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Steve,

A scientist is allowed (even required) to "guess" and make assumptions (even outrageous assumptions) as long as it leads to experiment. If the "guess" is not supported by evidence, one either rejects the guess, or refines the study and tries again.

The scientist always knows that his "guess" is wrong--and that it will be amended or replaced by a better "guess" in the future. Meanwhile, the prevailing statistically significant findings remain "king of the hill."

Those high numbers come from statistical "counting rules" that calculate the number of different combinations of events are possible with a given sample.

As to which animal, it's clearly the cow--if you believe the story about Mrs. O'leary and the Chicago fire.

Ray

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Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 59129 Graham Hancock 05-Aug-19 12:38
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 426 Martinsw1 05-Aug-19 12:54
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 396 cloister 06-Aug-19 04:28
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 408 Martinsw1 06-Aug-19 09:00
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 338 cloister 07-Aug-19 10:54
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 358 Martinsw1 07-Aug-19 13:58
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 336 cloister 08-Aug-19 07:53
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 332 Martinsw1 08-Aug-19 14:55
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 432 Edmond 06-Aug-19 19:51
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 359 Martinsw1 07-Aug-19 05:51
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 445 Edmond 07-Aug-19 08:48
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 352 Martinsw1 07-Aug-19 14:05
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 348 Martinsw1 07-Aug-19 20:28
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 333 Merrell 08-Aug-19 11:48
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 349 Martinsw1 07-Aug-19 21:28
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 368 Edmond 08-Aug-19 07:42
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 341 Martinsw1 08-Aug-19 14:35
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 339 Barbelo 09-Aug-19 01:15
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 349 Edmond 09-Aug-19 16:51
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 333 Eddie Larry 07-Aug-19 22:52
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 316 PB Bytes 08-Aug-19 20:50
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 409 Susan Doris 05-Aug-19 17:32
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 351 Martinsw1 05-Aug-19 20:23
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 337 Susan Doris 06-Aug-19 05:02
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 355 Edmond 07-Aug-19 13:23
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 359 Martinsw1 07-Aug-19 14:10
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 329 Susan Doris 07-Aug-19 15:07
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 336 drrayeye 08-Aug-19 04:15
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 323 Martinsw1 08-Aug-19 07:23
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 369 Merrell 08-Aug-19 08:29
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 313 drrayeye 08-Aug-19 17:27
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 365 Rebecca Bradley 08-Aug-19 15:21
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 352 PB Bytes 08-Aug-19 18:34
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 326 Rebecca Bradley 10-Aug-19 03:44
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 301 Susan Doris 10-Aug-19 05:34
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 316 Rebecca Bradley 10-Aug-19 05:57
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 307 PB Bytes 10-Aug-19 14:45
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 298 Corpuscles 10-Aug-19 22:37
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 300 PB Bytes 10-Aug-19 23:05
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 356 PB Bytes 11-Aug-19 15:56
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 311 Corpuscles 12-Aug-19 05:58
Props to Corps 289 PB Bytes 12-Aug-19 17:03
Great job! 306 drrayeye 12-Aug-19 18:01
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured NONSENSE author for August 2019 343 Corpuscles 09-Aug-19 01:50
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured NONSENSE author for August 2019 308 Susan Doris 09-Aug-19 06:30
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured NONSENSE author for August 2019 314 Rebecca Bradley 10-Aug-19 03:46
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 336 Martinsw1 09-Aug-19 07:14
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 328 Susan Doris 09-Aug-19 10:01
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 405 Martinsw1 09-Aug-19 10:40
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 314 Susan Doris 09-Aug-19 12:38
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 343 Martinsw1 09-Aug-19 13:07
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 403 unchartedxben 09-Aug-19 16:54
Plenty to talk about for thousands of years after the event! 300 greengirl5 10-Aug-19 01:29
Fall of a thousand suns 302 greengirl5 10-Aug-19 02:02
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 382 Rebecca Bradley 10-Aug-19 06:05
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 308 Eddie Larry 10-Aug-19 13:20
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 319 Rebecca Bradley 10-Aug-19 15:16
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 307 Eddie Larry 11-Aug-19 13:53
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 317 Martinsw1 11-Aug-19 19:42
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 305 PB Bytes 11-Aug-19 23:27
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 310 Martinsw1 12-Aug-19 08:49
A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 308 Barbelo 12-Aug-19 21:16
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 306 Martinsw1 13-Aug-19 10:28
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 304 Martinsw1 13-Aug-19 18:18
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 298 Barbelo 13-Aug-19 23:46
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 303 PB Bytes 14-Aug-19 00:12
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 300 Barbelo 14-Aug-19 04:03
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 300 PB Bytes 14-Aug-19 14:26
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 296 Barbelo 14-Aug-19 21:09
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 288 PB Bytes 14-Aug-19 21:55
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 298 PB Bytes 15-Aug-19 03:19
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 303 Barbelo 15-Aug-19 04:28
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 294 PB Bytes 15-Aug-19 14:24
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 307 Eddie Larry 15-Aug-19 15:56
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 292 PB Bytes 15-Aug-19 16:49
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 299 Eddie Larry 15-Aug-19 18:35
The rest of us 327 drrayeye 15-Aug-19 19:28
Little stone in the middle of nowhere 297 greengirl5 15-Aug-19 23:05
Re: Little stone in the middle of nowhere 292 PB Bytes 15-Aug-19 23:19
Re: Little stone in the middle of nowhere 286 greengirl5 15-Aug-19 23:54
Re: Little stone in the middle of nowhere 296 greengirl5 16-Aug-19 00:14
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 340 Martinsw1 12-Aug-19 09:06
Re: Your scorpion or your Scorpius is back to front 367 Edmond 12-Aug-19 10:13
Re: Your scorpion or your Scorpius is back to front 314 Martinsw1 13-Aug-19 10:30
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 318 PB Bytes 12-Aug-19 14:21
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 307 Martinsw1 13-Aug-19 10:33
Constellation, or death-cult? 324 Merrell 13-Aug-19 06:55
Re: Constellation, or death-cult? 313 Martinsw1 13-Aug-19 10:44
Re: Constellation, or death-cult? 322 PB Bytes 13-Aug-19 18:46
Re: Constellation, or death-cult? 309 Martinsw1 14-Aug-19 08:40
Re: Constellation, or death-cult? 308 PB Bytes 14-Aug-19 14:11
Lost or last civilisation? 307 greengirl5 14-Aug-19 22:28
Re: Lost or last civilisation? 295 greengirl5 15-Aug-19 00:06
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 319 Rebecca Bradley 12-Aug-19 06:26
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 331 Martinsw1 12-Aug-19 08:56
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 318 Corpuscles 12-Aug-19 23:01
Planet destruction 297 greengirl5 13-Aug-19 00:04
Re: Planet destruction 299 Corpuscles 13-Aug-19 01:50
Re: Planet destruction 290 Eddie Larry 13-Aug-19 04:09
Re: Planet destruction 294 greengirl5 13-Aug-19 06:11
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 303 Susan Doris 13-Aug-19 05:01
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 338 Martinsw1 13-Aug-19 10:49
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 327 Rebecca Bradley 13-Aug-19 02:47
Composite animals 289 greengirl5 13-Aug-19 06:16
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 338 Martinsw1 13-Aug-19 11:02
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 334 Rebecca Bradley 14-Aug-19 06:56
Ibex or Feline? 317 greengirl5 14-Aug-19 08:40
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 390 Martinsw1 14-Aug-19 08:44
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 301 PB Bytes 14-Aug-19 14:09
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 327 Rebecca Bradley 15-Aug-19 04:36
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 318 Corpuscles 15-Aug-19 06:03
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 320 cloister 15-Aug-19 07:50
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 339 Martinsw1 16-Aug-19 08:25
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 335 PB Bytes 16-Aug-19 16:35
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 332 Rebecca Bradley 17-Aug-19 06:48
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 319 Martinsw1 17-Aug-19 07:59
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 324 Susan Doris 17-Aug-19 10:21
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 312 Rebecca Bradley 18-Aug-19 07:42
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 348 Martinsw1 18-Aug-19 08:17
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 341 Rebecca Bradley 18-Aug-19 09:08
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 321 Corpuscles 18-Aug-19 22:36
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 333 Martinsw1 19-Aug-19 08:24
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 300 Corpuscles 20-Aug-19 12:54
coming from a casual reader 307 drrayeye 20-Aug-19 14:20
Re: coming from a casual reader 294 Corpuscles 20-Aug-19 15:57
Re: coming from a casual reader 282 drrayeye 20-Aug-19 17:41
Re: coming from a casual reader 297 Corpuscles 20-Aug-19 20:18
280 million years 301 greengirl5 20-Aug-19 21:56
Re: 280 million years 293 Corpuscles 20-Aug-19 22:23
Re: 280 million years 292 greengirl5 21-Aug-19 06:41
Support for Mrs. O'Leary's "milk factory" (in song) 267 drrayeye 21-Aug-19 00:55
Re: coming from a casual gambler 274 Barbelo 20-Aug-19 21:36
Re: coming from a casual gambler 287 Corpuscles 20-Aug-19 21:46
Re: coming from a casual reader 279 Eddie Larry 21-Aug-19 00:03
Re: coming from a casual reader 279 Corpuscles 21-Aug-19 01:21
American joke 287 drrayeye 21-Aug-19 02:11
Re: coming from a casual reader 277 Eddie Larry 21-Aug-19 02:23
Re: coming from a casual reader 284 PB Bytes 20-Aug-19 16:32
Re: coming from a casual reader 265 drrayeye 20-Aug-19 17:46
Re: coming from a casual reader 281 PB Bytes 20-Aug-19 18:06
Re: coming from a casual reader 296 Corpuscles 20-Aug-19 20:33
Re: coming from a casual reader 285 PB Bytes 20-Aug-19 22:29
Re: coming from a casual reader 283 Corpuscles 20-Aug-19 22:52
Zodiacal Art & Precession 292 Barbelo 20-Aug-19 22:25
Re: Zodiacal Art & Precession 280 PB Bytes 21-Aug-19 04:36
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 303 PB Bytes 17-Aug-19 15:14
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 310 Rebecca Bradley 18-Aug-19 08:48
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 287 PB Bytes 18-Aug-19 16:38
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 286 Rebecca Bradley 20-Aug-19 07:53
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 290 Susan Doris 20-Aug-19 10:23
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 280 PB Bytes 20-Aug-19 19:36
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 290 Martinsw1 20-Aug-19 08:17
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 297 Rebecca Bradley 20-Aug-19 22:55
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 318 Corpuscles 20-Aug-19 23:16
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 331 Rebecca Bradley 22-Aug-19 06:48
The Test? 314 PB Bytes 21-Aug-19 15:59
Re: The Test? 293 Corpuscles 21-Aug-19 21:25
Re: The Test? 280 PB Bytes 21-Aug-19 21:58
Re: The Test? 291 Barbelo 21-Aug-19 22:05
Re: The Test? 296 Corpuscles 21-Aug-19 22:52
Re: The Test? 296 Rebecca Bradley 22-Aug-19 05:31
Re: The Test? 287 Barbelo 22-Aug-19 05:48
Re: The Test? 301 PB Bytes 22-Aug-19 14:21
Revising... The Test? 309 PB Bytes 22-Aug-19 16:48
animal anatomy lesson #1 312 hendrik dirker 22-Aug-19 19:02
Re: animal anatomy lesson #1 326 PB Bytes 22-Aug-19 19:06
Re: animal anatomy 307 hendrik dirker 24-Aug-19 06:09
Re: animal anatomy 320 PB Bytes 24-Aug-19 16:25
Re: Revising... The Test? 294 Rebecca Bradley 24-Aug-19 07:22
Re: Revising... The Test? 281 PB Bytes 24-Aug-19 15:30
Re: Revising... The Test? 277 Rebecca Bradley 31-Aug-19 06:03
Re: Revising... The Test? 277 PB Bytes 31-Aug-19 17:08
Re: Revising... The Test? 265 Eddie Larry 31-Aug-19 17:32
Re: Revising... The Test? 271 PB Bytes 31-Aug-19 19:52
Re: Revising... The Test? 270 Rebecca Bradley 01-Sep-19 04:03
Re: Revising... The Test? 251 PB Bytes 01-Sep-19 15:30
Re: Revising... The Test? 275 Eddie Larry 01-Sep-19 15:45
Re: Revising... The Test? 278 Rebecca Bradley 01-Sep-19 04:15
Research design perspective 301 drrayeye 14-Aug-19 22:21
Re: Research design perspective 274 Eddie Larry 14-Aug-19 22:43
Re: Research design perspective 293 Susan Doris 15-Aug-19 05:01
Re: Research design perspective 317 Martinsw1 15-Aug-19 07:08
Re: Research design perspective 295 PB Bytes 17-Aug-19 15:43
Re: Research design perspective 300 drrayeye 17-Aug-19 17:25
Re: Research design perspective 289 Martinsw1 18-Aug-19 08:00
Re: Research design perspective 276 drrayeye 18-Aug-19 21:42
Re: Research design perspective 300 Martinsw1 19-Aug-19 08:32
Re: Research design perspective 293 Corpuscles 19-Aug-19 22:32
Not Science, No Proof 320 Barbelo 18-Aug-19 22:44
Re: Not Science, No Proof 331 Martinsw1 19-Aug-19 08:35
Pomposity Levels Not Exceeded On This Board 293 Barbelo 19-Aug-19 11:03
Re: Pomposity Levels Not Exceeded On This Board 321 Martinsw1 20-Aug-19 08:58
Re: Pomposity Levels Not Exceeded On This Board 301 Barbelo 20-Aug-19 12:00
Earth orbital antics 337 hendrik dirker 20-Aug-19 18:39
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 363 Martinsw1 11-Aug-19 19:56
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 341 Corpuscles 12-Aug-19 06:12
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 344 Rebecca Bradley 12-Aug-19 06:42
individual subjectivity and objective consensus 326 PB Bytes 12-Aug-19 16:59
Re: individual subjectivity and objective consensus 328 Martinsw1 13-Aug-19 10:40
Other thoughts. 320 PB Bytes 13-Aug-19 16:32
Re: Other thoughts. 309 drrayeye 13-Aug-19 17:48
Re: Other thoughts. 304 PB Bytes 13-Aug-19 18:42
Re: Other thoughts. 310 drrayeye 13-Aug-19 19:06
Reading the book 311 greengirl5 13-Aug-19 22:40
Re: Reading the book 304 PB Bytes 14-Aug-19 03:11
Re: Other thoughts. 304 Corpuscles 14-Aug-19 01:20
Re: Other thoughts. 312 PB Bytes 14-Aug-19 02:51
Re: Other thoughts. 307 Eddie Larry 14-Aug-19 03:35
Re: Other thoughts. 285 PB Bytes 14-Aug-19 03:53
Re: Other thoughts. 298 Eddie Larry 14-Aug-19 17:54
Re: Other thoughts. 305 PB Bytes 14-Aug-19 19:02
Re: Other thoughts. 308 Eddie Larry 14-Aug-19 19:32
Re: Other thoughts. 295 PB Bytes 14-Aug-19 20:24
Re: Other thoughts. 309 Corpuscles 14-Aug-19 04:49
Re: Other thoughts. 313 Corpuscles 14-Aug-19 05:13
Re: Other thoughts. 305 PB Bytes 14-Aug-19 14:35
Dr. Sweatman, in case you didn't know... 378 PB Bytes 09-Aug-19 15:56
The Zodiac 321 hendrik dirker 10-Aug-19 12:00
Re: The Zodiac 326 PB Bytes 10-Aug-19 14:58
Scorpius, Orions belt, pareidolia 300 greengirl5 10-Aug-19 23:15
Re: Scorpius, Orions belt, pareidolia 292 PB Bytes 10-Aug-19 23:52
Re: Scorpius, Orions belt, pareidolia 312 greengirl5 11-Aug-19 00:07
Re: Scorpius, Orions belt, pareidolia 299 PB Bytes 11-Aug-19 00:20
Re: Scorpius, Orions belt, pareidolia 308 greengirl5 11-Aug-19 00:26
Just been outside to see Scorpius 309 greengirl5 11-Aug-19 11:40
Re: Just been outside to see Scorpius 305 greengirl5 11-Aug-19 12:51
Re: Just been outside to see Scorpius 325 Susan Doris 11-Aug-19 12:53
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 332 PB Bytes 12-Aug-19 14:18
Regarding the wider picture down the line 327 PB Bytes 14-Aug-19 16:47
Re: Regarding the wider picture down the line 363 Martinsw1 15-Aug-19 07:14
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 352 Corpuscles 21-Aug-19 23:13
A new question 282 PB Bytes 01-Sep-19 17:25
Re: A new question 757 Rebecca Bradley 02-Sep-19 04:20


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