

306.61545

454

1216.526131

0.05298360192

18.87376403

450

366

311.44839

456

1233.742836

0.06020140348

16.61090842

460

373

316.33507

457

1256.927218

0.05498770683

18.18588295

470

379

321.07557

468

1265.921739

0.05176087601

19.3196112

480

383

325.63803

479

1291.713868

0.05524110983

18.10246034

490

384

330.25207

494

1299.348731

0.06797117791

14.71211815

500

390

335.00071

499

1319.096089

0.06497181552

15.39128916

510

391

339.42469

487

1330.040868

0.07865230332

12.71418582

520

397

343.69373

513

1346.045469

0.07311986051

13.67617489

530

400

348.29412

513

1350.167813

0.07968873983

12.54882436

540

402

352.51666

502

1386.876182

0.09196680984

10.87348797

550

406

356.91819

506

1380.507217

0.09325149258

10.72368894

560

408

361.02424

514

1404.888732

0.1050494301

9.519328177

570

411

365.22523

530

1422.715521

0.112454762

8.892464687

580

413

369.34287

521

1418.77839

0.1232202343

8.115550223

590

418

373.34005

531

1433.288056

0.1190706402

8.398375944

600

423

377.46866

553

1442.746338

0.115319667

8.671547757

610

431

381.44567

537

1465.369628

0.09774332372

10.23087779

620

436

385.39997

562

1472.637334

0.09365662155

10.67730165

630

439

389.13563

534

1478.156555

0.09732066309

10.27531018

640

442

393.06882

558

1481.649484

0.1018292447

9.820361553

650

445

396.90595

548

1497.393225

0.106959084

9.349369526

660

447

400.63561

551

1506.00543

0.1160954636

8.61360099

670

450

404.14945

559

1516.747995

0.119537528

8.365573694

680

454

408.04942

570

1519.082398

0.1192063784

8.388812856

690

455

411.62236

561

1527.614848

0.1335347632

7.488686663

700

456

415.03084

572

1539.163169

0.1481791814

6.748586346

710

460

418.62427

574

1539.884077

0.1458519987

6.856265318

720

463

421.97426

578

1547.427457

0.1484925267

6.73434564

730

464

425.40145

582

1555.604508

0.1638798245

6.102032409

740

470

428.68538

573

1564.879174

0.1481521399

6.749818132

750

476

431.98916

587

1570.734702

0.1333975079

7.496391917

760

478

435.42577

582

1571.44305

0.1414151195

7.071379664

770

481

438.65389

599

1584.254858

0.1436869055

6.959576424

780

484

441.67153

607

1588.947317

0.1441437701

6.937518002

790

489

445.09457

599

1600.589407

0.1362259478

7.340745404

800

491

448.31755

617

1605.023112

0.143349705

6.975947386

810

492

451.30103

614

1607.158351

0.1550038797

6.45145142

820

493

454.49558

615

1611.93494

0.1687692421

5.925250286

830

494

457.41974

615

1612.506718

0.1811600442

5.519980988

840

498

460.52534

616

1620.258478

0.175929077

5.684108715

850

500

463.43619

611

1618.179448

0.1816893075

5.503901215

860

502

466.48886

637

1626.970156

0.1893241908

5.281945196

870

504

469.32225

614

1608.774605

0.1936357015

5.164336908

880

506

472.16453

621

1626.08326

0.2007135869

4.982223751

890

507

474.83106

642

1616.914159

0.2118536418

4.720239839

900

508

477.71121

630

1630.12197

0.2265698161

4.413650579

910

512

480.52111

639

1646.293434

0.2189250885

4.567772504

920

515

483.1917

637

1646.961091

0.216582156

4.617185544

930

517

485.95266

643

1640.535159

0.2216791989

4.511023158

940

520

488.67956

653

1634.313578

0.2192444428

4.561119029

950

521

491.12097

651

1649.146596

0.2309380165

4.33016623

960

523

494.059

666

1647.011579

0.237884422

4.203722091

970

525

496.67005

646

1636.426563

0.2418632138

4.134568396

980

527

498.84554

649

1657.961282

0.2446417651

4.087609487

990

527

501.36378

673

1654.681304

0.2642731095

3.783964256

1000

529

504.20158

648

1660.686666

0.2714188356

3.684342679

1010

529

506.40903

657

1658.370444

0.2895342127

3.453823266

1020

532

508.87871

656

1638.136339

0.2839102453

3.522239921

1030

534

511.23905

663

1647.221285

0.2874640991

3.478695264

1040

536

513.77767

668

1665.580659

0.2930448734

3.412446662

1050

539

516.11837

662

1654.993519

0.2869025501

3.485504049

1060

541

518.64964

681

1670.139988

0.2922236238

3.422036818

1070

541

520.60727

675

1656.148993

0.3081498383

3.245174508

1080

542

523.04175

681

1646.860247

0.3201910612

3.123135281

1090

543

525.20885

681

1658.257932

0.3310934045

3.020295743

1100

543

527.57748

686

1656.595357

0.3523737641

2.837895729

Table-2: Volcanoes Random Simulation Results

Great Circle

Nazca Map

Mean

Max

Variance

CDF

Prob. of Random

Width (Kms)

Transects

Random

Random

Occurrence (1/CDF)

1

1

1.06743

10

1.103943

0.525585418

1.902640305

5

7

5.29834

20

5.974093

0.2431503861

4.11268111

10

16

10.5045

30

12.84324

0.06258237938

15.97893864

15

24

15.63637

40

20.456923

0.03221730367

31.03922073

20

35

20.69784

60

28.946339

0.0039267391

254.6642327

25

42

25.69257

64

37.619757

0.003921554744

255.0009028

26

44

26.69014

60

39.585027

0.002968528962

336.8671867

27

46

27.67653

65

41.249197

0.002165511682

461.784625

28

48

28.68181

63

43.134105

0.001633592009

612.1479503

29

49

29.66687

67

45.038554

0.001983468133

504.1674143

30

50

30.62546

70

46.54718

0.002257232026

443.0204731

31

50

31.6214

69

49.440602

0.004477213779

223.3531945

32

51

32.64077

76

50.748564

0.004980688373

200.7754602

33

51

33.55681

72

52.291873

0.007928833264

126.121961

34

54

34.50658

72

54.545397

0.004152364871

240.8266207

35

54

35.52253

85

56.756652

0.007090573902

141.0323077

40

60

40.39859

86

66.852256

0.008257339141

121.1043876

50

67

49.8339

103

87.841591

0.03350837487

29.84328556

60

78

59.10053

114

109.518224

0.03546284285

28.19852893

70

85

68.18744

133

131.316206

0.07116755282

14.05134728

80

98

77.06967

151

155.586236

0.0466741014

21.42515806

90

106

85.84118

161

179.094516

0.06598953331

15.15391835

100

127

94.42899

173

202.284058

0.011008378

90.83990394

110

132

102.91441

176

227.551104

0.02691889936

37.14862136

120

146

111.14367

197

250.558729

0.01383093833

72.30167443

130

152

119.22442

200

274.575916

0.02396618085

41.72546333

140

163

127.21034

219

298.747437

0.01919602778

52.09411091

150

173

134.95524

226

318.454017

0.01650659338

60.58185217

160

185

142.72018

233

342.060581

0.01112629858

89.87714946

170

192

150.29382

252

364.86465

0.01450295728

68.95145457

180

202

157.79507

250

390.256434

0.01262135224

79.23081304

190

208

164.99132

271

405.106165

0.0163055657

61.3287523

200

216

172.28121

272

430.787731

0.01758572996

56.86428727

210

222

179.4202

293

449.771632

0.02233543338

44.77190942

220

228

186.45187

290

468.558404

0.02746571029

36.40903474

230

231

193.27179

293

491.724

0.04443429082

22.50514145

240

240

200.00673

311

512.510905

0.0386485952

25.87416165

250

246

206.59195

321

533.380125

0.04397204469

22.74172163

260

253

213.3246

327

556.530855

0.0463029329

21.59690407

270

258

219.5861

338

567.154773

0.05337131114

18.73665793

280

261

225.94754

343

589.071208

0.07433796813

13.45207604

290

268

232.36097

360

607.981611

0.07417623908

13.48140607

300

275

238.55869

373

626.364095

0.07268742462

13.75753791

310

280

244.78349

364

643.883313

0.08259126895

12.10781736

320

288

250.63226

374

654.373027

0.07203822694

13.88151878

330

296

256.61355

368

671.534506

0.06426908624

15.55958017

340

306

262.63585

404

689.667305

0.04934447003

20.26569541

350

307

268.14099

405

706.432372

0.07186642608

13.91470335

360

313

273.76086

414

725.445872

0.07257790805

13.77829738

370

320

279.39783

416

737.042761

0.06738459882

14.8401863

380

331

284.99563

402

748.572471

0.04633844321

21.58035382

390

338

290.17282

413

755.621413

0.0409388648

24.42666656

400

346

295.77335

434

776.56512

0.03574317208

27.97737139

410

350

300.89422

436

787.912331

0.04010936773

24.93183155

420

358

306.19442

426

804.793921

0.03391454552

29.48587353

430

364

311.48155

442

817.75464

0.03313891359

30.17600433

440

369

316.43775

474

822.092725

0.03338525483

29.95334333

450

374

321.32865

453

837.253579

0.03435571464

29.10723908

460

379

326.16899

458

854.192092

0.03533153211

28.30332964

470

386

331.19889

451

862.501493

0.03102134521

32.23586835

480

392

336.05281

464

865.745641

0.02862205781

34.9380889

490

397

340.80971

480

883.4861

0.02934999855

34.07155194

500

401

345.32359

463

895.56028

0.03140918161

31.83782412

510

405

350.01436

475

901.864074

0.03355329088

29.80333594

520

408

354.59749

477

911.616776

0.03847151832

25.99325537

530

409

359.02311

495

925.706976

0.05023260826

19.90738755

540

412

363.59067

493

937.790139

0.05696217223

17.55551028

550

417

367.94185

493

932.443129

0.05407422593

18.49309875

560

422

372.06626

494

954.41211

0.05301306257

18.86327542

570

429

376.22809

516

955.073145

0.04385589447

22.80195198

580

431

380.78328

498

965.490372

0.05303387703

18.85587206

590

433

384.90707

514

971.336167

0.06139833737

16.28708598

600

437

389.01736

542

984.523759

0.06310449066

15.84673277

610

438

392.96014

524

994.257271

0.07658942141

13.05663343

620

444

397.06876

534

993.364532

0.06823781396

14.65463124

630

445

401.0429

545

1001.14926

0.08237875743

12.13905175

640

448

405.05289

555

1008.513173

0.08812967531

11.34691574

650

449

408.96138

538

1014.523228

0.1043701037

9.581287791

660

452

412.61073

552

1021.269179

0.1088701238

9.185256387

670

453

416.4361

559

1026.166817

0.1268486668

7.88340962

680

455

420.11814

552

1035.705143

0.1392088107

7.183453368

690

457

423.86861

554

1033.035347

0.1513130558

6.608815048

700

457

427.4143

549

1041.037496

0.1795827602

5.568463247

710

459

431.00524

576

1041.586033

0.1928561043

5.185213107

720

460

434.58207

586

1048.211885

0.2162024109

4.625295322

730

460

438.01121

567

1060.227344

0.2497006453

4.004795418

740

461

441.54242

578

1056.013061

0.274665803

3.640788147

750

464

444.89086

583

1060.069408

0.2786309267

3.588977046

760

469

448.38024

580

1072.115938

0.2644316441

3.781695656

770

470

451.57688

593

1070.973209

0.2867326527

3.487569311

780

472

454.92461

585

1083.679586

0.3019833179

3.311441198

790

476

458.11428

603

1080.20558

0.2931541947

3.411174113

800

481

461.20839

592

1088.029124

0.2742486687

3.646325813

810

482

464.51115

600

1085.204896

0.2977471264

3.358554664

820

482

467.64847

602

1103.311777

0.3328470762

3.004382708

830

484

471.14171

604

1082.846468

0.3479907504

2.873639598

Table-3: Impact Craters Random Simulation Results

Great Circle

Nazca Map

Mean

Max

Variance

CDF

Prob. of Random

Width (Kms)

Transects

Random

Random

Occurrence (1/CDF)

1

4

1.19539

10

1.258353

0.006206510536

161.1211315

4

10

4.78826

22

5.594426

0.01378120661

72.56258676

5

12

5.96336

27

7.203938

0.01225281205

81.61391816

6

13

7.16138

28

8.875296

0.02500773089

39.9876344

7

15

8.34258

28

10.640719

0.02063067527

48.47151085

8

17

9.48358

34

12.42679

0.01649447368

60.62636611

9

18

10.67208

35

14.316068

0.02638924255

37.89422899

10

18

11.84807

43

16.194667

0.06316806107

15.8307851

11

19

13.01841

39

18.264651

0.08081318178

12.37421888

12

19

14.14543

42

20.3108

0.1407005084

7.107294861

13

21

15.30301

52

22.399835

0.1143502186

8.745064173

14

23

16.4775

48

24.580874

0.0941584624

10.62039433

15

25

17.6212

55

26.830806

0.07714840371

12.96203099

16

25

18.75984

55

29.077263

0.1235896034

8.091295484

17

27

19.8972

55

31.601412

0.1032042078

9.689527403

18

27

21.01672

56

33.53

0.1507339324

6.634206274

19

28

22.15131

61

36.088755

0.1651320059

6.055761233

20

29

23.29432

66

38.465576

0.1787955357

5.592980808

30

40

34.47916

92

64.874946

0.2465345257

4.056227001

40

50

45.42652

105

94.975961

0.3194316886

3.13055979

50

64

56.00411

122

124.997573

0.2372485632

4.214988645

60

81

66.50774

137

158.66104

0.124961184

8.002484994

70

93

76.64051

150

193.054737

0.1195149799

8.367151973

80

102

86.597

168

229.731131

0.1547580628

6.461698874

90

114

96.41801

179

263.994578

0.1396023252

7.163204472

100

128

106.05148

187

301.42801

0.1030803582

9.701169234

110

135

115.43257

200

335.225333

0.1425971405

7.012763347

120

147

124.70398

210

374.207732

0.1245414779

8.029453454

130

153

133.98436

230

415.080675

0.1753195608

5.703870095

140

159

142.76677

242

445.577974

0.2209378456

4.526159822

150

173

151.48566

258

480.854414

0.1632672952

6.12492538

160

181

160.00365

270

516.597137

0.1778008542

5.624269944

170

192

168.48983

293

552.689457

0.158646804

6.303310089

180

200

176.89173

282

586.116428

0.1699155586

5.885276241

190

213

184.94776

303

617.007931

0.1293786169

7.729252517

200

220

192.9716

314

657.524893

0.145928341

6.852678468

210

227

200.71606

313

683.864958

0.1574265757

6.352167639

220

234

208.60909

323

720.008419

0.1720085577

5.813664234

230

238

216.26911

335

749.88647

0.2137258146

4.678891981

240

242

223.78594

342

779.944298

0.2571388815

3.888949015

250

247

231.14476

355

819.542105

0.2898429004

3.450144884

260

256

238.51884

355

852.434485

0.2746724407

3.640700164

270

258

245.65268

372

876.063069

0.3382798508

2.95613232

280

267

252.71854

383

902.82458

0.3172853487

3.151737085

290

277

259.64768

382

935.312711

0.2852257276

3.505995088

300

280

266.65235

392

965.351229

0.3337440752

2.996307872

310

284

273.24067

410

988.031148

0.3660646446

2.731757942

Table-4: Combined Sites Random Simulation Results

Great Circle

Nazca Map

Mean

Max

Variance

CDF

Prob. of Random

Width (Kms)

Transects

Random

Random

Occurrence (1/CDF)

1

4

2.55209

14

2.663547

0.187491181

5.333584196

5

22

12.6277

35

14.804793

0.00742905781

134.6065713

10

41

25.03711

54

33.171713

0.00278924

358.5206006

15

56

37.26856

76

53.666656

0.002327837864

429.5831834

20

80

49.33209

99

77.576146

0.000248907

4017.564793

25

98

61.26521

110

102.232174

0.000139989107

7143.412951

26

102

63.6099

129

108.277122

0.00011241

8896.005693

27

108

66.0185

118

113.291738

0.000040033557

24979.04446

28

112

68.37101

125

118.620962

0.000030897725

32364.8424

29

116

70.74046

136

123.8539

0.000023793363

42028.52703

30

119

73.0472

134

129.041112

0.000026130997

38268.72737

31

122

75.34145

142

135.056422

0.000029736803

33628.36281

32

124

77.70807

139

140.769927

0.000047766007

20935.39031

33

125

80.03597

147

147.275298

0.000105652466

9464.994409

34

132

82.43277

147

152.2885

0.000029519003

33876.48289

35

134

84.65352

149

158.741712

0.00004490089

22271.27346

40

151

96.17217

163

187.545587

0.000031196616

32054.75876

50

168

118.78882

208

253.347863

0.0000994883031

10051.43287

60

194

141.02102

224

321.328858

0.001560890533

640.6599174

70

218

162.66455

258

390.515923

0.002553801636

391.5730908

80

247

183.96978

277

460.188767

0.001650639335

605.8258632

90

277

204.84769

302

535.716012

0.000912482596

1095.911313

100

320

225.30833

345

612.745463

0.000065291942

15315.82565

110

337

245.36777

373

687.031795

0.000236226922

4233.217753

120

362

265.19888

392

765.948807

0.0002346588

4261.506494

130

382

284.684

407

846.266184

0.000411017349

2432.987324

140

404

303.48112

441

908.987444

0.000427996659

2336.466837

150

422

322.38346

459

999.969798

0.000815796023

1225.796611

160

444

340.70341

480

1073.878384

0.000810333605

1234.059644

170

462

358.95801

510

1161.500687

0.001249502463

800.3185505

180

485

376.70349

532

1240.469532

0.001053105378

949.5725887

190

500

394.18363

563

1314.49915

0.001758106438

568.7937763

200

517

411.18308

571

1375.696962

0.002165791214

461.7250239

210

530

428.32752

582

1454.915971

0.003843291343

260.1936493

220

547

445.16167

620

1534.805293

0.004668406826

214.2058388

230

557

461.56165

651

1615.862679

0.008793067804

113.7259512

240

573

477.6758

661

1679.261974

0.01000438504

99.95616886

250

587

493.28549

685

1754.787585

0.01263835912

79.1241957

260

602

509.14954

688

1813.388018

0.01461344308

68.43014303

270

615

525.0465

721

1897.561698

0.01946148546

51.38353914

280

625

540.12515

755

1960.099827

0.02761396968

36.21355465

290

649

554.99168

746

2032.975651

0.018535924

53.94929328

300

664

569.89871

770

2112.26969

0.02030520413

49.24845836

310

677

584.41593

788

2157.882232

0.02312692766

43.23963886

320

692

598.43504

784

2242.36338

0.02408426661

41.52088233

330

707

612.61112

809

2287.499792

0.02421849024

41.29076545

340

726

626.86294

832

2364.380555

0.02073435656

48.22913106

350

738

640.11112

859

2424.080112

0.02339483454

42.74447841

360

746

653.84835

862

2491.161772

0.03242436333

30.84100649

370

758

667.32182

897

2563.080392

0.03663801125

27.29405789

380

783

680.1201

898

2609.258756

0.02200172369

45.45098438

390

796

693.23311

914

2665.45181

0.02326652404

42.98020617

400

814

706.20757

929

2712.827345

0.0192469686

51.95623377

410

824

718.93374

946

2796.08119

0.02346360038

42.61920523

420

838

731.22764

933

2836.3268

0.02248983119

44.46454007

430

850

743.43786

983

2913.272539

0.02417401709

41.36672842

440

863

755.65347

983

2958.524327

0.02421586895

41.29523504

450

871

767.63374

981

3022.904954

0.03005146811

33.27624449

460

886

779.29083

1011

3066.210708

0.02698455174

37.05824019

470

900

791.13548

1046

3115.796805

0.02557008317

39.10820287

480

915

802.41172

1029

3187.439587

0.02306422332

43.35719379

490

922

814.07897

1053

3224.508254

0.02868191171

34.8651795

500

936

825.02025

1060

3237.188618

0.02555463049

39.13185129

510

942

836.06251

1071

3299.545842

0.03257248786

30.70075594

520

953

847.25598

1079

3351.688194

0.03388611634

29.51061107

530

959

857.94902

1113

3405.845621

0.04167933717

23.99270401

540

964

868.4549

1121

3411.768986

0.05094529566

19.62889776

550

973

878.21562

1133

3500.181428

0.05456598332

18.32643598

560

984

888.78872

1115

3555.596181

0.05516266352

18.12820368

570

996

899.44963

1164

3580.327223

0.05330843918

18.75875594

580

1001

909.35884

1159

3622.865774

0.06393878305

15.63995985

590

1008

919.07867

1161

3649.251501

0.07051215979

14.18195107

600

1019

928.8176

1160

3680.18749

0.06856355212

14.58500864

610

1033

938.79899

1179

3717.840225

0.06118099908

16.34494394

620

1044

948.45919

1200

3760.106955

0.05960753895

16.7764014

630

1050

958.09717

1205

3806.295228

0.06816111864

14.67112072

640

1059

967.08421

1227

3860.617499

0.06952758447

14.3827807

650

1063

976.46744

1248

3896.90324

0.08284592196

12.07060017

660

1069

985.56907

1235

3946.926289

0.09208930993

10.85902371

670

1074

993.96932

1243

3909.476539

0.1002791915

9.972158576

680

1081

1003.91915

1247

3953.116333

0.1101066603

9.082102725

690

1086

1011.78911

1294

4050.759835

0.1218067741

8.209724028

700

1088

1020.80695

1260

4018.741322

0.1445870414

6.916249137

710

1096

1029.14385

1286

4058.285497

0.1469809157

6.803604367

720

1102

1037.43399

1275

4106.317103

0.1568290951

6.376367851

730

1105

1046.26562

1325

4153.934986

0.1810680195

5.522786425

740

1114

1053.75957

1341

4168.303383

0.1753951481

5.701411988

750

1126

1062.66836

1320

4224.228095

0.1649235466

6.063415568

760

1134

1070.85219

1327

4220.337482

0.1655150159

6.041747901

770

1139

1078.31119

1354

4268.141571

0.1764592363

5.667031214

780

1145

1086.00084

1353

4260.138119

0.183016711

5.463981921

790

1156

1093.60453

1359

4302.748453

0.1707468548

5.856623252

800

1164

1101.58658

1376

4278.121684

0.1699845403

5.882887928

810

1168

1109.36038

1365

4330.010266

0.1864266254

5.364040666

820

1169

1116.57129

1375

4358.431398

0.2135532386

4.682673072

830

1174

1124.10626

1378

4357.648109

0.2248777163

4.446861238

840

1181

1131.73106

1401

4369.709466

0.2280328627

4.385332834

850

1189

1138.78048

1399

4431.270171

0.2253009996

4.438506717

860

1192

1145.76037

1420

4445.039207

0.2439828264

4.098649134

870

1196

1152.39085

1438

4458.018866

0.2568328052

3.893583607

880

1205

1159.75399

1413

4486.662449

0.249682399

4.005088079

890

1210

1166.87005

1428

4479.115243

0.2596448891

3.851414151

900

1213

1173.77874

1452

4531.125524

0.2800595931

3.570668618

910

1221

1180.13171

1443

4543.291422

0.2721514534

3.674424618

920

1227

1187.44829

1454

4546.858346

0.2787509147

3.587432174

930

1231

1193.42076

1459

4545.085821

0.2886226821

3.46473116

940

1237

1199.95829

1503

4570.10487

0.2918687194

3.426197922

950

1241

1206.53419

1470

4590.408551

0.3054807946

3.273528214

960

1245

1213.07763

1460

4611.649704

0.3191507693

3.133315336

970

1248

1219.44038

1466

4620.625185

0.3371887451

2.965698039

Table-5: ANCIENT MONUMENTS

Abydos-Oseiron— lat :26.18500, lon :31.91889, type : Monument

Abdera (Thrace)— lat :40.93333, lon :24.96667, type : Monument

Ajanta Caves— lat :20.55238, lon :75.70044, type : Monument

Aksum Obelisk— lat :14.13217, lon :38.71967, type : Monument

Amaru Muru— lat :-16.1708, lon :-69.5412, type : Monument

Ancyra— lat :39.93333, lon :32.86667, type : Monument

Angkor Thom— lat :13.43950, lon :103.86220, type : Monument-Satellite—ANGKOR

ANGKOR WAT— lat :13.4125, lon :103.8667, type : Monument—CAPITAL

Anundshog Tumulus— lat :59.63056, lon :16.64472, type : Monument

Arkaim— lat :52.62694, lon :59.56111, type : Monument

Asuka Megaliths— lat :34.03333, lon :135.81667, type : Monument

Avebury— lat :51.42861, lon :-1.85417, type : Monument-Satellite-SILSBURY

Aztalan Mound— lat :43.06455, lon :-88.86223, type : Monument

Aztec Ruins— lat :36.83584, lon :-107.99812, type : Monument

BaalBek— lat :34.00634, lon :36.20732, type : Monument

BadaValley Megaliths— lat :-1.8800, lon :120.2200, type : Monument

BALLYCROVANE Stone— lat :51.71287, lon :-9.94458, type : Monument—CAPITAL

BALNUARAN of CLAVA— lat :57.4737, lon :-4.0744, type : Monument—HIGHLANDS—CAPITAL

BARNENEZ— lat :48.66750, lon :-3.85861, type : Monument—BARNENEZ—CAPITAL

Barpa Langass— lat :57.57056, lon :-7.29167, type : Monument

BELTRANA Temple— lat :39.97875, lon :3.98008, type : Monument—MINORCA—CAPITAL

Borobudur— lat :-7.60787, lon :110.20373, type : Monument

Borrehaugene— lat :59.38250, lon :10.45944, type : Monument

Boswens Menhir— lat :50.13904, lon :-5.63989, type : Monument

Brihadeeswara Temple— lat :10.78278, lon :79.13167, type : Monument

Brownshill Dolmen— lat :52.8375, lon :-6.8811, type : Monument

BRYNCELLIDDU— lat :53.2077, lon :-4.2361, type : Monument—BRYN—CAPITAL

Bryn Cader Faner Circle— lat :52.8982, lon :-4.0114, type : Monument-Satellite—BRYN

Caddoan Mounds— lat :31.59532, lon :-95.14981, type : Monument

Cahuachi— lat :-14.81861, lon :-75.11667, type : Monument-Satellite—NAZCA

CallanishStones— lat :58.1979, lon :-6.7443, type : Monument

Caral— lat :-10.89361, lon :-77.52028, type : Monument

CARNAC— lat :47.58470, lon :-3.07341, type : Monument—CAPITAL

Carthage— lat :36.85280, lon :10.32330, type : Monument

Casa Grande— lat :32.99701, lon :-111.53207, type : Monument

Catalhoyuk— lat :37.66667, lon :32.82806, type : Monument

Cempoala— lat :19.44500, lon :-96.40889, type : Monument

Chetroketl— lat :36.0600, lon :-107.9500, type : Monument

Chan Chan— lat :-8.10583, lon :-79.07444, type : Monument-Satellite—ELBRUJO

Corrimony Cairn— lat :57.33484, lon :-4.68949, type : Monument-Satellite—HIGHLANDS

Costa Rica Stone Spheres— lat :8.91139, lon :-83.47750, type : Monument

Crantit Cairn— lat :58.97138, lon :-2.95452, type : Monument-Satellite—ORKNEY

Cuween Hill— lat :58.99712, lon :-3.10778, type : Monument-Satellite—ORKNEY

Derinkuyu— lat :38.36667, lon :34.73333, type : Monument

Dhamek Stupa-Varanasi— lat :25.3808, lon :83.0245, type : Monument

Dholavira— lat :23.88611, lon :70.21667, type : Monument

Dilmun— lat :26.19667, lon :50.48556, type : Monument

Dogon-Tellem Caves (Sangha)— lat :14.3588, lon :-3.5950, type : Monument

Dowth— lat :53.70365, lon :-6.4502, type : Monument-Satellite—NEWGRANGE

Dolmen De Menga— lat :37.02459, lon :-4.54629, type : Monument

Dulan Ruins— lat :22.88494, lon :121.21978, type : Monument

Dwarkadhish Temple— lat :22.23789, lon :68.96756, type : Monument

Dzibilchaltun— lat :21.09100, lon :-89.59030, type : Monument-Satellite—ACANCEH

Effigy Mounds— lat :43.09413, lon :-91.18208, type : Monument

ELBRUJO— lat :-7.91498, lon :-79.30549, type : Monument—CAPITAL

Elephanta Caves— lat :18.96325, lon :72.93144, type : Monument

Emerald Mound— lat :38.63056, lon :-89.78583, type : Monument

Er Lannic— lat :47.56806, lon :-2.89694, type : Monument-Satellite—CARNAC

Etowah Mounds— lat :34.12515, lon :-84.80764, type : Monument

Frostatinget Bautasten— lat :63.56750, lon :10.70222, type : Monument

GALLARDET tomb— lat :43.58650, lon :3.51010, type : Monument—CAPITAL

Ganeriwala— lat :28.50000, lon :71.06667, type : Monument

Gavrinis— lat :47.5740, lon :-2.8970, type : Monument-Satellite—CARNAC

Gila Cliff Dwellings— lat :33.22722, lon :-108.27222, type : Monument

Gobekli Tepe— lat :37.22306, lon :38.92250, type : Monument

GGANTIJA— lat :36.04722, lon :14.26917, type : Monument—MALTA—CAPITAL

Gochang Dolmens— lat :34.96667, lon :126.92917, type : Monument

Golden Temple-Amritsar— lat :31.62000, lon :74.87694, type : Monument

Gonur Tepe— lat :38.2140, lon :62.0379, type : Monument

Grande Menhir Brise— lat :47.57165, lon :-2.94959, type : Monument-Satellite—CARNAC

Grande Menhir Counozouls— lat :42.72960, lon :2.22390, type : Monument

Grand Mound-Minnesota— lat :48.51667, lon :-93.70861, type : Monument

Grave Creek Mound— lat :39.91691, lon :-80.74458, type : Monument

GREAT PYRAMID of GIZA— lat :29.97918, lon :31.13436, type : Monument—CAPITAL

Great Zimbabwe— lat :-20.29667, lon :30.93333, type : Monument

Great Stupa-Amravati— lat :16.57300, lon :80.35800, type : Monument-Satellite—UNDAVALLI

Grey Cairns of Camster— lat :58.3791, lon :-3.2642, type : Monument

Gunung Padang Megaliths— lat :-6.99347, lon :107.05638, type : Monument

Harappa— lat :30.62889, lon :72.86389, type : Monument

Hattusa— lat :40.01972, lon :34.61528, type : Monument

Heliopolis-Obelisk— lat :30.12933, lon :31.30753, type : Monument-Satellite—GIZA

Hill of Tara— lat :53.57750, lon :-6.61194, type : Monument-Satellite—NEWGRANGE

Holm of Papa— lat :59.35053, lon :-2.86868, type : Monument-Satellite—ORKNEY

Hulbjerg Jaettestue— lat :54.73612, lon :10.68419, type : Monument

Isbister Cairn— lat :58.7391, lon :-2.9314, type : Monument-Satellite—ORKNEY

Jelling Stones— lat :55.75583, lon :9.41944, type : Monument

Jetavanaramaya Stupa— lat :8.35167, lon :80.40361, type : Monument

Jokhang Temple-Lhasa— lat :29.65306, lon :91.04750, type : Monument

Kaimanawa Wall-Lk.Taupo— lat :-38.94921, lon :176.18670, type : Monument

Khajuraho-Vamana Temple— lat :24.35306, lon :79.91944, type : Monument

Kings Grave-Sweden— lat :55.68333, lon :14.23333, type : Monument

Knap of Howar— lat :59.34931, lon :-2.91089, type : Monument-Satellite—ORKNEY

Knossos— lat :35.29806, lon :25.16306, type : Monument

Knowe of Yarso— lat :59.13912, lon :-3.04158, type : Monument-Satellite—ORKNEY

Knowth— lat :53.70167, lon :-6.49167, type : Monument-Satellite—NEWGRANGE

Komakino StoneCircle— lat :40.73856, lon :140.72863, type : Monument

Kuelap— lat :-6.41861, lon :-77.92333, type : Monument

Kukui Heiau— lat :21.05972, lon :-156.84306, type : Monument

Kyaiktiyo Pagoda-Rock— lat :17.48168, lon :97.09812, type : Monument

La Draille— lat :43.75510, lon :3.70660, type : Monument

La Hougue Bie— lat :49.2006, lon :-2.0638, type : Monument-Satellite—CARNAC

Lei Cheng Uk Han-HongKong— lat :22.33809, lon :114.16002, type : Monument

Lake Jackson Mounds— lat :30.50089, lon :-84.31164, type : Monument

Leluh Ruins-Kosrae— lat :5.33333, lon :163.03333, type : Monument

Listoghil— lat :54.25050, lon :-8.51820, type : Monument

Lubaantum— lat :16.28111, lon :-88.96500, type : Monument

Machaquila— lat :15.76667, lon :-89.38333, type : Monument

Machu Picchu— lat :-13.16333, lon :-72.54556, type : Monument-Satellite-SACSAYHUAMAN

MAESHOWE— lat :58.9966, lon :-3.1882, type : Monument—ORKNEY—CAPITAL

Maykop Kurgan— lat :44.35153, lon :40.41028, type : Monument

Menhirs CHAM de BONDONS— lat :44.4, lon :3.6, type : Monument—CAPITAL

Menhir DuBac— lat :44.39615, lon :3.41380, type : Monument-Satellite—BONDONS

Menhir De Champ Dolent— lat :48.53500, lon :-1.73917, type : Monument

Menhir De La Leque— lat :44.19293, lon :4.39452, type : Monument

Menhir De MALVES— lat :43.25327, lon :2.43564, type : Monument—CAPITAL

Menhir De Picarel— lat :43.3742, lon :2.1616, type : Monument-Satellite—MALVES

Menhir Du Pla Del Bac— lat :42.47725, lon :2.07092, type : Monument

Menhir DuRun— lat :48.77934, lon :-3.33495, type : Monument-Satellite—BARNENEZ

Menhir Glomel— lat :48.58150, lon :-3.34410, type : Monument-Satellite—KAILOUAN

Menhir Kailouan— lat :48.44833, lon :-3.12056, type : Monument—CAPITAL

Menhir Kerien— lat :48.39302, lon :-3.21454, type : Monument-Satellite—KAILOUAN

Menhirs Kergadiou— lat :48.49358, lon :-4.72499, type : Monument-Satellite—KERLOAS

Menhir KERLOAS— lat :48.42667, lon :-4.67928, type : Monument——CAPITAL

Menhirs Le Coulet— lat :43.80983, lon :3.51889, type : Monument-Satellite—GALLARDET

Menhir Louargat— lat :48.58150, lon :-3.34410, type : Monument-Satellite—BARNENEZ

Menhir Men Marz— lat :48.67030, lon :-4.3352, type : Monument-Satellite—BARNENEZ

Menhir Pedernec— lat :48.61, lon :-3.30028, type : Monument-Satellite—BARNENEZ

Menhir Pedra Dreta De Llivia— lat :42.45889, lon :1.97034, type : Monument

Menhir Pyrolles— lat :42.95083, lon :2.34056, type : Monument-Satellite—MALVES

Merrivale Stone— lat :50.55306, lon :-4.04306, type : Monument

MesaVerde-SunTemple— lat :37.16458, lon :-108.47532, type : Monument

Mohenjo-Daro— lat :27.32917, lon :68.13889, type : Monument

Monks Mound-Cahokia— lat :36.66057, lon :-90.06211, type : Monument

Monte Alban— lat :17.04389, lon :-96.76778, type : Monument

Moundville Mounds, lat :33.00788, lon :-87.63134, type : Monument

Midhowe Cairn— lat :59.15660, lon :-3.09920, type : Monument-Satellite—ORKNEY

Murujuga— lat :-20.5583, lon :116.8333, type : Monument

NAZCA-spider— lat :-14.69434, lon :-75.12270, type : Monument—GEOGLYPH—CAPITAL

Nabta Playa— lat :22.5333, lon :30.7000, type : Monument

NanMadol Ruins-Ponhpei— lat :6.84194, lon :158.33222, type : Monument

Naveta D’es Tudons— lat :40.00313, lon :3.89156, type : Monument-Satellite—MINORCA

Necropolis Cerveteri— lat :42.0000, lon :12.1000, type : Monument

NEWGRANGE— lat :53.69437, lon :-6.47503, type : Monument——CAPITAL

Ocmulgee Mounds— lat :32.83684, lon :-83.60834, type : Monument

Ollantaytambo— lat :-13.25806, lon :-72.26333, type : Monument-Satellite-SACSAYHUAMAN

Oshoro Stone Circle— lat :43.19943, lon :140.87471, type : Monument

Oyu Stone Circle— lat :40.27167, lon :140.80389, type : Monument

Pachacamac— lat :-12.25667, lon :-76.90028, type : Monument

Palenque— lat :17.48398, lon :-92.04633, type : Monument

Paquime— lat :30.36630, lon :-107.94743, type : Monument

Persepolis— lat :29.93444, lon :52.89139, type : Monument

Petra— lat :30.32861, lon :35.44194, type : Monument

Phimai— lat :15.22083, lon :102.49389, type : Monument

Poverty Point Bird Mound— lat :32.63525, lon :-91.41121, type : Monument

Prasat Ta Muen Thom— lat :14.34917, lon :103.26639, type : Monument-Satellite—ANGKOR

Preah Ko— lat :13.34389, lon :103.97278, type : Monument-Satellite—ANGKOR

Preah Vihear— lat :14.39306, lon :104.68028, type : Monument

Pylos-Palace of Nestor— lat :37.02705, lon :21.69484, type : Monument

Pyramid ACANCEH— lat :20.8167, lon :-89.4500, type : Monument—CAPITAL

Pyramid AltunHa— lat :17.76395, lon :-88.34706, type : Monument

Pyramid (Bent & Red)— lat :29.79028, lon :31.20917, type : Monument-Satellite—GIZA

Pyramid BONAMPAK— lat :16.70400, lon :-91.06500, type : Monument—CAPITAL

Pyramid CALAKMUL— lat :18.10539, lon :-89.81083, type : Monument—CAPITAL

Pyramid Chichen-Itza— lat :20.68278, lon :-88.56861, type : Monument

Pyramid Cholula— lat :19.05750, lon :-98.30194, type : Monument

Pyramid COBA— lat :20.49472, lon :-87.73611, type : Monument—CAPITAL

Pyramid Cuicuilco— lat :19.30167, lon :-99.18167, type : Monument-Satellite—TEOTIHUACAN

Pyramid Djoser— lat :29.87127, lon :31.21639, type : Monument-Satellite—GIZA

Pyramid ElMirador— lat :17.75505, lon :-89.92043, type : Monument-Satellite—CALAKMUL

Pyramid Guachimontones— lat :20.69491, lon :-103.83609, type : Monument

Pyramid LaVenta— lat :18.10330, lon :-94.04019, type : Monument

Pyramid Meidum— lat :29.38806, lon :31.15694, type : Monument-Satellite—GIZA

Pyramid PiedrasNegras— lat :17.16667, lon :-91.26250, type : Monument-Satellite—BONAMPAK

Pyramid Quirigua— lat :15.26944, lon :-89.04028, type : Monument

Pyramid Tenayuca— lat :19.53217, lon :-99.16847, type : Monument-Satellite—TEOTIHUACAN

Pyramid Teotenango— lat :19.10861, lon :-99.59722, type : Monument

Pyramid TIKAL— lat :17.22194, lon :-89.62278, type : Monument—CAPITAL

Pyramid Tres Zapotes— lat :18.46782, lon :-95.43750, type : Monument

Pyrmid Uaxactun— lat :17.39356, lon :-89.63453, type : Monument-Satellite—TIKAL

Pyramid Uxmal— lat :20.35944, lon :-89.77139, type : Monument

Pyramid Xian (Emperor’s Tomb)— lat :34.38124, lon :109.25401, type : Monument

Quanterness Cairn— lat :59.01667, lon :-3.01667, type : Monument-Satellite—ORKNEY

Quoyness Cairn— lat :59.22555, lon :-2.56824, type : Monument-Satellite—ORKNEY

Rapa Nui-Orongo— lat :-27.18944, lon :-109.44250, type : Monument

Ring of Brodgar— lat :59.00200, lon :-3.22870, type : Monument-Satellite—ORKNEY

Rhuba An Dunain— lat :56.68168, lon :-5.68319, type : Monument

Rollright Stones— lat :51.97553, lon :-1.57081, type : Monument

Saint Paul Mound— lat :44.94571, lon :-93.05650, type : Monument

SACSAYHUAMAN— lat :-13.50778, lon :-71.98222, type : Monument—CAPITAL

Sanchi Stupa— lat :23.48066, lon :77.73630, type : Monument

San Lorenzo Tenochtitlan— lat :17.75361, lon :-94.76000, type : Monument

Sechin Bajo— lat :-9.46472, lon :-78.26500, type : Monument

SerpentMound— lat :39.02520, lon :-83.43020, type : Monument

Shahr-eSukhteh— lat :30.59528, lon :61.32639, type : Monument

SHANBALLYEDMOND Court— lat :52.68020, lon :-8.23364, type : Monument

SILSBURY HILL— lat :51.41556, lon :-1.85750, type : Monument—CAPITAL

Skara Brae— lat :59.04861, lon :-3.34306, type : Monument-Satellite—ORKNEY

Snoldelev Stone— lat :55.57167, lon :12.12139, type : Monument

Stonehenge— lat :51.17884, lon :-1.82619, type : Monument-Satellite-SILSBURY

Stonehenge of America— lat :42.84196, lon :-71.20969, type : Monument

Stora Hammars Stones— lat :57.85297, lon :19.02867, type : Monument

Tanis— lat :30.97694, lon :31.88000, type : Monument-Satellite—GIZA

Tarxien Temples— lat :35.86917, lon :14.51194, type : Monument-Satellite—MALTA

Taversoe Tuick— lat :59.13200, lon :-2.98800, type : Monument-Satellite—ORKNEY

Tell Qaramel— lat :36.378, lon :37.275, type : Monument

Temple of Hera-Paestum— lat :40.42222, lon :15.00528, type : Monument

TEOTIHUACAN-Sun-Pyramid— lat :19.69240, lon :-98.84361, type : Monument—CAPITAL

TIWANAKU-Akapana Pyramid— lat :-16.55472, lon :-68.67333, type : Monument—CAPITAL

Toltec Mounds— lat :34.64694, lon :-92.06528, type : Monument

Toolsboro Mounds— lat :41.1428, lon :-91.0629, type : Monument

Treasury of Atreus— lat :37.7268, lon :22.7539, type : Monument

Troy— lat :39.95750, lon :26.23889, type : Monument

Tulum— lat :20.21472, lon :-87.42889, type : Monument-Satellite—COBA

Tumulus of Bougon— lat :46.3740, lon :-0.0675, type : Monument

Tumulus of St.Michael— lat :47.58779, lon :-3.07341, type : Monument-Satellite—CARNAC

Tyre— lat :33.27083, lon :35.19611, type : Monument

UNDAVALLI Caves— lat :16.49570, lon :80.58000, type : Monument—CAPITAL

Unstan Cairn— lat :58.9863, lon :-3.2492, type : Monument-Satellite—ORKNEY

Vaishali-Asokan Pillar— lat :25.9900, lon :85.1300, type : Monument

Van Fortress— lat :38.50321, lon :43.33913, type : Monument

Vasterljung Runestone— lat :58.91667, lon :17.43333, type : Monument

Vera Island Megaliths— lat :55.16145, lon :60.03112, type : Monument

Vinquoy Cairn— lat :59.22712, lon :-2.77250, type : Monument-Satellite—ORKNEY

Waylands Smithy— lat :51.56723, lon :-1.59526, type : Monument-Satellite-SILSBURY

West Kennet Long Barrow— lat :51.40856, lon :-3.04158, type : Monument

Yakushima Megaliths– lat :30.3552, lon :130.5238, type : Monument

Yaxchilan— lat :16.90000, lon :-90.96667, type : Monument-Satellite—BONAMPAK

Yin Xu (Ruins of Yin-Anyang)— lat :36.13944, lon :114.30306, type : Monument

Ziggurat Dur Kurigalzu— lat :33.35361, lon :44.20222, type : Monument

Ziggurat-UR— lat :30.96278, lon :46.10306, type : Monument

Ziggurat Chogha Zanbil— lat :32.00833, lon :48.52083, type : Monument

Zorats Karer-Karahunj— lat :39.5507, lon :46.0286, type : Monument ]}

GEOGLYPH-Blythe— lat :33.80049, lon :-114.53197, type : GEOGLYPH

GEOGLYPH-Candelabra-Paracas— lat :-13.79458, lon :-76.30870, type : GEOGLPYH

GEOGLYPH-CerneAbbas— lat :50.81361, lon :-2.47472, type : GEOGLYPH-Satellite-SILSBURY

SUBMERGED-Guanahacabibes— lat :21.87889, lon :-84.82306, type : SUBMERGED

SUBMERGED-Gulf of Cambay— lat :21.8891, lon :72.3784, type : SUBMERGED

SUBMERGED-Kerama Stone Circle— lat :26.19900, lon :127.28056, type : SUBMERGED

SUBMERGED-Yonaguni— lat :24.4320, lon :123.0110, type : SUBMERGED

Ithaka— lat :38.36667, lon :20.71667, type : OTHER

Marcahuasi— lat :-11.78889, lon :-76.57361, type : OTHER

Nord— lat :81.71667, lon :-17.79917, type : OTHER

Nuuk— lat :64.17500, lon :-51.73889, type : OTHER

Olympus— lat :40.08556, lon :22.35861, type : OTHER

Pitoravik— lat :77.96667, lon :-72.21667, type : OTHER

Ramanadessa-Hanthawaddy— lat :17.33667, lon :96.47972, type : OTHER

Sigiriya Elephant Rock— lat :7.95694, lon :80.75972, type : OTHER

Sukhothai— lat :17.02111, lon :99.70361, type : OTHER

Uluru— lat :-25.34500, lon :131.03611, type : OTHER

Table-6: VOLCANOES

Pico_de_Orizaba — lat :19.0303, lon :-97.2681, type : Volcano -N_America -ULTRA // 5636/4922 strato

Popocatepetl — lat :19.022, lon :-98.628, type : Volcano -N_America -ULTRA // 5426m

Iztaccihatl — lat :19.1789, lon :-98.6417, type : Volcano -N_America -ULTRA // 5230m

Mt.Bona — lat :61.3856, lon :-141.7486, type : Volcano -N_America -ULTRA // 5005m

Mt.Blackburn — lat :61.7317, lon :-143.4331, type : Volcano -N_America -ULTRA // 4996m

Mt.Sanford — lat :62.2139, lon :-144.1289, type : Volcano -N_America -ULTRA // 4949m

Mt.Churchill — lat :61.4194, lon :-141.7147, type : Volcano -N_America // 4766/362 stat-cal

Nevado_de_Toluca — lat :19.1017, lon :-99.7675, type : Volcano -N_America -ULTRA // 4680/2210 strato

Sierra_Negra — lat :18.983, lon :-97.317, type : Volcano -N_America // 4580m

La_Malinche — lat :19.2308, lon :-98.0319, type : Volcano -N_America -ULTRA // 4461m

Mt.Rainier — lat :46.8529, lon :-121.7604, type : Volcano -N_America -ULTRA -DECADE // 4392m

Nevado_de_Colima — lat :19.5124, lon :-103.6170, type : Volcano -N_America -DECADE // 4340/600 strato

Mt.Shasta — lat :41.4092, lon :-122.1949, type : Volcano -N_America -ULTRA // 4322m strato

Mt.Wrangell — lat :62.00572, lon :-144.01935, type : Volcano -N_America -ULTRA // 4317m shield

Cofre_de_Perote — lat :19.492, lon :-97.150, type : Volcano -N_America // 4282m

Atna_Peaks — lat :61.7494, lon :-143.2397, type : Volcano -N_America -ULTRA // 4220m

Damavand — lat :35.9548, lon :52.1100, type : Volcano -Asia -ULTRA // 5610m strato

Ararat — lat :39.7019, lon :44.2983, type : Volcano -Asia -ULTRA // 5165m complex

Sabalan — lat :38.2669, lon :47.8369, type : Volcano -Asia -ULTRA // 4811m

Klyuchevskaya_Sopka — lat :56.0575, lon :160.6415, type : Volcano -Asia -ULTRA // 4750/4649 strato

Kamen — lat :56.020, lon :160.593, type : Volcano -Asia -ULTRA // 4579m

Krestovsky — lat :56.11328, lon :160.50719, type : Volcano -Asia // 4108m

Aragats — lat :40.533, lon :44.20, type : Volcano -Asia -ULTRA // 4090m strato

Suphan_Dagi — lat :38.9317, lon :42.8342, type : Volcano -Asia -ULTRA // 4058m

Taftan — lat :28.6000, lon :61.1325, type : Volcano -Asia -ULTRA // 4042m-3981m

Ushkovsky — lat :56.070, lon :160.470, type : Volcano -Asia // 3943m

Little_Ararat — lat :39.6475, lon :44.4125, type : Volcano -Asia // 3925/1200 strato

Erciyes_Dagi — lat :38.5318, lon :35.4470, type : Volcano -Asia -ULTRA // 3916m

Mt.Kerinci — lat :-1.6967, lon :101.2642, type : Volcano -Asia -ULTRA // 3805m strato

Mt.Fuji — lat :35,3581, lon :138.7311, type : Volcano -Asia -ULTRA // 3776m strato

Rinjani — lat :-8.4144, lon :116.4598, type : Volcano -Asia -ULTRA // 3726m

Sahand — lat :37.7308, lon :46.5000, type : Volcano -Asia -ULTRA // 3707m

Elbrus — lat :43.3499, lon :42.4453, type : Volcano -Europe -ULTRA // 5642m strato

Kazbek — lat :42.6992, lon :44.5183, type : Volcano -Europe -ULTRA // 5047m

Mt.Etna — lat :37.7510, lon :14.9934, type : Volcano -Europe -ULTRA -DECADE // 3329m strato

Mt.Pico — lat :38.4687, lon :-28.3993, type : Volcano -Europe -ULTRA // 2351m strato

Beerenberg — lat :71.0833, lon :-8.1667, type : Volcano -Europe -ULTRA // 2277m strato

Oraefajokull — lat :64.0217, lon :-16.6433, type : Volcano -Europe -ULTRA // 2109m strato

Bardarbunga — lat :64.6410, lon :-17.5280, type : Volcano -Europe // 2009m

Kverkfjoll — lat :64.650, lon :-16.717, type : Volcano -Europe // 1920m

Puy_de_Sancy — lat :45.5283, lon :2.8142, type : Volcano -Europe -ULTRA // 1885m strato

Puy_Mary — lat :45.109, lon :2.676, type : Volcano -Europe // 1783m

Snaefell — lat :64.8057, lon :-23.7731, type : Volcano -Europe // 1446m

Hofsjokull — lat :64.817, lon :-18.817, type : Volcano -Europe // 1782m

Esjufjoll — lat :64.27, lon :-16.65, type : Volcano -Europe // 1760m strato

Grimsvotn — lat :64.42, lon :-16.33, type : Volcano -Europe // 1725m

Herdubreid — lat :65.1789, lon :-16.3473, type : Volcano -Europe // 1682m

Eiriksjokull — lat :64.7697, lon :-20.4020, type : Volcano -Europe // 1675m

Mt.Kilimanjaro — lat :-3.0758, lon :37.3533, type : Volcano -Africa -ULTRA // 5895m strato

Mt.Kenya — lat :-.1508, lon :37.3075, type : Volcano -Africa -ULTRA // 5199m

Mt.Meru — lat :-3.247, lon :36.748, type : Volcano -Africa -ULTRA // 4568m strato

Mt.Karisimbi — lat :-1.508, lon :29.445, type : Volcano -Africa -ULTRA // 4507m

Mt.Mikeno — lat :-1.464, lon :29.418, type : Volcano -Africa // 4437/1190 strato

Mt.Elgon — lat :1.118, lon :34.525, type : Volcano -Africa -ULTRA // 4321m shield

Mt.Muhavura — lat :-1.3806, lon :29.6773, type : Volcano -Africa -ULTRA // 4127m

Mt.Cameroon — lat :4.217, lon :9.173, type : Volcano -Africa -ULTRA // 4040m strato

Pico_de_Teide — lat :28.273, lon :-16.639, type : Volcano -Africa -ULTRA -DECADE // 3718/3718 str/shield

Mt.Bisoke — lat :-1.461, lon :29.482, type : Volcano -Africa // 3711m

Mt.Sabyinyo — lat :-1.4, lon :29.6, type : Volcano -Africa // 3645m

Mt.Gahinga — lat :-1.3873, lon :29.6435, type : Volcano -Africa -ULTRA // 3474m

Mt.Nyiragongo — lat :-1.5220, lon :29.2495, type : Volcano -Africa -DECADE // 3470m strato

Mt.Hanang — lat :-4.435, lon :35.4, type : Volcano -Africa -ULTRA // 3420m

Emi_Koussi — lat :19.7936, lon :18.5519, type : Volcano -Africa -ULTRA // 3445m shield

Mt.Giluwe — lat :-6.043, lon :143.887, type : Volcano -Oceania -ULTRA // 4367m shield

Mauna_Kea — lat :19.8207, lon :-155.4681, type : Volcano -Oceania -ULTRA // 4207m shield

Mauna_Loa — lat :19.4795, lon :-155.6027, type : Volcano -Oceania -ULTRA -DECADE // 4169m shield

Mt.Hagen — lat :-5.8582, lon :-144.2429, type : Volcano -Oceania // 3778m

Doma_Peaks — lat :-5.90, lon :143.15, type : Volcano -Oceania // 3568m

Mt.Kerewa — lat :-6.0681, lon :-143.1365, type : Volcano -Oceania // 3340m

Mt.Yelia — lat :-7.05, lon :145.858, type : Volcano -Oceania // 3384m

Crater_Mountain — lat :-6.58, lon :145.08, type : Volcano -Oceania // 3233m

Haleakala — lat :20.7097, lon :-156.2533, type : Volcano -Oceania -ULTRA // 3055m shield

Ruapehu — lat :-39.2817, lon :175.5685, type : Volcano -Oceania -ULTRA // 2797m strato

Mt.Balbi — lat :-5.917, lon :-154.983, type : Volcano -Oceania -ULTRA // 2715m

Mt.Suaru — lat :-6.25, lon :144.83, type : Volcano -Oceania // 2667m

Mt.Sisa — lat :-10.65, lon :152.817, type : Volcano -Oceania // 2650m

Mt.Kirimwi — lat :-6.5652, lon :144.7659, type : Volcano -Oceania // 2566m

Mt.Sidley — lat :-77.03, lon :-126.1, type : Volcano -Antarctica -ULTRA // 4285m shield

Mt.Erebus — lat :-77.5297, lon :167.1533, type : Volcano -Antarctica -ULTRA // 3794m COMPLEX

Mt.Frakes — lat :-76.8, lon :-117.7, type : Volcano -Antarctica -ULTRA // 3675m shield

Toney_Mountain — lat :-75.8, lon :-115.817, type : Volcano -Antarctica -ULTRA // 3595m shield

Mt.Steere — lat :-76.7, lon :-117.8, type : Volcano -Antarctica // 3558m shield

Mt.Berlin — lat :-76.05, lon :-135.87, type : Volcano -Antarctica -ULTRA // 3478m shield

Mt.Takahe — lat :-77.217, lon :166.800, type : Volcano -Antarctica -ULTRA // 3460m shield

Mt.Overlord — lat :-73.17, lon :164.6, type : Volcano -Antarctica // 3395m strato

Mt.Waesche — lat :-77.17, lon :-126.9, type : Volcano -Antarctica // 3392m ?

Mt.Hampton — lat :-76.483, lon :-125.8, type : Volcano -Antarctica // 3323m shield

Mt.Terror — lat :-77.52, lon :168.53, type : Volcano -Antarctica -ULTRA // 3230m shield

Mt.Siple — lat :-73.43, lon :-126.66, type : Volcano -Antarctica -ULTRA // 3110/3110 shield

Mt.Moulton — lat :-76.05, lon :-135.13, type : Volcano -Antarctica // 3078m shield

Ojos_del_Salado — lat :-27.1097, lon :-68.5414, type : Volcano -S_America -ULTRA // 6887m strato

Monte_Pissis — lat :-27.7558, lon :-68.7992, type : Volcano -S_America -ULTRA // 6882m

Cerro_Bonete — lat :-28.0186, lon :-68.756, type : Volcano -S_America // 6759m

Nevado_Tres_Cruces — lat :-27.1, lon :-68.783, type : Volcano -S_America // 6749m

Lluillaillaco — lat :-24.7207, lon :-68.5366, type : Volcano -S_America -ULTRA // 6723m

Cerro_Cazadero — lat :-27.1945, lon :-68.5609, type : Volcano -S_America // 6658m

Nevado_Incahuasi — lat :-27.0333, lon :-68.2958, type : Volcano -S_America -ULTRA // 6621m

Cerro_Tupungato — lat :-33.358, lon :-69.770, type : Volcano -S_America -ULTRA // 6550m

Nevado_Sajama — lat :-18.1050, lon :-68.8794, type : Volcano -S_America -ULTRA // 6542m

Nevado_El_Muerto — lat :-27.067, lon :-68.483, type : Volcano -S_America // 6488m

Cerro_Veladero — lat :-28.517, lon :-68.983, type : Volcano -S_America // 6436m

Cerro_Nacimiento — lat :-27.2806, lon :-68.5125, type : Volcano -S_America -ULTRA // 6436m

Nevado_Coropuna — lat :-15.4731, lon :-72.0750, type : Volcano -S_America -ULTRA // 6428m

Volcan_Antofalla — lat :-25.5625, lon :-67.8808, type : Volcano -S_America -ULTRA // 6409m

Nevado_de_Cachi — lat :-24.9317, lon :-66.3908, type : Volcano -S_America // 6380m

Cerro_El_Condor — lat :-26.6317, lon :-68.3617, type : Volcano -S_America -ULTRA // 6373/1660 strato

Mt.Drum — lat :62.1161, lon :-144.6378, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3660/2050 strato

Shishaldin — lat :54.7554, lon :-163.9709., type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2869/2869 strato

Mt.Baker — lat :48.7767, lon :-121.8144, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3286/2686 strato

Mt.Adams — lat :46.2024, lon :-121.4910, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3743/2474 strato

Mt.St.Helens — lat :46.1914, lon :-122.1956, type : Volcano -ULTRA -VEI // 2549/1404:1804 strato

Mt.Hood — lat :45.3736, lon :-121.6960, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3429/2349 strato

Lassen_Peak — lat :40.4882, lon :-121.5049, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3187/1594 LavaDome

Glacier_Peak — lat :48.1125, lon :-121.1138, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3207/2285 strato

Kawaikini — lat :22.0584, lon :-159.4974, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 1598/1598 shield

TAUPO_Volcano — lat :-38.7916, lon :175.9150, type : Volcano -ULTRA -VEI // ~1500/1500 SUPER(VEI8)

Gelai — lat :-2.6144, lon :36.1000, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2948/1930 strato?

Kitumbeine — lat :-2.8925, lon :36.2186, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2865/1770 strato?

San_Carlos — lat :3.3608, lon :8.5392, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2261/1539 shield

Pico_de_Sao_Tome — lat :.2675, lon :6.543, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2024/2024 shield

Mt.Kulal — lat :-2.7504, lon :36.9347, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2285/1542 strato?

Pico_Basile — lat :3.5897, lon :8.7591, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3011/3011 shield

Mt.Oku — lat :6.1833, lon :10.5167, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3011/2491 strato

Queen_Mary’s_Peak — lat :-37.1117, lon :-12.2873, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2062/2062 shield

Topo_da_Coroa — lat :17.0325, lon :-25.2958, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 1979/1979 strato

Pico_do_Fogo — lat :14.9494, lon :-24.3404, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2829/2829 somma-strato

Irazu — lat :9.9792, lon :-83.8525, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3432/1887 complex strato

Concepcion — lat :11.5397, lon :-85.6214, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 1610/1579 strato

Santa_Ana — lat :13.8554, lon :-89.6282, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2381/1602 strato

Atitlan — lat :14.583, lon :-91.183, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3535/1754 strato

Tajumulco — lat :15.0427, lon :-91.9045, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 4220/3980 strato

Cerro_Azul — lat :-.9200, lon :-91.4080, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 1689/1668 shield

Wolf_Volcano — lat :-.0194, lon :-91.3436, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 1707/1707 shield

Cumbre_Vieja — lat :28.5728, lon :-17.8375, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 1949/1949 strato

Pico_de_las_Nieves — lat :27.9639, lon :-15.5658, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 1949/1949 strato

Pic_Tousside — lat :21.040, lon :16.470, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3315/1593 strato

Deriba_Caldera — lat :12.9514, lon :24.2589, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3042/2512 shield-Cal

Karthala — lat :-11.7451, lon :43.3584, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2361/2361 shield

Manam_Motu — lat :-4.0643, lon :145.0273, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 1807/1807 strato

Mt.Marapi — lat :-.3818, lon :100.4730, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2891/2116 complex

Mt.Dempo — lat :-4.0158, lon :103.1283, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3173/2450 strato

Mt.Pangrango — lat :-6.7878, lon :106.9819, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3019/2426 strato

Mt.Sumbing — lat :-7.3850, lon :110.0725, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3371/2577 strato

Semeru — lat :-8.1077, lon :112.9224, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3676/3676 strato

Raung — lat :-8.1258, lon :114.0458, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3332/3069 strato

Mt.Agung — lat :-8.3433, lon :115.5071, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3031/3031 strato

Mount_Tambora — lat :-8.2479, lon :117.9911, type : Volcano -ULTRA -VEI // 2722/2722 strat-cal(VEI7)

Sangeang_Api — lat :-8.1961, lon :119.0700, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 1949/1949 complex

Poco_Mandasawu — lat :-8.6517, lon :120.4483, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2370/2370 LavaDome

Iliboleng — lat :-8.3440, lon :123.2520, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 1659/1659 strato

Karangetang — lat :2.7808, lon :125.4067, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 1827/1827 strato

Ulawun — lat :-5.0588, lon :151.3308, type : Volcano -ULTRA -DECADE // 2334/2334 strato

Mt.Apo — lat :6.9875, lon :125.2710, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2954/2954 strato

Mt.Matutum — lat :6.3606, lon :125.0747, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2286/1950 strato

Kanlaon — lat :10.4116, lon :123.1330, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2465/2430 strato

Bolusan — lat :12.7692, lon :124.0567, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 1565/1547 strato

Mayon — lat :14.583, lon :-91.183, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2463/2447 strato

Mt.Isarog — lat :13.6592, lon :123.3733, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2000/1951 strato

Mt.Labo — lat :14.0133, lon :122.7875, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 1544/1524 strato

Mt.Pinatubo — lat :15.1429, lon :120.3496, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 1486/1486:1745 strato

Mont_Orohena — lat :-17.6197, lon :-149.4842, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2241/2241 shield? ext

Aso-San — lat :32.8869, lon :131.0841, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 1592/1592 caldera complex

Halla-San — lat :33.3617, lon :126.5292, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 1950/1950 shield

Paektu-San — lat :41.9930, lon :128.0775, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2744/2593 strato

Kambalny — lat :51.304, lon :156.876, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2156/1970 strato

Zhupanovsky — lat :53.5883, lon :159.1483, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2923/2210 strato

Koryaksky — lat :53.3208, lon :158.7128, type : Volcano -ULTRA -DECADE // 3456/2999 strato

Kronotsky — lat :54.7525, lon :160.5325, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3527/2736 strato

Tolbachik — lat :55.8308, lon :160.3258, type : Volcano —Asia -ULTRA // 3682/2190 shield-strat

Ichinsky — lat :55.6910, lon :157.7263, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3607/3125 strato

Shiveluch — lat :56.6539, lon :161.3631, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3307/3168 strato

Avachinsky — lat :53.2557, lon :158.8335, type : Volcano -ULTRA -DECADE // 2741/1550 strato

Veniaminof — lat :56.1983, lon :-159.3911, type : Volcano -ULTRA -VEI // 2507/2499 strato(VEI6)

Mt.Pavlof — lat :55.4203, lon :-161.8931, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2515/2507 strato

Makushin — lat :53.8864, lon :-166.9311, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2036/2036 strato

Maunga_Terevaka — lat :-27.0844, lon :-109.3794, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 507/Rapa-Nui shield

Domuyo — lat :-36.6397, lon :-70.433, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 4709/2229 strato

Tromen — lat :-37.1400, lon :-70.0500, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 4114/1721 strato

Llaima — lat :-38.6970, lon :-71.7300, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3125/1819 strato

Tronador — lat :-41.1608, lon :-71.8875, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3491/2642 strato

Maipo — lat :-34.1667, lon :-69.8333, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 5264/1900 strato

Ollague — lat :-21.3025, lon :-68.1792, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 5868/1686 strato

Guallatiri — lat :-18.4244, lon :-69.0903, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 6071/1700 strato

Parinacota — lat :-18.1633, lon :-69.1427, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 6348/1989 strato

Tacora — lat :-17.7208, lon :-69.7725, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 5980/1700 strato

Misti — lat :-16.2988, lon :-71.4057, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 5822/1785 strato

Nevado_Chachani — lat :-16.1936, lon :-71.5190, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 6057/1963 caldera

Tungurahua — lat :-1.4702, lon :-78.4448, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 5023/1554 strato

Chimborazo — lat :-1.4693, lon :-78.8169, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 6263/4118 strato

Nevado_del_Huila — lat :2.9242, lon :-76.0292, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 5364/2650 strato

Sangay — lat :-2.0142, lon :-78.3273, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 5300/1588 strato

Nevado_del_Ruiz — lat :4.8920, lon :-75.3188, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 5321/2035 strato

Cumbal — lat :-.9515, lon :-77.8879, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 4764/1575 strato

Antisana — lat :-.4868, lon :-78.1450, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 5704/1678 strato

Copiapo/Azufre — lat :-27.3060, lon :-69.1310, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 6052/1701 strato

Payun_Matru — lat :-36.4200, lon :-69.2000, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3680/1926 shield

Lanin — lat :-39.6372, lon :-71.5024, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 3776/2624 strato

Mt.Murphy — lat :-75.333, lon :-110.733, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2705/2055 shield

Mawson_Peak — lat :-53.1032, lon :73.5161, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2745/2745 complex

Mt.Melbourne — lat :-74.35, lon :164.7, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2730/1699 strato

Mt.Morning — lat :-78.517, lon :163.583, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2725/1515 shield

Mt.Discovery — lat :-78.367, lon :165.017, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2681/1637 strato

Mt.Andrus — lat :-75.8, lon :-132.3, type : Volcano -ULTRA // 2978/???? shield

Mt.Vesuvius — lat :40.817, lon :14.433, type : Volcano -DECADE // 1281m somma-strato

Mt.Merapi — lat :-7.5407, lon :110.4457, type : Volcano -DECADE // 2930/1356

Galeras — lat :1.2219, lon :-77.3592, type : Volcano -DECADE // 4276/???? strato

Taal — lat :14.0113, lon :120.9977, type : Volcano -DECADE // 311/311 complex

Sakurajima — lat :31.5833, lon :130.6500, type : Volcano -DECADE // 1117/1117 strato

Unzen — lat :32.7577, lon :130.3015, type : Volcano -DECADE // 1500/???? complex-strato

Santa_Maria — lat :14,7571, lon :-91.5517, type : Volcano -DECADE // 3772/1054 LavaDome

Santorini — lat :36.3956, lon :25.4592, type : Volcano -DECADE // submarine caldera

Krakatoa_Anak — lat :-6.0993, lon :105.4215, type : Volcano -DECADE -VEI // 813 /VEI6 caldera

Cerro_Blanco — lat :-26.7603, lon :-67.7414, type : Volcano -VEI // 4670/VEI7 strato

Ile_Amsterdam — lat :-37.8494, lon :77.5494, type : Volcano —ISOLATION // 867/867

Table-7: IMPACT CRATERS

DIAMETER (kms) AGE (Millions of Years)

1.Vredefort — lat :-27.000, lon :27.500, type : ImpactCrater // 300 2023 ± 4

2.Sudbury — lat :46.600, lon :-81.183, type : ImpactCrater // 250 1850 ± 3

3.Chicxulub — lat :21.333, lon :-89.500, type : ImpactCrater // 180 64.98 ± .05

4.Popigai — lat :71.650, lon :111.183, type : ImpactCrater // 100 35.7 ± .2

5.Manicouagan — lat :51.383, lon :-68.700, type : ImpactCrater // 100 214 ± 1

6.Acraman — lat :-32.017, lon :135.450, type : ImpactCrater // 90 580

7.ChesapeakeBay — lat :37.283, lon :-76.017, type : ImpactCrater // 85 35.5 ± .3

8.Phuchezh-Katunki — lat :56.967, lon :43.717, type : ImpactCrater // 80 167 ± 3

9.Morokweng — lat :-26.467, lon :23.533, type : ImpactCrater // 70 145 ± .8

10.Kara — lat :69.100, lon :64.150, type : ImpactCrater // 65 70.3 ± 2.2

11.Beaverhead — lat :44.250, lon :-114.000, type : ImpactCrater // 60 600

12.Woodleigh — lat :-26.050, lon :114.667, type : ImpactCrater // 60-160 364

13.Tookoonooka — lat :-27.117, lon :142.833, type : ImpactCrater // 55 128 ± 5

14.Charveloix — lat :47.533, lon :-70.300, type : ImpactCrater // 54 342 ± 15

15.SiljanRing — lat :61.033, lon :14.867, type : ImpactCrater // 52 376.8 ± 1.7

16.Karakul — lat :39.017, lon :73.450, type : ImpactCrater // 52 25

17.Montagnais — lat :42.883, lon :-64.217, type : ImpactCrater // 45 50.5 ± .76

18.Araguainha — lat :-16.783, lon :-52.983, type : ImpactCrater // 40 244.4 ± 3.25

19.Mjolnir — lat :73.800, lon :29.667, type : ImpactCrater // 40 142 ±2.6

20.SaintMartin — lat :51.783, lon :-98.533, type : ImpactCrater // 40 220 ± 32

21.Carswell — lat :58.450, lon :-109.500, type : ImpactCrater // 39 115 ± 10

22.ClearwaterWest — lat :56.217, lon :-74.500, type : ImpactCrater // 36 290 ± 20

23.Manson — lat :42.583, lon :-94.550, type : ImpactCrater // 35 73.8 ± .3

24.Saqqar — lat :29.583, lon :38.700, type : ImpactCrater // 34 70-410

25.SlateIslands — lat :48.667, lon :-87.000, type : ImpactCrater // 30 450

26.Yarrabubba — lat :-27.167, lon :118.833, type : ImpactCrater // 30 ~2000

27.Keurusselka — lat :62.133, lon :24.600, type : ImpactCrater // 30 1400-1500

28.Shoemaker — lat :-25.867, lon :120.883, type : ImpactCrater // 30 1630

29.Mistatin — lat :55.883, lon :-63.300, type : ImpactCrater // 28 36.4 ± 4

30.ClearwaterEast — lat :56.067, lon :-74.100, type : ImpactCrater // 26 290 ± 20

31.Kamensk — lat :48.350, lon :40.500, type : ImpactCrater // 25 49 ± .2

32.SteenRiver — lat :59.500, lon :-117.633, type : ImpactCrater // 25 91 ± 7

33.Strangways — lat :-15.200, lon :133.583, type : ImpactCrater // 25 646 ± 42

34.Tunnunik — lat :72.467, lon :-113.933, type : ImpactCrater // 25 130-350

35.Boltysh — lat :48.900, lon :32.250, type : ImpactCrater // 24 65.17

36.NordlingerRies — lat :48.883, lon :10.567, type : ImpactCrater // 24 14.3-14.5

37.Presqu’ile — lat :49.717, lon :-74.800, type : ImpactCrater // 24 <500

38.Haughton — lat :75.383, lon :-89.667, type : ImpactCrater // 23 39

39.Lappajarvi — lat :63.200, lon :23.700, type : ImpactCrater // 23 73.3 ± 5.3

40.Rochechouart — lat :45.82417, lon :0.78167, type : ImpactCrater // 23 214 ± 8

41.GossesBluff — lat :-23.82083, lon :132.30778, type : ImpactCrater // 22 142.5 ± .8

42.AmeliaCreek — lat :-20.917, lon :134.833, type : ImpactCrater // 20 600-1660

43.Logancha — lat :65.517, lon :95.933, type : ImpactCrater // 20 40 ± 20

44.Obolon — lat :49.583, lon :32.917, type : ImpactCrater // 20 169 ± 7

45.Glikson — lat :-23.983, lon :121.567, type : ImpactCrater // 19 < 508

46.Dellen — lat :61.850, lon :16.700, type : ImpactCrater // 19 89 ± 2.7

47.Oasis — lat :24.583, lon :24.400, type : ImpactCrater // 18

48.LawnHill — lat :-18.667, lon :138.650, type : ImpactCrater // 18 > 515

49.El’gygytgyn — lat :67.500, lon :172.083, type : ImpactCrater // 18 3.5 ± .5

50.Luizi — lat :-10.167, lon :28.000, type : ImpactCrater // 17

51.Suavjarvi — lat :63.117, lon :33.383, type : ImpactCrater // 16 2400

52.Ames — lat :36.250, lon :-98.200, type : ImpactCrater // 16 470 ± 30

53.Logoisk — lat :54.200, lon :27.800, type : ImpactCrater // 15 42.3 ± 1.1

54.Kaluga — lat :54.500, lon :36.200, type : ImpactCrater // 15 380 ± 5

55.Zhamanshin — lat :48.400, lon :60.967, type : ImpactCrater // 14 .900 ± .1

56.Janisjarvi — lat :61.967, lon :30.917, type : ImpactCrater // 14 700 ± 5

57.Gweni-Fada — lat :17.417, lon :21.750, type : ImpactCrater // 14

58.Spider — lat :-16.733, lon :126.083, type : ImpactCrater // 13

59.SierraMadera — lat :30.600, lon :-102.917, type : ImpactCrater // 13

60.Kentland — lat :40.750, lon :-87.400, type : ImpactCrater // 13

61.DeepBay — lat :56.400, lon :-102.983, type : ImpactCrater // 13 99 ± 4

62.Marquez — lat :31.283, lon :-96.300, type : ImpactCrater // 12.7 58 ± 2

63.Aorounga — lat :19.100, lon :19.250, type : ImpactCrater // 12.6

64.Nicholson — lat :62.667, lon :-102.683, type : ImpactCrater // 12.5

65.WellsCreek — lat :36.383, lon :-87.667, type : ImpactCrater // 12 200 ± 100

66.VargeaoDome — lat :-26.833, lon :-52.117, type : ImpactCrater // 12

67.SerraDaCangalha — lat :-8.083, lon :-46.867, type : ImpactCrater // 12

68.Avak — lat :71.250, lon :-156.500, type : ImpactCrater // 12

69.Ternovka — lat :48.133, lon :33.517, type : ImpactCrater // 11 280 ± 10

70.Dhala — lat :25.300, lon :78.133, type : ImpactCrater // 11 1700-2100

71.Bosumtwi — lat :6.5050, lon :-1.4083, type : ImpactCrater // 10.5 1.07

72.SantaMarta — lat :-10.167, lon :-45.250, type : ImpactCrater // 10 66-100

73.UpheavalDome — lat :38.433, lon :-109.933, type : ImpactCrater // 10

74.Paasselka — lat :62.150, lon :29.417, type : ImpactCrater // 10 1800

75.KellyWest — lat :-19.933, lon :133.950, type : ImpactCrater // 10 >550

76.Karla — lat :54.917, lon :48.033, type : ImpactCrater // 10 5 ± 1

77.Flaxman — lat :-34.617, lon :139.067, type : ImpactCrater // 10 > 35

78.EagleButte — lat :49.700, lon :-110.500, type : ImpactCrater // 10

79.VistaAlegre — lat :-25.950, lon :-52.683, type : ImpactCrater // 9.5

80.RedWing — lat :47.600, lon :-103.550, type : ImpactCrater // 9 200 ± 25

81.Ragonzika — lat :58.733, lon :61.800, type : ImpactCrater // 9 46 ± 3

82.Mien — lat :56.417, lon :14.867, type : ImpactCrater // 9 121 ± 2.3

83.Lumparn — lat :60.150, lon :20.100, type : ImpactCrater // 9 1000

84.ConnollyBasin — lat :-23.533, lon :124.750, type : ImpactCrater // 9

85.Ilyinets — lat :49.117, lon :29.100, type : ImpactCrater // 8.5 378 ± 5

86.Crawford — lat :-34.717, lon :139.033, type : ImpactCrater // 8.5 > 35

87.Calvin — lat :41.833, lon :-85.950, type : ImpactCrater // 8.5 450 ± 10

88.Vepriai — lat :55.083, lon :24.583, type : ImpactCrater // 8 160 ± 10

89.SerpentMound — lat :39.033, lon :-83.400, type : ImpactCrater // 8

90.Neugrund — lat :59.333, lon :23.667, type : ImpactCrater // 8 470

91.LaMoinerie — lat :57.433, lon :-66.617, type : ImpactCrater // 8 450 ± 50

92.GloverBluff — lat :43.967, lon :-89.533, type : ImpactCrater // 8

93.Elbow — lat :50.983, lon :-106.717, type : ImpactCrater // 8 395 ± 25

94.DesPlaines — lat :42.050, lon :-87.867, type : ImpactCrater // 8

95.Couture — lat :60.133, lon :-75.333, type : ImpactCrater // 8 430 ± 25

96.Bigach — lat :48.567, lon :82.017, type : ImpactCrater // 8 5

97.Beyenchime-Salaatin — lat :71.000, lon :121.667, type : ImpactCrater // 8 40 ± 20

98.Wanapitei — lat :46.750, lon :-80.750, type : ImpactCrater // 7.5 37.2 ± 1.2

99.MattWilson — lat :-15.50111, lon :131.17861, type : ImpactCrater // 7.5

100.Lockne — lat :63.000, lon :14.817, type : ImpactCrater // 7.5 458

101.Piccaninny — lat :-17.433, lon :128.433, type : ImpactCrater // 7

102.CrookedCreek — lat :37.833, lon :-91.383, type : ImpactCrater // 7 320 ± 80

103.CloudCreek — lat :43.117, lon :-106.750, type : ImpactCrater // 7 190 ± 30

104.Soderfjarden — lat :63.000, lon :21.567, type : ImpactCrater // 6.6 ~600

105.SantaFe — lat :35.750, lon :-105.933, type : ImpactCrater // 6-13

106.TinBider — lat :27.600, lon :5.117, type : ImpactCrater // 6

107.Saaksjarvi — lat :61.400, lon :22.400, type : ImpactCrater // 6 ~560

108.RockElm — lat :44.717, lon :-92.233, type : ImpactCrater // 6

109.Pilot — lat :60.283, lon :-111.000, type : ImpactCrater // 6 445 ± 2

110.Middlesboro — lat :36.617, lon :-83.733, type : ImpactCrater // 6

111.MapleCreek — lat :49.800, lon :-109.100, type : ImpactCrater // 6

112.Kursk — lat :51.700, lon :36.000, type : ImpactCrater // 6 250 ± 80

113.Foelsche — lat :-16.667, lon :136.783, type : ImpactCrater // 6 > 545

114.Decaturville — lat :37.900, lon :-92.717, type : ImpactCrater // 6

115.Chukcha — lat :75.700, lon :97.800, type : ImpactCrater // 6 < 70

116.JabalWaqfEsSwwan — lat :31.050, lon :36.800, type : ImpactCrater // 5.5 37-56

117.Chiyli — lat :49.167, lon :57.850, type : ImpactCrater // 5.5 46 ± 7

118.GoatPaddock — lat :-18.333, lon :126.667, type : ImpactCrater // 5.1

119.Mizarai — lat :54.017, lon :23.900, type : ImpactCrater // 5 500 ± 20

120.GowLake — lat :56.450, lon :-104.483, type : ImpactCrater // 5

121.Gardnos — lat :60.650, lon :9.000, type : ImpactCrater // 5 500 ± 10

122.Wetumpka — lat :32.517, lon :-86.167, type : ImpactCrater // 4.7 ~83

123.RioCuarto — lat :-32.8783, lon :-64.2233, type : ImpactCrater // 4.5

124.RiachaoRing — lat :-7.717, lon :-46.650, type : ImpactCrater // 4.5

125.Dobele — lat :56.583, lon :23.250, type : ImpactCrater // 4.5 290 ± 35

126.SuvasvesiNorth — lat :62.700, lon :28.167, type : ImpactCrater // 4 < 1000

127.MountToondina — lat :-27.950, lon :135.367, type : ImpactCrater // 4

128.Kardla — lat :59.017, lon :22.767, type : ImpactCrater // 4 455

129.IleRouleau — lat :50.683, lon :-73.883, type : ImpactCrater // 4

130.Glasford — lat :40.600, lon :-89.783, type : ImpactCrater // 4

131.SuvasvesiSouth — lat :62.600, lon :28.217, type : ImpactCrater // 3.8 ~250

132.Steinheim — lat :48.683, lon :10.067, type : ImpactCrater // 3.8 15 ± 1

133.FlynnCreek — lat :36.283, lon :-85.667, type : ImpactCrater // 3.8 360 ± 20

134.Brent — lat :46.083, lon :-78.483, type : ImpactCrater // 3.8 396 ± 20

135.Colonia — lat :-23.933, lon :-68.283, type : ImpactCrater // 3.6 > 5

136.ZelenyGai — lat :48.067, lon :32.750, type : ImpactCrater // 3.5 80 ± 20

137.Oarkziz — lat :29.000, lon :-7.550, type : ImpactCrater // 3.5

138.Kgagodi — lat :-22.483, lon :27.583, type : ImpactCrater // 3.5

139.Pingualuit — lat :61.283, lon :-73.667, type : ImpactCrater // 3.44 1.4 ± .1

140.Zapadnaya — lat :49.733, lon :29.000, type : ImpactCrater // 3.2 165 ± 5

141.Newporte — lat :48.967, lon :-101.967, type : ImpactCrater // 3.2

142.Agoudal — lat :31.983, lon :-5.500, type : ImpactCrater // 3 .105

143.Iso-Naakkima — lat :62.183, lon :27.150, type : ImpactCrater // 3 1000

144.Gusev — lat :48.433, lon :40.533, type : ImpactCrater // 3 49 ± .2

145.Grandby — lat :58.417, lon :14.933, type : ImpactCrater // 3 443-470

146.Goyder — lat :-13.150, lon :135.033, type : ImpactCrater // 3

147.Shunak — lat :47.217, lon 72.767, type : ImpactCrater // 2.8 45 ± 10

148.Rotmistrovka — lat :49.000, lon :32.000, type : ImpactCrater // 2.7 120 ± 10

149.Ritland — lat :59.233, lon :6.433, type : ImpactCrater // 2.7 520 ± 20

150.Viewfield — lat :49.583, lon :-103.067, type : ImpactCrater // 2.5 190 ± 20

151.RoterKamm — lat :-27.767, lon :16.300, type : ImpactCrater // 2.5 3.7 ± .3

152.MishinaGora — lat :58.717, lon :28.050, type : ImpactCrater // 2.5 300 ± 50

153.WestHawk — lat :49.767, lon :-95.183, type : ImpactCrater // 2.44 351 ± 20

154.Holleford — lat :44.467, lon :-76.633, type : ImpactCrater // 2.35 550 ± 100

155.Tvaren — lat :58.767, lon :17.417, type : ImpactCrater // 2 455

156.B.P.Structure — lat :25.317, lon :24.317, type : ImpactCrater // 2

157.Tenoumer — lat :22.91806, lon :-10.40750, type : ImpactCrater // 1.9 .021 ± .01

158.Lonar — lat :19.967, lon :76.517, type : ImpactCrater // 1.83 .052 ±6k

159.Xiuyan — lat :40.350, lon :123.450, type : ImpactCrater // 1.8 .050

160.Talemzane — lat :33.317, lon :4.033, type : ImpactCrater // 1.75

161.Liverpool — lat :-12.400, lon :134.050, type : ImpactCrater // 1.6 543-1000

162.Saarijarvi — lat :65.283, lon :28.383, type : ImpactCrater // 1.5 > 600

163.Karikkoselka — lat :62.217, lon :25.250, type : ImpactCrater // 1.5 230

164.Tabun-Khara-Obo — lat :44.133, lon :109.650, type : ImpactCrater // 1.3 150 ± 20

165.Hummeln — lat :57.367, lon :16.250, type : ImpactCrater // 1.2 443-470

166.Barringer — lat :35.033, lon :-111.017, type : ImpactCrater // 1.19 .049 ± .003

167.Tswaing — lat :-25.40833, lon :28.08278, type : ImpactCrater // 1.13 .220 ± .05

168.Malingen — lat :62.917, lon :14.550, type : ImpactCrater // 1 458

169.WolfeCreek — lat :-19.167, lon :127.800, type : ImpactCrater // 0.875 .3

170.Kalkkop — lat :-32.717, lon :24.433, type : ImpactCrater // 0.64 .25

171.Monturaqui — lat :-23.933, lon :-68.267, type : ImpactCrater // 0.46

172.Amguid — lat :26.083, lon :4.400, type : ImpactCrater // 0.45

173.Aouelloul — lat :20.250, lon :-12.683, type : ImpactCrater // 0.39 3 ± .3

174.Macha — lat :60.100, lon :117.583, type : ImpactCrater // 0.3 ~5300 B.C.

175.Boxhole — lat :-22.617, lon :135.200, type : ImpactCrater // 0.17 ~3400 B.C.

176.Odessa — lat :31.750, lon :-102.483, type : ImpactCrater // 0.168

177.Henbury — lat :-24.567, lon :133.133, type : ImpactCrater // 0.157 ~2200 B.C.

178.Wabar — lat :21.500, lon :50.467, type : ImpactCrater // 0.116 ?

179.Kaalijarv — lat :58.367, lon :22.667, type : ImpactCrater // 0.11 ~2000 B.C.

180.Morasko — lat :52.483, lon :16.900, type : ImpactCrater // 0.1 ~3000 B.C.

181.Veevers — lat :-22.967, lon :125.367, type : ImpactCrater // 0.08

182.Ilumetsa — lat :57.967, lon :27.417, type : ImpactCrater // 0.08 > .0066

183.Sobolev — lat :46.300, lon :137.867, type : ImpactCrater // 0.053

184.CampoDelCielo — lat :-27.633, lon :-61.700, type : ImpactCrater // 0.05 ~2000 B.C.

185.Kamil — lat :22.01833, lon :26.08750, type : ImpactCrater // 0.045

186.Whitecourt — lat :54.000, lon :-115.600, type : ImpactCrater // 0.036

187.Sikhote-Alin — lat :46.117, lon :134.667, type : ImpactCrater // 0.027 69

188.Dalgaranga — lat :-27.633, lon :117.283, type : ImpactCrater // 0.024 ?

189.Haviland — lat :37.583, lon :-99.167, type : ImpactCrater // 0.015

Table-8: Nazca Lines-Great Circles Data

Radial Center Locations

Tiwanaku (Akapana): lat: -16.5564, lon: -68.6728

Cape Agulhas: lat: -34.839, lon: 20.004

Geodesic Antipode to Cape Agulhas: lat: 34.839, lon: -159.996

Amazon River Delta: lat: 0, lon: -50

Rapa-Nui (Easter Island): lat: -27.109, lon: -109.366

Tiwanaku Great Circles Angles

Line/Great Circle Angle to True

Name Tiwanaku Orient Heading

T0 (Tiwanaku Orient) 0 90

T1 4 86

T2 26.16 63.84

T3 53.54 36.46

T4 81.57 8.43

T5 97.04 352.96

T6 106.65 343.35

T7 118.94 331.06

T8 142.08 307.92

T9 187.64 262.36

T10 199.44 250.56

T11 219.17 230.83

T12 256.09 193.91

T13 308.86 141.14

Cape Agulhas Great Circles Angles

Line/Great Circle Angle to True

Name Primary C-A Heading

C-A (Primary) 0 281.31655

Antipodal Orient 0 90

C1 6.94 288.68345

C2 9.41 291.15345

C3 10.32 292.06345

C4 11.11 292.85345

C5 11.65 293.39345

C6 13.82 295.56345

C7 21.14 301.88345

C8 24.73 306.47345

C9 26.35 308.09345

C10 28.25 310.09345

C11 32.02 313.76345

C12 37.63 319.37345

C13 38.47 320.21345

C14 40.38 322.12345

C15 43.37 325.11345

C16 44.62 326.36345

C17 47.99 329.73345

C18 49.12 330.86345

C19 54.79 336.53345

C20 59.63 341.37345

C21 62.85 344.49345

C22 66.35 348.09345

C23 76.42 358.16345

C24 78.74 0.49345

C25 -5.31 276.43345

Amazon River Delta Great Circles Angles

Line/Great Circle Angle to True

Name Primary A-C Heading

Primary A-C 0 126.52655

A1 33.19 93.33655

A2 39.76 86.76655

A3 47.43 79.09655

A4 50.83 75.69655

A5 61.30 65.22655

A6 96.28 30.24655

A7 99.9 26.62655

A8 121.5 5.02655

A9 127.72 358.80655

A10 191.33 295.19655

A11 204 282.52655

A12 273.58 212.94655

A13 301.52 185.00655

A14 334.64 151.88655

Geodetic Antipode (Cape Agulhas) Great Circles Angles

Line/Great Circle Angle to True

Name Primary G-A Heading

G-A (Primary) 0 135.34894

G1 8.84 126.50894

G2 31.77 103.57894

G3 41.93 93.41894

G4 49.72 85.62894

G5 52.9 82.44894

G6 64.73 70.61894

G7 70.61 64.73894

G8 101.14 34.20894

G9 129.69 5.65894

G10 153.45 341.89894

G11 171.48 323.86894

G12 191.61 303.73894

G13 210.69 284.65894

G14 228.2 267.14894

G15 246.07 249.27894

G16 258.65 236.69894

G17 263.01 232.33894

G18 268.38 226.96894

G19 287.12 208.22894

G20 325.75 169.59894

G21 342.65 152.69894

Rapa-Nui (Easter Island) Great Circles Angles

Line/Great Circle Angle to True

Name Primary R-A Heading

R-A (Primary) 0 74.8981

R1 61.39 13.5081

By Frank Maglione Nicholson (concept development, statistical analysis, graphics), Ken Phungrasamee (concept development, graphics, simulation testing) and David Grimason (concept development, programming, statistical analysis).

A huge thank you also to the following people for their invaluable contributions:

  • Jim Alison for his contribution to the concept development, as described above.
  • Sharif Sakr for his advice on presentation.
  • Nathan Johnson for his help with research.
  • Graham Hancock and Robert Bauval, whose works inspired this one.
  • And all the other friends and family members, who have helped along the way.

For the latest updates and new material, please visit nazcasolution.com

20 thoughts on “The Nazca Great Circle Map Hypothesis”

  1. Lumaina says:

    I was impressed. There are ruins in Colombia you never mention, they are older much older than the Incas ruins SAN Agustin ColombiA and Cuevas de tierra adentro and there are much much more in the territory, ciudad perdida, cerró el torrá

    1. David Grimason says:

      Hi Lumaina, thanks for reading and for your comment. The ancient sites were chosen based on being generally recognised and accepted as ancient. That’s not to say that there aren’t many more. There is sort of a limit to how many can be included before the test becomes less meaningful – with thousands of sites covering the land, any random line would naturally intersect many locations – so we have to make a decision on what to include. However, we designed the experiment to be repeatable with any list of sites and we’re working on a user-friendly version that we can add many more sites to. We’ll provide a way for anyone who’s interested to run the experiment themselves, with any additional sites that they’d like to include. We’d be very happy to include the sites you suggest.

  2. Elizabeth D´Jaures says:

    Recieve my Congratulations from Chile. I will enjoy analizing this work for a good understanding because it looks really consistent. Thanks to all of you for sharing this results with us. There are a lot of people searching and foundig a lot of material coming from the past in other matters too. Well doing!! -Elizabeth D’Jaures

  3. NakomaZ says:

    I think this is an EXCELLENT insight into the Nazca lines – however I might suggest seriously that you take a look at the recent Flat Earth evidence (NOT the flat earth society) – especially the fact that the curvature cannot be found, and also that ancient cultures also understood that the earth was flat (meaning not a globe) this would actually bring more insight, and make absolute sense. Also why they were able to create such straight lines. I suggest the youtube channel Globebusters as a good place to start. I know this is a HOT TABOO subject for so many people, but, the more you look into it, the more you’ll see just how much evidence there is.

  4. Morgan Moura says:

    Monumental e Fantástico trabalho de descobertas e conexões das origens da Humanidade, não há palavres para elogiar este trabalho e agradecer tamanho esforço de revelações para a humanidade.

  5. Patrick Faure says:

    Phenomenal! What a great explanation of the genius of our ancestors! And for the first time someone makes sense of the puzzle. Thank you for the enlightening work.

  6. Richárd Újhelyi says:

    Dear Frank Maglione Nicholson! Great job, congratulations! Years ago, based on my own research, I came to the conclusion that this is a world map. Interested in my hypothesis?

    1. David Grimason says:

      Hi Richárd, answering on behalf of Frank – yes of course, we’d be very interested to hear any hypothesis related to Nazca

    2. Richárd Újhelyi says:

      Unfortunately, I can’t explain it. Rather, here’s a video. Nasca lines. Line direction.

      https://drive.google.com/file/d/16_HWMzqTq90JR3YVvbtFeMrBcn4cYr79/view?usp=drivesdk

  7. Evan Winsløw says:

    Very impressive work!
    I would like to follow up on it.

    I first learned about the Nazca drawing around around 1970 but only now realised the importance of the discovery.

  8. roger says:

    just an add .. could this map be how and where to place eng directors .. ie obalisk henges ect…. to power the vanhealen belt thing to protec the planet .. just athought

  9. A g f says:

    The Nazca lines are messages to the aliens living in the far stars, thanking them for the seed of knowledge they presented to mankind by showing them examples of some of the living creatures and knowledge that humans have.

  10. Ben says:

    is your Google Earth overlay sharable? I have a robust set of maps already, and I would love to overlay yours and look for new hypotheses

  11. Paul says:

    Could I ask others here to compare what is being presented here to a recent TEDx talk given by Roger G. Gilbertson about a curious earth orbit path which appears to perfectly correlate with this work’s Great Circle R-A?

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_HytJn6uaRk&t=

  12. Ryushin Malone says:

    You’re wrong. They are The Orion Groups territory markings to ward off other ETs as to who’s planet this really is or was, Orion’s. They are a 3D star map of their territory. TheOrionLines.com

  13. Steve says:

    Surly the radial centres shouldn’t be random in the simulations as they are where they are!
    I would ne interested to see results where the RC are fixed but the lines are random, great work

    1. David Grimason says:

      Hi Steve, we did consider this and may have even run some tests with that configuration. In the end we decided that random RCs would be a more genuine test. We’re working on a user-friendly version of the experiment that will be publicly available very soon. We can add an option to use fixed RCs, as you suggest. I’ll keep you posted!

  14. Ben says:

    Please. share the google earth source files for this. I have a massive collection of geology work in Google Earth, all towards this particular topic, so I’d love to overlap our research and see what emerges.

  15. Darlene MacFarland says:

    It looks like this is part of the programming for Earth in this reality, which in turn is just one of the various other programs that are also running running on this planet and this Universe. Too much to go into here, but that’s the way I see it. This pre-dates humanity.

  16. Jim Alison says:

    Frank,

    Great work. I remember when your early drafts were much longer and much harder to understand, and Sharif and I were mainly just encouraging you to stay with it. You have clarified it beautifully. Well done.

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