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Interesting Eddie -! I know opinions and research on this varies, and correlations are made with the advent of agriculture being a turning point, and there have been small-scale civilizations that have come and gone, but my theoretical framework is based on the "creeping colonization" since the advent of Christianity (44 BCE). From my own understanding, elements of European tribal and pagan lifeways were still alive and well (under the veneer of Christianity) in places here and there (Lithuania until present day) that weren't really in danger or didn't really collapse until the time of the witch burnings, which was a major campaign to rid Europe of paganism and European Indigenous Knowledge once and for all. And yet even that attempt was a failure, as evidenced by the explosion of earth-connected traditions and practices today, and the new and growing movement to decolonize. Great question -!!