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Simon Prentis Wrote:
-------------------------------------------------------
> I'm aware of these studies, but my own view is
> that there is a fundamental problem with the
> assumption that it must have been changes to the
> brain that gave rise to language. That's because
> there'd need to be something that would act as an
> environmental driver to select for such changes,
> and although an increased capacity for general
> intelligence would no doubt be beneficial in any
> species to a certain extent, the trade-off in
> terms of the much higher energy requirement would
> rapidly become counterproductive unless there was
> a significant benefit -- which is presumably why
> we don't see the extraordinary brain growth of
> humans in other species.

I'm not sure I follow this argument. We know there are specific areas of the brain that are essential in processing language in parts of the frontal cortex - Broca's area and all which interconnect with other neural pathways in very complicated ways. Are you saying that these structures existed before language in our species or that language created these structures? That doesn't make much sense to me. Do we have any evidence that early hominids had these neural structures in the same proportion that we do?

Also we know that small changes - a single nucleotide - to genes, and I will again mention FOXP2 but there are others, can disrupt the brains ability to process and understand language so there must be at least some genetic background to how the brain has changed in order to produce language. I'm not saying it is the only factor by any means but genetics is not inconsequential either. Don't forget it is not so much new genes we are talking about as much as how those genes have changed over time as a result of environmental pressures.

As to the cost/benefit of the higher energy requirement for bigger brains, I think we humans are living proof that the benefit pays off. And in the brain to body size ratio, there are animals that rival us - dolphins, even octopi but brain size is not always the relevant factor as much as how tightly and densely neurons are packed together and how complex the networks are. It would be interesting to know how much of the chirping and clicking of an intelligent mammal like a dolphin could be considered language rather than just communication. ​

> However, if the emergence of language was
> essentially a bottom-up process of refining
> (ultimately by digitising) the existing and
> widespread practices of many species of animals
> that use sound to communicate, the benefit of
> being able to communicate more effectively would
> provide just such a pressure to select for such
> changes in the brain. To me, that makes a lot more
> sense. The postulation of abstract mental
> capacities that must have preceded language, such
> as the ability to combine two concepts (which is
> what Chomsky's 'Universal Grammar' function has
> now been collapsed to) or to "think symbolically"
> (let alone such outliers as being "wired for
> culture") seems to me to be much more
> problematic.


I read up on some of this and it is a very complicated subject. And there are a lot of theories as to how language came about. I don't know that I feel qualified to make a quality argument on the subject but I do have some thoughts.

Sure I'll buy that we digitized and upgraded more simple forms of expressions that animals use and arrived as a bottom-up modification but I would also say that a lot of different factors had to sort of arise in conjunction and these upgrades were genetic, physiological and cultural in nature.

Greater intelligence and the forming of abstract thought would be selected for just because through better organized hunting technique, more of us survived. But in order for true language to arise, there had to be morphological changes to our voice boxes and larynx. Our tongues had to be connected to our motor cortex in a way that allowed the forming of more complex sounds. Our brains had to have at least reorganized motor function and neural connections to allow these changes.

So were all these changes in existence before language as we know it arose or did they arise together incrementally as our species evolved? It makes sense to me that one small change in one area such as the beginning of the vocalization of more abstract thoughts led to small changes in other areas as say a small physiological change in the shape of the larynx or tongue which led to small changes in the prefrontal cortex and so on and so on through out our history.

I think that is what evolution is all about small incremental changes that combine and are handed down in aggregate over time. That is until the environment changes and all of a sudden what was an advantage is not so much any more. There is no guarantee that intelligence ensures survival. We are seeing that play out before our eyes today.

> Darwin himself was puzzled by language because
> there seemed to be nothing from which language
> could have descended, or been modified from. But
> that's because he, and the linguists that followed
> him, were thinking of language as it now is -- a
> complex interplay between the "double
> articulation" of words and grammar. It can't have
> started out that way, though, from the off. The
> other thing about the digitization of sound and
> the (relatively) sudden ability to make lots of
> words is that it would have acted almost like a
> phase change -- ushering in a radical shift from
> grunts and whines to full-blown communication.
> Which is why I describe it in my article (and my
> book) as a singularity -- rather like, in a
> different idiom, the change that took place when
> life shifted from being single-celled organisms to
> multi-cellularity: the Cambrian explosion. In a
> sense, the emergence of language was the Cambrian
> explosion of the mind.

Sure, I'd agree with you that the arrival of complex language was a Cambrian explosion of the mind. I like the use of the Cambrian as an analogy.

But I'm going to say rather than a singularity, I think it happened much like the Cambrian over many, many generations in a progression of very slow changes in culture, physiology and changes in the genome that were selected for over time.

At any rate, a challenging subject to wrap your brain around. I'm going to reread your article to get a better grip on what you are saying.

Cheers.



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 21-Sep-21 17:05 by Sirius7237.

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Subject Views Written By Posted
Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 1329 Graham Hancock 07-Sep-21 11:10
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 140 greengirl5 07-Sep-21 21:53
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 133 greengirl5 07-Sep-21 22:59
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 149 Simon Prentis 08-Sep-21 11:49
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 103 Glass Jigsaw 10-Sep-21 21:13
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 98 Simon Prentis 11-Sep-21 21:51
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 94 Simon Prentis 08-Sep-21 11:42
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 145 cjcalleman 07-Sep-21 22:47
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 149 Simon Prentis 08-Sep-21 12:13
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 183 Susan Doris 08-Sep-21 00:58
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 119 Simon Prentis 08-Sep-21 13:37
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 150 Susan Doris 08-Sep-21 17:59
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 90 Simon Prentis 08-Sep-21 20:37
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 80 Susan Doris 09-Sep-21 05:13
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 141 cjcalleman 08-Sep-21 16:48
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 120 Simon Prentis 08-Sep-21 21:03
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 116 cjcalleman 09-Sep-21 00:15
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 123 Simon Prentis 09-Sep-21 00:48
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 163 greengirl5 09-Sep-21 04:53
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 79 Simon Prentis 09-Sep-21 18:26
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 81 cjcalleman 09-Sep-21 16:09
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 91 Simon Prentis 09-Sep-21 20:45
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 91 cjcalleman 10-Sep-21 17:22
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 124 Simon Prentis 10-Sep-21 20:34
Chemicals reacting 107 greengirl5 10-Sep-21 22:47
Re: Chemicals reacting 113 Eddie Larry 11-Sep-21 13:32
Re: Chemicals reacting 101 greengirl5 11-Sep-21 21:31
Re: Chemicals reacting 113 Simon Prentis 12-Sep-21 01:25
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 95 Susan Doris 11-Sep-21 05:59
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 81 Susan Doris 11-Sep-21 05:51
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 88 Simon Prentis 12-Sep-21 10:08
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 91 Susan Doris 13-Sep-21 05:07
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 120 Edmond 09-Sep-21 10:39
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 150 Eddie Larry 09-Sep-21 12:57
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 107 Simon Prentis 09-Sep-21 18:09
One original language 109 greengirl5 09-Sep-21 21:32
Re: One original language 118 Simon Prentis 09-Sep-21 23:56
Re: One original language - I just finished your book! 98 greengirl5 10-Sep-21 01:56
Re: One original language - I just finished your book! 87 Simon Prentis 10-Sep-21 17:47
Re: One original language - I just finished your book! 139 greengirl5 10-Sep-21 22:15
Re: One original language 91 cjcalleman 12-Sep-21 19:52
Re: One original language 103 Simon Prentis 13-Sep-21 01:13
Re: One original language 87 cjcalleman 13-Sep-21 17:10
Re: One original language 100 Simon Prentis 13-Sep-21 21:33
Re: One original language 79 Susan Doris 14-Sep-21 10:06
Re: One original language 99 greengirl5 14-Sep-21 13:01
Re: One original language 82 Susan Doris 14-Sep-21 13:09
Re: One original language 93 cjcalleman 14-Sep-21 15:31
Re: One original language 77 Simon Prentis 14-Sep-21 18:01
Clever animals, clever us! 86 greengirl5 14-Sep-21 22:33
Re: One original language 94 cjcalleman 15-Sep-21 17:57
Re: One original language 83 Susan Doris 16-Sep-21 05:23
Re: One original language 74 Eddie Larry 16-Sep-21 15:27
Re: One original language 123 Susan Doris 16-Sep-21 16:27
Re: One original language 83 cjcalleman 16-Sep-21 17:32
Re: One original language 90 Susan Doris 17-Sep-21 05:22
The tortoise and the hare 130 Eddie Larry 17-Sep-21 16:28
Re: The tortoise and the hare 73 cjcalleman 18-Sep-21 17:02
Re: The tortoise and the hare 65 Eddie Larry 18-Sep-21 18:03
Re: The tortoise and the hare 121 cjcalleman 18-Sep-21 19:42
Re: The tortoise and the hare 88 Susan Doris 19-Sep-21 04:37
Re: The tortoise and the hare 120 Sirius7237 19-Sep-21 05:10
Re: The tortoise and the hare 112 Susan Doris 19-Sep-21 08:36
Re: The tortoise and the hare 86 Sirius7237 19-Sep-21 14:18
Re: The tortoise and the hare 114 cjcalleman 19-Sep-21 19:05
Re: The tortoise and the hare 113 Sirius7237 19-Sep-21 22:52
Re: The tortoise and the hare 131 Glass Jigsaw 20-Sep-21 03:18
Re: The tortoise and the hare 73 Susan Doris 20-Sep-21 05:17
Respect for Simon 107 drrayeye 20-Sep-21 07:17
Re: Respect for Simon 107 Susan Doris 20-Sep-21 08:36
Re: Respect for Simon 110 Sirius7237 20-Sep-21 18:24
You just gish galloped again 87 drrayeye 20-Sep-21 18:28
Re: Just one example, Ray???????? 164 Sirius7237 20-Sep-21 18:37
Re: Still waiting, Ray???????? 104 Sirius7237 20-Sep-21 18:52
Re: Ray???????? 107 Sirius7237 20-Sep-21 18:52
Re: Still waiting, Ray???????? 99 Glass Jigsaw 21-Sep-21 23:04
Re: Still waiting, Ray???????? 125 Sirius7237 22-Sep-21 00:30
Re: Still waiting, Ray???????? 92 Susan Doris 22-Sep-21 05:01
Re: Just one example, Ray???????? 77 Susan Doris 21-Sep-21 05:44
Re: Just one example, Ray???????? 77 Sirius7237 21-Sep-21 16:04
Re: Just one example, Ray???????? 70 Susan Doris 21-Sep-21 16:38
Re: Just one example, Ray???????? 66 Aine 27-Sep-21 00:37
Re: Just one example, Ray???????? 62 Susan Doris 27-Sep-21 05:25
Re: Just one example, Ray???????? 63 Eddie Larry 27-Sep-21 18:27
Re: Just one example, Ray???????? 68 Aine 27-Sep-21 21:04
Re: Just one example, Ray???????? 63 Eddie Larry 28-Sep-21 02:34
Re: Just one example, Ray???????? 70 Sirius7237 28-Sep-21 03:24
Re: Just one example, Ray???????? 62 Aine 28-Sep-21 16:20
Re: Respect for Simon 81 Susan Doris 21-Sep-21 05:41
Re: The tortoise and the hare 127 Sirius7237 20-Sep-21 18:17
Re: The tortoise and the hare 67 Susan Doris 21-Sep-21 05:55
Re: The tortoise and the hare 92 Susan Doris 20-Sep-21 05:36
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 102 Edmond 20-Sep-21 12:18
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 115 Simon Prentis 20-Sep-21 14:03
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 90 cjcalleman 20-Sep-21 17:40
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 103 Simon Prentis 20-Sep-21 21:32
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 68 Susan Doris 21-Sep-21 07:24
Origin of language 101 Simon Prentis 22-Sep-21 01:08
Re: Origin of language 69 Susan Doris 22-Sep-21 05:11
Re: Origin of language 72 Simon Prentis 22-Sep-21 12:35
Re: Origin of language 66 Susan Doris 22-Sep-21 13:02
Re: Origin of language 58 Aine 27-Sep-21 00:19
Re: Origin of language 59 Susan Doris 27-Sep-21 05:36
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 62 Aine 27-Sep-21 01:04
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 62 Susan Doris 27-Sep-21 05:58
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 53 Aine 27-Sep-21 15:59
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 69 Susan Doris 27-Sep-21 18:01
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 61 Aine 27-Sep-21 21:09
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 71 cjcalleman 28-Sep-21 18:09
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 69 cjcalleman 21-Sep-21 18:37
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 103 drrayeye 21-Sep-21 23:42
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 72 cjcalleman 22-Sep-21 15:02
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 93 Simon Prentis 22-Sep-21 17:39
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 64 Susan Doris 23-Sep-21 05:49
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 86 Simon Prentis 23-Sep-21 11:43
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 107 cjcalleman 24-Sep-21 15:46
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 99 Simon Prentis 24-Sep-21 22:02
The structure of scientific revolutions 106 drrayeye 25-Sep-21 02:21
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions Catch 33 75 Edmond 25-Sep-21 09:51
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions Catch 33 79 Simon Prentis 25-Sep-21 11:44
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions Catch 33 90 Susan Doris 25-Sep-21 15:45
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions Catch 33 70 Edmond 27-Sep-21 07:24
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions Catch 33 66 Susan Doris 27-Sep-21 10:37
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions Catch 33 59 drrayeye 27-Sep-21 16:07
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions Catch 33 61 Susan Doris 27-Sep-21 18:04
Gives Simon perspective on alternative POV's 64 drrayeye 27-Sep-21 18:58
Re: Gives Simon perspective on alternative POV's 94 Susan Doris 28-Sep-21 05:09
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions Catch 33 61 Eddie Larry 27-Sep-21 16:34
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions Catch 33 64 Aine 27-Sep-21 17:31
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions Catch 33 56 Eddie Larry 27-Sep-21 17:54
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions Catch 33 57 Aine 27-Sep-21 21:14
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions Catch 33 61 Edmond 28-Sep-21 08:51
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions Catch 33 63 Eddie Larry 28-Sep-21 23:47
Jung 62 drrayeye 29-Sep-21 19:56
Re: Jung 60 Eddie Larry 29-Sep-21 23:02
archertypes 65 drrayeye 28-Sep-21 23:24
Re: archertypes 74 Susan Doris 29-Sep-21 05:30
Simon's book 55 drrayeye 29-Sep-21 19:44
Re: Simon's book 55 Susan Doris 30-Sep-21 05:34
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions 68 Simon Prentis 25-Sep-21 09:56
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions 74 drrayeye 25-Sep-21 18:18
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions 96 Sirius7237 25-Sep-21 18:27
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions 79 drrayeye 25-Sep-21 18:41
Re: Show one example of me gish galloping, ray - one example??. 77 Sirius7237 25-Sep-21 23:34
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions 115 Susan Doris 26-Sep-21 04:34
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions 116 Simon Prentis 25-Sep-21 18:57
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions 78 drrayeye 26-Sep-21 14:26
Re: The structure of scientific revolutions 60 Aine 26-Sep-21 23:50
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 91 Susan Doris 25-Sep-21 05:10
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 101 Susan Doris 22-Sep-21 05:21
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 69 Sirius7237 21-Sep-21 15:48
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 92 Sirius7237 20-Sep-21 18:33
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 107 Simon Prentis 20-Sep-21 21:49
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 67 Eddie Larry 20-Sep-21 23:16
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 67 Simon Prentis 20-Sep-21 23:45
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 66 Sirius7237 21-Sep-21 00:06
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 91 Simon Prentis 21-Sep-21 01:05
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 68 Susan Doris 21-Sep-21 05:40
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 78 Sirius7237 21-Sep-21 15:40
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 88 Susan Doris 20-Sep-21 14:19
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 70 Sirius7237 20-Sep-21 19:08
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 116 Eddie Larry 20-Sep-21 20:10
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 103 Sirius7237 20-Sep-21 21:04
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 112 Eddie Larry 20-Sep-21 21:24
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 103 Sirius7237 21-Sep-21 00:18
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 109 Eddie Larry 21-Sep-21 19:02
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 90 Eddie Larry 20-Sep-21 15:49
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 82 Edmond 21-Sep-21 07:39
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 81 Simon Prentis 21-Sep-21 10:36
some perspective 85 drrayeye 21-Sep-21 17:42
Is it just me... 116 Simon Prentis 22-Sep-21 00:44
Re: Is it just me... 80 Sirius7237 22-Sep-21 00:56
Re: Is it just me... 114 Simon Prentis 22-Sep-21 01:38
Re: Is it just me... 109 Sirius7237 22-Sep-21 04:04
Re: Is it just me... 118 Simon Prentis 22-Sep-21 11:44
Re: Is it just me... 69 Sirius7237 22-Sep-21 22:39
Re: Is it just me... 101 Simon Prentis 23-Sep-21 14:01
Re: Is it just me... 69 Susan Doris 23-Sep-21 15:05
Re: Is it just me... 85 Susan Doris 22-Sep-21 06:09
Terrific! 67 drrayeye 22-Sep-21 01:36
Re: Is it just me... 83 Susan Doris 22-Sep-21 06:00
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 90 Edmond 22-Sep-21 09:09
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 109 Susan Doris 22-Sep-21 13:21
Re: The tortoise and the hare, evolutionary paradigm problems 98 Eddie Larry 21-Sep-21 17:47
Re: The tortoise and the hare 71 Aine 27-Sep-21 01:16
Re: The tortoise and the hare 67 Sirius7237 28-Sep-21 03:21
Re: The tortoise and the hare 60 Aine 28-Sep-21 16:23
Re: The tortoise and the hare with oxygen 75 Edmond 28-Sep-21 08:59
Re: The tortoise and the hare with oxygen 54 Sirius7237 29-Sep-21 02:31
Re: The tortoise and the hare with oxygen and time 90 Edmond 30-Sep-21 08:36
Re: The tortoise and the snowshoe hare 117 Sirius7237 01-Oct-21 18:10
Re: The tortoise and the hare 61 cjcalleman 28-Sep-21 18:01
Re: The tortoise and the hare 72 Susan Doris 19-Sep-21 04:50
Re: One original language 77 Susan Doris 14-Sep-21 10:16
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 127 drrayeye 09-Sep-21 19:22
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 98 Simon Prentis 09-Sep-21 21:08
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Do Re Mi 125 Edmond 10-Sep-21 09:37
Re: Do Re Mi 99 Simon Prentis 10-Sep-21 14:09
Re: Do Re Mi 106 Susan Doris 10-Sep-21 15:38
Re: Do Re Mi 97 Simon Prentis 10-Sep-21 18:08
Re: Do Re Mi 71 greengirl5 10-Sep-21 23:07
Re: Do Re Mi 87 Susan Doris 11-Sep-21 07:03
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 93 Christine 10-Sep-21 10:33
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 83 Simon Prentis 10-Sep-21 14:27
Re: Strange similarity? 106 Sirius7237 10-Sep-21 16:37
Re: Strange similarity? 118 Simon Prentis 10-Sep-21 21:01
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 104 Edmond 10-Sep-21 17:04
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 109 greengirl5 10-Sep-21 23:18
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 140 Sirius7237 11-Sep-21 15:57
Re: Scripts also use archetypal structure 122 Edmond 12-Sep-21 09:23
Re: Scripts also use archetypal structure 85 Susan Doris 12-Sep-21 09:56
Re: Indus and Harappan script as emblems 62 Edmond 28-Sep-21 09:34
The word became flesh 128 Edmond 11-Sep-21 08:26
Re: The word became flesh 95 Simon Prentis 12-Sep-21 11:59
Archetype is also in language 86 Edmond 14-Sep-21 10:23
Re: Archetype is also in language 121 Susan Doris 14-Sep-21 13:02
Thanks, Edmond 122 drrayeye 14-Sep-21 20:09
Re: Archetype is also in language 100 Simon Prentis 15-Sep-21 00:52
Archetype is also in language 79 Edmond 15-Sep-21 09:33
Re: Archetype is also in language 103 Susan Doris 15-Sep-21 15:05
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 82 Susan Doris 15-Sep-21 09:36
Swear words. 148 greengirl5 15-Sep-21 13:20
Re: Swear words. 72 Simon Prentis 24-Sep-21 10:04
Re: Welcome to Simon Prentis Author of the Month for September 2021 66 Susan Doris 30-Sep-21 05:49


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