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Hi Sally,

Over here it is winter, so I am here at my desk a great deal!

Dating genetic changes is likely 'largely' accurate, but it is important to attempt direct dating of sample fossils. There are some problems with molecular clocks which are highlighted, here, here and here.

Carbon dating is no use for most hominin fossils, it is only accurate for samples younger than 50,000 years. To directly date the older fossil finds requires geological dating methods, such as thermoluminescence dating, molecular spin resonance dating, dating by associated micro fossils and relative dating (comparative to other well dated aspects of the archaeological sites). It is usually best to employ several dating methods and calculate a realistic mid point and a margin of error - a margin of error can be even ten thousand years either side of the suggested date, so we are lucky when a precise date emerges.

Please do question away, I am happy to attempt to provide answers.

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Subject Views Written By Posted
The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 4598 Bruce R. Fenton 01-Jun-17 11:19
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 1125 Susan Doris 02-Jun-17 05:45
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 823 Bruce R. Fenton 02-Jun-17 06:56
Related threads on GHMB 893 drrayeye 02-Jun-17 17:06
Re: Related threads on GHMB 728 Bruce R. Fenton 03-Jun-17 10:19
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 766 laughin 05-Jun-17 21:06
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 759 Bruce R. Fenton 06-Jun-17 04:03
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 757 SallyA 07-Jun-17 02:28
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 642 Bruce R. Fenton 07-Jun-17 04:40
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 968 Thanos5150 06-Jun-17 14:29
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 769 SallyA 07-Jun-17 02:55
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 722 Bruce R. Fenton 07-Jun-17 05:47
... 754 SallyA 08-Jun-17 04:00
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution ..-_-.. question one 665 Bruce R. Fenton 08-Jun-17 04:37
... 762 SallyA 08-Jun-17 06:51
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 649 Thanos5150 07-Jun-17 16:15
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 779 Thanos5150 07-Jun-17 19:38
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 746 Bruce R. Fenton 08-Jun-17 03:20
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 631 Bruce R. Fenton 07-Jun-17 05:33
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 964 Thanos5150 07-Jun-17 16:08
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 689 SallyA 08-Jun-17 05:17
... 764 SallyA 08-Jun-17 06:06
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 729 Bruce R. Fenton 09-Jun-17 02:19
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution -- thank you 690 SallyA 09-Jun-17 03:47
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 849 Thanos5150 11-Jun-17 16:13
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 631 Bruce R. Fenton 12-Jun-17 09:26
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 657 Bruce R. Fenton 09-Jun-17 02:03
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 740 Thanos5150 09-Jun-17 23:54
OOA strikes back - the sequel 784 laughin 08-Jun-17 13:09
Re: OOA strikes back - the sequel 687 Bruce R. Fenton 08-Jun-17 15:37
Re: OOA strikes back - the sequel 689 Thanos5150 08-Jun-17 17:23
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 670 Robert Jameson 11-Jun-17 06:13
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 676 Bruce R. Fenton 11-Jun-17 11:46
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 822 Robert Jameson 12-Jun-17 05:34
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 679 dong 12-Jun-17 06:51
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 745 Robert Jameson 12-Jun-17 13:32
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 755 Bruce R. Fenton 12-Jun-17 09:19
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 646 Robert Jameson 12-Jun-17 12:40
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 715 Susan Doris 14-Jun-17 05:02
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 720 Robert Jameson 14-Jun-17 05:45
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 743 michael seabrook 13-Jun-17 22:09
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 751 Robert Jameson 13-Jun-17 00:51
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 648 SallyA 13-Jun-17 01:03
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 630 Robert Jameson 13-Jun-17 02:44
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution. -- off topic .. senmutt tomb. .. Giza hosts an inland sea 822 SallyA 13-Jun-17 02:59
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution. -- off topic .. senmutt tomb 611 Robert Jameson 13-Jun-17 03:39
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution. -- off topic .. senmutt tomb 681 SallyA 13-Jun-17 04:04
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 732 Thanos5150 14-Jun-17 15:55
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 806 Robert Jameson 14-Jun-17 17:54
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 631 michael seabrook 16-Jun-17 21:03
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 651 Robert Jameson 16-Jun-17 22:47
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution Excellent and ... 721 SallyA 16-Jun-17 23:39
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution Excellent and ... 720 Robert Jameson 17-Jun-17 09:44
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 625 Susan Doris 17-Jun-17 14:17
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 688 Robert Jameson 18-Jun-17 02:43
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 641 Susan Doris 18-Jun-17 09:24
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 709 Bruce R. Fenton 18-Jun-17 11:04
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 699 Robert Jameson 18-Jun-17 11:14
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 609 Robert Jameson 18-Jun-17 11:04
Unfair diversion 540 drrayeye 18-Jun-17 21:35
Re: Proto-sumerian ... Ukraine ... a bit late for into Africa I fear, probably mis-posted 807 SallyA 19-Jun-17 03:00
Re: Unfair diversion 739 Susan Doris 19-Jun-17 05:20
Unfair diversion for sure 630 drrayeye 19-Jun-17 05:47
Re: Unfair diversion for sure 689 Susan Doris 20-Jun-17 04:56
Robert's challenge 741 drrayeye 20-Jun-17 07:24
Re: Robert's challenge 623 Robert Jameson 26-Jun-17 11:17
Tangential 616 drrayeye 27-Jun-17 05:03
Re: Tangential 625 Robert Jameson 27-Jun-17 06:12
Wrong board 643 drrayeye 27-Jun-17 06:38
Re: Wrong board 598 Robert Jameson 27-Jun-17 08:03
Re: Tangential 639 Eddie Larry 27-Jun-17 15:59
Re:Susan, do you know of a time line? 644 SallyA 19-Jun-17 17:48
Re: Unfair diversion 707 Thanos5150 19-Jun-17 13:44
Re: Unfair diversion 625 drrayeye 19-Jun-17 15:40
Re: Unfair diversion 736 Robert Jameson 19-Jun-17 23:14
Re: Unfair diversion 632 drrayeye 20-Jun-17 00:31
Re: Unfair diversion 698 Robert Jameson 20-Jun-17 10:19
kicking a dead horse 642 drrayeye 20-Jun-17 14:36
Re: kicking a dead horse 553 Robert Jameson 20-Jun-17 23:49
Staying on topic 635 drrayeye 21-Jun-17 01:15
Re: Unfair diversion 639 Thanos5150 20-Jun-17 15:24
Hominids vs Homo. most obvious difference -- thumbs on feet 572 SallyA 20-Jun-17 15:59
Re: Hominids vs Homo. most obvious difference -- thumbs on feet 553 Bruce R. Fenton 26-Jun-17 10:21
Interesting 623 drrayeye 27-Jun-17 06:50
Re: Interesting 510 Bruce R. Fenton 27-Jun-17 22:32
Re: Hominids vs Homo. most obvious difference -- thumbs on feet 511 Eddie Larry 28-Jun-17 04:37
Re: Hominids vs Homo. most obvious difference -- thumbs on feet 859 Bruce R. Fenton 28-Jun-17 04:41
Re: Unfair diversion 585 drrayeye 20-Jun-17 15:59
Off Topic: re: factors which alter .. Earth's shields don't block cygnets ... nor neutrinos, ... 560 SallyA 20-Jun-17 21:13
Re: Unfair diversion 538 SallyA 21-Jun-17 01:37
Focus 636 drrayeye 21-Jun-17 07:30
Re: Focus 712 Bruce R. Fenton 26-Jun-17 10:26
Re: Focus 605 Susan Doris 26-Jun-17 16:51
Re: Focus... ah, my bad ... 514 SallyA 11-Feb-18 19:40
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 711 Bruce R. Fenton 17-Jun-17 12:12
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 641 Robert Jameson 26-Jun-17 06:32
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 626 Bruce R. Fenton 26-Jun-17 11:57
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 765 Robert Jameson 26-Jun-17 13:59
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 454 lalbee 16-Feb-18 13:39
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 435 lalbee 17-Feb-18 02:25
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 457 Bruce R. Fenton 17-Feb-18 04:13
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 431 lalbee 17-Feb-18 05:56
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 474 Bruce R. Fenton 17-Feb-18 06:27
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 605 lalbee 18-Feb-18 15:17
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 465 drrayeye 21-Feb-18 13:48
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 446 lalbee 22-Feb-18 16:45
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 441 Robert Jameson 22-Feb-18 19:39
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 850 Bruce R. Fenton 22-Feb-18 23:07
Re: The Into Africa Theory of Human Evolution 464 Bruce R. Fenton 22-Feb-18 23:00


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