Descartes originally became the first scientific dualist because he felt he had to: cogito ergo sum. He had mind and body, but mind was really a garbage can category for him: it was for leftovers that he couldn't explain as he was studying body. Many materialistic scientists continued in this vein, paying less and less lip service to the mind part--until they couldn't any more.
Good empirical evidence forced its way from body to mind, and the cogito ergo sum side, which seemed to have almost disappeared, has come roaring back. During the "cognitive revolution," when cognitive science and neuroscience merged, I personally was influenced by Karl Pribram at UC Berkeley:
It was Pribram's work with David Bohm that extended this kind of thinking way beyond memory.