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Christopher Columbus (1451 to 1506). Columbus received almost no formal education; a voracious reader, he was largely self-taught.
Nicolaus Copernicus was a church canon. His actual duties at the bishopric palace were largely administrative and medical and his astronomical work took place in his spare time.
Charles Darwin dropped out of medical school and was an amateur botanist when he sailed on the Beagle.
Albert Einstein was an obscure patents clerk when he came up with the theory of relativity.
Antony van Leeuwenheok (1632 –1723) a textile trader used a lens to assess the quality of cloth. He was the person who discovered the world of micro organisms.
Gregor Mendel, a Morvarian monk (whose main duties were administrative) but in his spare time dabbled in plant breading and discovered the gene.
Alfred Wegener was by training and profession a meteorologist. Wegener was highly respected for his work in climatology and paleoclimatology, but he is best remembered for the foray into geology that led to his formulation of the concept of continental drift.
Thomas Alva Edison (1847 to 1931) had only 3 months formal education and was virtually illiterate.
James Watson and Francis Crick were very young (and regarded as ill informed up-starts) before discovering the structure of DNA.
Walter Heape, a businessman who learnt embryology in his middle years, and became a highly proficient research scientist. He is credited with having carried out the first embryo transplant more than 100 years ago.
Ben Lexcen left school at age 14 to become a panel beater. He designed the yacht Australia II which won the Americas Cup in 1983.
John Harrison was a working class joiner who took on the scientific and academic establishment of his time and won the longitude prize through extraordinary mechanical insight, talent and determination.
• Neither William Shakespeare or Charles Dickens studied at university and Dickens spent many years of his early life living in poverty.
Jane Austin left school at age eleven claiming that she had learned nothing. Pride and Prejudice was read and rejected by two publishers before being successfully published by a third.
Michael Faraday had only a very basic education and throughout life remained mathematically almost illiterate.
James Watt, Born in Greenock, Scotland, on January 19, 1736, was the son of a successful ship's chandler. He had poor health as a child and little formal education.
Richard Pearse – A New Zealand farmer who was the first person to achieve sustained flight. (NOTE: Pearse did not claim to be the first to successfully fly. He flew a “heavier than air” plane earlier and further then the Wright brothers but could not manoeuvre his craft and only ever crash landed.) [www.nzedge.com]
Elizabeth Kenny (a country nurse) was a pioneer in the treatment of Infantile Paralysis or polio. Her revolutionary treatment was initially rejected by the medical establishment.
John Likoudis the Greek GP who (in 1958) discovered the cause of and the treatment for, peptic ulcer disease. Likoudis discovered the right treatment yet went to the grave a vilified man. Australians Barry Marshall and Robin Warren have now received a Nobel Prise for doing little more than proving Likoudis was correct.
Fred Hoyle was an astronomer but is probably best known for his claim that bacteria live in space. That life on earth was seeded from space.
Mike O’Dwyer (Metal Storm) did not have any military or formal training in ballistics. He was a Woolworths Store Manager but invented a revolutionary gun that has now been adopted by US, UK and Australian Defence Forces.
Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (1818-65), a Hungarian obstetrician educated at the universities of Pest and Vienna, introduced antiseptic prophylaxis into medicine.
In the 1840s, puerperal or childbirth fever, a bacterial infection of the female genital tract after childbirth, was taking the lives of up to 30% of women who gave birth in hospitals. Women who gave birth at home remained relatively unaffected. As assistant professor on the maternity ward of the Vienna General Hospital, Semmelweis observed that women examined by student doctors who had not washed their hands after leaving the autopsy room had very high death rates. When a colleague who had received a scalpel cut died of infection, Semmelweis concluded that puerperal fever was septic and contagious. He ordered students to wash their hands with chlorinated lime before examining patients; as a result, the maternal death rate was reduced from 12% to 1% in 2 years. Nevertheless, Semmelweis encountered strong opposition from hospital officials and left Vienna in 1850 for the University of Pest.
As a professor of obstetrics at the University of Pest Hospital, he enforced antiseptic practices and reduced the death rate from puerperal fever to 0.85%. However, Semmelweis findings and publications were resisted by hospital and medical authorities in Hungary and abroad. After a breakdown, he entered a mental hospital in Vienna, where he died of an infection contracted during an operation he had performed.



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 23-Jun-19 09:56 by Robert Jameson.

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Subject Views Written By Posted
Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 47233 Graham Hancock 04-Jun-19 15:43
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 518 Darryl Sloan 04-Jun-19 19:05
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 451 Susan Doris 07-Jun-19 07:13
Definitely not an atheist 620 Robert Jameson 15-Jun-19 07:52
Re: Definitely not an atheist 425 Darryl Sloan 17-Jun-19 10:55
The goldfish analogy 393 Robert Jameson 22-Jun-19 07:23
Re: The goldfish analogy 380 Susan Doris 22-Jun-19 10:53
Re: The goldfish analogy 375 Robert Jameson 22-Jun-19 12:27
Re: The goldfish analogy 388 Susan Doris 22-Jun-19 15:04
Re: The goldfish analogy 381 Eddie Larry 22-Jun-19 19:16
Making something up is terrific and necessary in Science IF 382 drrayeye 22-Jun-19 21:44
Everything is natural 375 greengirl5 23-Jun-19 00:12
Don't stop there 382 drrayeye 23-Jun-19 00:47
Re: Don't stop there 380 hendrik dirker 23-Jun-19 03:35
I met Thomas Kuhn once, Hendrik, 373 drrayeye 23-Jun-19 05:34
From my 'Out of left field' file 372 Robert Jameson 23-Jun-19 09:55
Re: From my 'Out of left field' file 391 Susan Doris 23-Jun-19 12:52
Re: From my 'Out of left field' file 397 Robert Jameson 24-Jun-19 00:52
The paper clip analogy 372 Robert Jameson 23-Jun-19 00:27
Re: The paper clip analogy and chance 384 greengirl5 23-Jun-19 05:07
Monkeys bashing typewriters does not stack up 377 Robert Jameson 23-Jun-19 10:09
I believe you! 363 greengirl5 23-Jun-19 12:23
science jargon 380 drrayeye 23-Jun-19 06:54
Re: The goldfish analogy 375 Darryl Sloan 24-Jun-19 17:56
big bang 372 drrayeye 24-Jun-19 23:45
Re: big bang 372 Robert Jameson 25-Jun-19 03:18
Re: big bang 358 Susan Doris 25-Jun-19 05:16
Science vs. philosophy vs. pop culture 369 drrayeye 25-Jun-19 06:56
Re: Science vs. philosophy vs. pop culture 377 Susan Doris 25-Jun-19 07:15
There is more to science 366 drrayeye 25-Jun-19 12:10
Re: Science vs. philosophy vs. pop culture 377 Eddie Larry 26-Jun-19 21:51
Re: Science vs. philosophy vs. pop culture 382 Susan Doris 27-Jun-19 07:28
Rant of the month 370 drrayeye 27-Jun-19 08:30
Re: Rant of the month 356 greengirl5 27-Jun-19 23:15
Teach your children 370 drrayeye 28-Jun-19 03:36
Re: Teach your children 378 Susan Doris 28-Jun-19 05:11
Re: Teach your children 361 Darryl Sloan 28-Jun-19 08:17
Re: Teach your children 364 Susan Doris 28-Jun-19 10:21
Re: Teach your children 364 Susan Doris 28-Jun-19 13:06
Re: Science vs. philosophy vs. pop culture 358 Eddie Larry 27-Jun-19 19:02
Re: Science vs. philosophy vs. pop culture 372 Robert Jameson 28-Jun-19 07:36
Re: Science vs. philosophy vs. pop culture 361 Eddie Larry 28-Jun-19 14:25
Re: Science vs. philosophy vs. pop culture 357 Darryl Sloan 28-Jun-19 07:47
Evidence for a creator 373 Robert Jameson 28-Jun-19 09:45
Re: Evidence for a creator 383 Susan Doris 28-Jun-19 10:39
Re: Evidence for a creator 377 Robert Jameson 29-Jun-19 07:52
Re: Evidence for a creator 362 Susan Doris 29-Jun-19 09:29
Re: Evidence for a creator 370 Nolondil 30-Jun-19 14:38
Re: Evidence for a creator 360 Susan Doris 30-Jun-19 15:28
Re: Evidence for a creator 361 Eddie Larry 30-Jun-19 18:12
Re: Evidence for a creator 372 Robert Jameson 01-Jul-19 01:49
Re: Evidence for a creator 394 Susan Doris 01-Jul-19 08:12
Re: Evidence for a creator 357 Robert Jameson 01-Jul-19 22:10
Re: Evidence for a creator 356 Susan Doris 02-Jul-19 05:10
Re: Evidence for a creator 393 Robert Jameson 02-Jul-19 06:06
Re: Evidence for a creator 805 PB Bytes 03-Jul-19 17:08
Re: Evidence for a creator 376 drrayeye 29-Jun-19 10:48
Re: Evidence for a creator 362 Robert Jameson 30-Jun-19 01:30
Re: Evidence for a creator 371 Susan Doris 30-Jun-19 04:52
Re: Evidence for a creator and great scientific minds 365 greengirl5 30-Jun-19 05:42
scientistic jargon misses nuances 359 drrayeye 30-Jun-19 12:33
Re: scientistic jargon misses nuances 360 Susan Doris 30-Jun-19 14:02
Re: big bang 367 Darryl Sloan 25-Jun-19 19:26
Re: big bang 361 Susan Doris 26-Jun-19 05:10
Re: The goldfish analogy 378 Eddie Larry 25-Jun-19 00:53
Re: The goldfish analogy 364 Darryl Sloan 25-Jun-19 19:36
Re: The goldfish analogy 373 drrayeye 25-Jun-19 20:13
Re: The goldfish analogy 377 Susan Doris 26-Jun-19 05:16
Re: The goldfish analogy 361 Darryl Sloan 24-Jun-19 17:48
Re: The goldfish analogy 378 Darryl Sloan 24-Jun-19 17:46
Re: The goldfish analogy 365 Susan Doris 25-Jun-19 05:26
Re: The goldfish analogy 375 Darryl Sloan 25-Jun-19 19:43
Re: The goldfish analogy 371 Susan Doris 26-Jun-19 05:25
Re: The goldfish analogy 363 Eddie Larry 26-Jun-19 21:42
Re: The goldfish analogy 371 Darryl Sloan 24-Jun-19 17:30
"self" between the eyes 368 drrayeye 24-Jun-19 23:53
Re: "self" between the eyes 375 Darryl Sloan 25-Jun-19 19:48
Re: "self" between the eyes 361 drrayeye 25-Jun-19 20:09
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 398 rulebook54 24-Jun-19 19:45
Mod Note > rulebook54 - Threaded vs. Flat View 376 Dr. Troglodyte 24-Jun-19 22:25
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 368 Susan Doris 25-Jun-19 05:39
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 372 Susan Doris 25-Jun-19 13:56
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 368 Eddie Larry 25-Jun-19 14:21
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 365 Susan Doris 25-Jun-19 15:12
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 370 Eddie Larry 25-Jun-19 16:21
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 378 Darryl Sloan 25-Jun-19 20:18
the kingdom of God is within you 373 drrayeye 25-Jun-19 20:36
Re: the kingdom of God is within you 363 Susan Doris 26-Jun-19 05:39
Re: the kingdom of God is within you 366 drrayeye 26-Jun-19 06:33
Re: the kingdom of God is within you 355 greengirl5 26-Jun-19 07:10
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 362 Eddie Larry 25-Jun-19 20:42
Me 369 greengirl5 26-Jun-19 03:08
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 370 Susan Doris 26-Jun-19 05:31
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 367 Darryl Sloan 26-Jun-19 20:20
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 368 Darryl Sloan 25-Jun-19 20:04
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 373 Eddie Larry 25-Jun-19 20:37
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 366 Darryl Sloan 26-Jun-19 20:22
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 377 Eddie Larry 26-Jun-19 20:34
Cats and dogs 355 greengirl5 27-Jun-19 23:27
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 387 Susan Doris 26-Jun-19 06:54
July coming up 361 greengirl5 26-Jun-19 07:41
Cosmic consciousness-theism! 374 greengirl5 26-Jun-19 07:50
Re: July coming up 364 Susan Doris 26-Jun-19 09:08
Re: July coming up 367 greengirl5 26-Jun-19 10:46
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 376 Darryl Sloan 26-Jun-19 20:31
love from above 388 drrayeye 26-Jun-19 23:51
Re: love from above 376 Susan Doris 27-Jun-19 07:36
Kohlberg 358 drrayeye 27-Jun-19 08:06
Re: Kohlberg 366 Susan Doris 27-Jun-19 11:04
Piaget 365 drrayeye 27-Jun-19 19:21
Re: Piaget 363 Eddie Larry 27-Jun-19 21:49
Re: Piaget 350 Susan Doris 28-Jun-19 05:23
Re: love from above 352 Darryl Sloan 30-Jun-19 18:43
No time! ? ? 358 greengirl5 30-Jun-19 23:49
Re: Welcome to Darryl Sloan our author of the month for June 2019 402 Thanos5150 27-Jun-19 05:27
It's not in the text 384 drrayeye 26-Jun-19 21:25
Re: It's not in the text 389 Susan Doris 27-Jun-19 07:41
How Suart saves his family 375 drrayeye 27-Jun-19 08:17
Re: How Suart saves his family 381 Susan Doris 27-Jun-19 11:07
No 374 drrayeye 27-Jun-19 18:21
Am I the only one? 383 greengirl5 27-Jun-19 23:53
Re: Am I the only one? 363 Susan Doris 28-Jun-19 05:33
Re: Am I the only one? 358 greengirl5 28-Jun-19 08:00
Re: It's not in the text 378 Darryl Sloan 28-Jun-19 09:08
Let's try a different approach 365 drrayeye 28-Jun-19 15:42
Re: Let's try a different approach 364 Darryl Sloan 30-Jun-19 18:58
You are a good guy! 385 greengirl5 28-Jun-19 23:51
Farewell, everyone! 388 Darryl Sloan 30-Jun-19 20:22
Re: Farewell, everyone! 361 drrayeye 30-Jun-19 23:11
lets hear it for the universe 367 jazzmumbles 01-Jul-19 00:55
Re: Farewell, everyone! 368 Eddie Larry 01-Jul-19 02:47
Re: Farewell, everyone! 379 Robert Jameson 01-Jul-19 05:55
Re: Farewell, everyone! 375 Susan Doris 01-Jul-19 08:18


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