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In response to Skako's inquiry about sources for impact studies:

I've copied portions of my chapters for you on the Cal-Tech study, then the Peking University study:

In 2008, a study at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech)
by Margarita Marinova, then a graduate student in Cal-Tech’s
Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences (GPS), confirmed that
Velikovsky’s proposed planetary impact scenario could make sense
in terms of the types of damage that had been observed to exist on
Mars. It is important to note that, after many trials based on widely
varying parameters, the scenario favored by the researchers attributed
the impact to a body much smaller than Venus and assigned it to
an epoch much earlier than Velikovsky proposes. A Cal-Tech press
release states:

Scientists at the California Institute of Technology have shown
through computer modeling that the Mars dichotomy, as the
divided terrain has been termed, can indeed be explained by one
giant impact early in the planet’s history. . . . This size range of
impacts only occurred early in solar system history. . . . The team
modeled a range of projectile parameters that could yield a cavity
the size and ellipticity of the Mars lowlands without melting
the whole planet or making a crater rim. . . . After cranking 500
simulations combining various energies, velocities, and impact
angles through the GPS division’s Beowulf-class computer cluster
CITerra, the researchers narrowed in on a “sweet spot”—a range
of single-impact parameters that would make exactly the type of
crater found on Mars. . . . The favored simulation conditions outlined
by the sweet spot suggest an impact energy of around 10 to
the 29 joules, which is equivalent to 100 billion gigatons of TNT.
The impactor would have hit Mars at an angle between 30 and 60
degrees while traveling at 6 to 10 kilometers per second.By combining
these factors, Marinova calculated that the projectile was
roughly 1,600 to 2,700 kilometers across.”


I made contact personally with one of the researchers who conducted the study, asking among other things whether any of the tested scenarios involved a body the size of Venus, and if the results of that scenario were favorable - but without direct response to that question.

Jupiter and Saturn are thought to have begun life as rocky worlds
with the mass of at least a few Earths. Their gravity then pulled in
gas from their birth nebula, giving them dense atmospheres. In this
picture, all gas giants should have cores of roughly the same size. Yet
spacecraft-based gravity measurements suggest Jupiter’s core weighs
just two to 10 Earth masses, while Saturn’s comes in at 15 to 30.
New simulations by Shu Lin Li of Peking University in China, and
colleagues, may explain why. They calculated what would happen
when a super-Earth of 10 times the mass of our planet slammed into
a gas giant. The rocky body flattened like a pancake when it hit the
gas giant’s atmosphere, then barrelled into the giant’s core about
half an hour later. The energy of the collision could have vaporised
much of the core. These vaporised heavy elements would then have
mixed with the hydrogen and helium of the gas giant’s atmosphere,
leaving only a fraction of the gas giant’s former core behind. This
could explain not only why Jupiter’s core is so small, but also why
its atmosphere is richer in heavy elements compared with the sun,
whose composition is thought to mirror that of the nebula that gave
birth to the solar system’s planets.


- Laird



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 04-Nov-15 21:24 by Laird Scranton.

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Subject Views Written By Posted
More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 2130 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 512 OCaptain 28-Oct-15 23:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 366 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 491 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 362 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 349 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 341 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 00:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 400 laughin 29-Oct-15 16:29
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 396 Starbinder 29-Oct-15 17:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 336 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 18:08
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 306 laughin 29-Oct-15 18:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 321 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:13
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 329 laughin 31-Oct-15 15:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 362 drrayeye 31-Oct-15 16:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 286 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 16:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 297 laughin 31-Oct-15 18:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 289 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 19:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 323 laughin 01-Nov-15 03:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 341 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 05:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 374 laughin 01-Nov-15 16:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 277 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:31
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 301 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 289 laughin 30-Oct-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 371 Aine 30-Oct-15 15:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 302 carolb 30-Oct-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 307 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:55
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 338 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 386 Aine 30-Oct-15 17:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 334 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 259 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 18:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 311 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 309 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 319 laughin 29-Oct-15 20:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 309 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 22:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 312 carolb 29-Oct-15 22:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 319 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 00:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 303 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 407 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 305 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 15:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 449 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 284 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 312 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 281 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 17:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 388 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 271 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 258 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 357 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 268 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 313 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 372 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 260 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 21:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 285 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 283 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 287 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 248 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 01:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 395 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:38
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 260 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 289 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 03:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 368 carolb 31-Oct-15 12:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 268 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 269 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 319 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 16:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 296 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 18:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 334 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 267 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 00:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 286 carolb 01-Nov-15 01:00
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 290 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 01:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 335 skakos 03-Nov-15 09:51
Conspiracy... 281 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 259 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 363 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:30
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 248 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 305 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 269 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 12:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 283 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:41
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 226 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 20:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 276 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 281 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 12:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 292 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 13:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 317 carolb 01-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 294 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 16:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 296 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 336 carolb 01-Nov-15 17:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 268 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 18:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 276 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 21:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 243 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 291 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 19:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 378 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 287 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 19:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 336 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 259 laughin 30-Oct-15 20:17
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 304 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 20:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 335 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 337 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 21:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 288 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 263 Starbinder 31-Oct-15 01:05
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 286 Starbinder 02-Nov-15 19:40
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 310 carolb 02-Nov-15 21:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 276 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 434 carolb 06-Nov-15 15:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 274 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 18:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 283 carolb 06-Nov-15 20:10
What about scientism? 321 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 08:19
Re: What about scientism? 310 carolb 07-Nov-15 12:59
Re: What about scientism? 351 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:55
Re: What about scientism? 407 carolb 07-Nov-15 17:37
Re: What about scientism? 314 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 19:55
"Blue sky thinking" 307 randompHactor 07-Nov-15 20:15
Re: What about scientism? 301 carolb 07-Nov-15 20:41
Re: What about scientism? 286 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 23:36
Re: What about scientism? 281 carolb 07-Nov-15 23:45
Re: What about scientism? 322 laughin 09-Nov-15 02:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 420 laughin 30-Oct-15 15:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 386 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 553 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 23:51
SUMMARY? 294 skakos 02-Nov-15 21:33
Mod Note > skakos – Switch View 314 Dr. Troglodyte 02-Nov-15 22:33
Re: SUMMARY? 402 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 23:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 411 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 264 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 16:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 394 drrayeye 02-Nov-15 19:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 231 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 347 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 238 drrayeye 03-Nov-15 16:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 278 OCaptain 03-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 275 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 18:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 418 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 251 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 297 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 274 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 04:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 295 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 06:18
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 262 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:30
Regarding myths... 272 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:46
Re: Regarding myths... 267 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 17:00
Re: off topic... 249 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 20:15
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 339 skakos 04-Nov-15 13:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 286 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 263 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 873 skakos 04-Nov-15 22:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 399 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 01:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 279 skakos 05-Nov-15 14:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 283 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 14:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 383 skakos 05-Nov-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 281 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 19:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 372 Laird Scranton 04-Nov-15 21:23
Cosmic Disconnect 295 laughin 06-Nov-15 15:00
Re: Cosmic Disconnect 250 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 460 skakos 16-Nov-15 12:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 369 OCaptain 16-Nov-15 13:54
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 410 skakos 16-Nov-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 474 OCaptain 17-Nov-15 01:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 405 skakos 18-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 416 Ratcho 18-Nov-15 18:45
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 354 OCaptain 19-Nov-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 439 skakos 19-Nov-15 07:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 578 skakos 27-Dec-15 22:04


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