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Hi T Bird and all,

Thanks for posting those links.

The first and second links were fairly new to me but the third link - 'Interstellar Neutral Hydrogen Filaments at High Galactic Latitudes and the Bennett Pinch.' I was familiar with, as the paper is also written in Anthony Peratt's book 'Plasma Astrophysics and Cosmology' pages 187-198.

I bought the book as an attempt to understand the plasma view of the universe from the point of view of certain distinguished scientists.
There are 24 such papers presented in the book ranging from the more easily understood levels, to the most speculative and advanced.

In one paper, 'Plasma and the Universe: Large Scale Dynamics, Filamentation and Radiation', Peratt states as part of an abstract:

"One of the earliest predictions about the morphology of the universe is that if be filamentary (Alfven, 1950). This prediction followed from the fact that volumewise, the universe is 99.999% matter in the plasma state. When the plasma is energetic, it is generally inhomogeneous with constituents parts in motion. Plasmas in relative motion are coupled by the currents they drive in each other and nonequilibrium plasma often consists of current-conducting filaments."
"In the laboratory and in the Solar System, filamentary and cellular morphology is a well-known property of plasma. As the properties of the plasma state of matter is believed not to change beyond the range of our space probes, plasma at astrophysical dimensions must also be filamentary."
"During the 1980's a series of unexpected observations showed filamentary structure on the Galactic, intergalactic, and supergalactic scale. By this time the analytical intractibilities of complex filamentary geometries, intense self-fields, nonlinearities and explicit time dependence had fostered the developement of fully three-dimensional, fully electromagnetic, particle-in-cell simulations of plasmas having the dimensions of galaxies or systems of galaxies. It had been realized that the importance of applying electromagnetism and plasma physics to the problem of radiogalaxy and galaxy formation derived from the fact that the universe is largely a plasma universe."
"In plasma, electromagnetic forces exceed gravitational forces by a factor of 10 to the power of 36 "orders of magnitude" and electromagnetism is ~ 10 to the 7 times stronger than gravity even in neutral hydrogen regions, where the degree of ionization is miniscule."
"The observational evidence for galactic-dimensioned Birkeland currents is given based on the direct comparison of the synchrotron radiation properties of simulated currents to those of extra-galactic sources including quasars and double radio galaxies"

He further wrote:

"The plasma universe may be eternal and infinite. Large scale field-aligned filaments may extend hundreds of megaparsecs or more in space. Where pairs of these spaghetti-like structures interact, the particles gain kinetic energy and at narrow pinch regions produce the entire range of galaxy types as well as the full spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. Thus galaxies must lie along filaments, much as they are observed to do on a large scale. The bulk of the filaments are invisible from a distance, like the Birkeland currents that circle the Earth, but are unobservable from its surface."

He then goes on to show the similarities between observed and simulated synchrotron radiation from typical double radio galaxies (ie observed radio "jets" emitted from both sides of a radio galaxy).
Another series of pictures show how two adjacent Birkeland current filaments interact to form a spiral galaxy.

I think the plasma cosmology explanation of galaxy formations, superclusters etc is much better and more readily understood than invoking "cold" dark matter to explain them.

BTW the "Bennett Pinch" mentioned in one of the links you posted, is in fact the same as a "Z-Pinch".

With respect to the Big Bang theory, Eric Lerner, author of 'The Big bang Mever Happened', says it may not be a matter of how many pillars one must knock down before the Big Bang framework loses its integrity and collapses. "The big bang is a metaphysical structure, and any metaphysical structure can stand indefinitely without a visible means of support"


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