Friedrich Engels tried to document the horrendous conditions workers were forced to live in in places like Manchester and Liverpool in the mid 1800's and Karl Marx tried to apply the first scientific philosophy of the struggle between labour and capital in terms of class tensions and ownership of production. Unfortunately, Marx's insistence that a global workers revolution was inevitable due to the contradictions of capitalism probably alarmed the capitalist class, especially in Europe but around the world as well, that communism was an existential threat to their world of privilege and social dominance and therefor something to be crushed underfoot with any means possible. And the wealthy class almost all political power of state to bring into the struggle. The idea of global revolution was probably one of Marx's biggest mistakes for galvanized the world's powerful elites against him. For workers, the only leverage they had to fight back with was rooted in labour organization and striking to bring production to a halt - at least until the great depression when everything changed.
The Russian revolution shook Europe to it's core. Coming in the midst of the first world war, the revolutions first impact was to take Russia out of the struggle against the central powers and allow Germany to concentrate it's forces on the western front. The Bolsheviks propaganda slogan, "Land, Peace and Bread," resonated with a Russian peasantry decimated by famine and war and years of mismanagement under the Czarist regimes. Lenin and the Bolsheviks were wholly undemocratic professional revolutionaries unused to governing a huge backward country like Russia with all it's ethnic tensions and unrest.
But with their hostility and outright intervention in Russia, the western powers played right into the hands of the most radical and ruthless of the Bolshevik leaders including Lenin, Stalin, and Dzerzhinsky and helped create the autocratic despotic governments they claimed to be fighting. Before WWII was even ended, America, Britain and even Canadian forces under Britain invaded the Soviet Union in support of the White Russian counterrevolution led by ex-military and Czarist forces. But as Russia come under foreign attack yet again, Trotsky and his generals were able to organize the red army into a competent fighting force that beat off the invaders eventually winning the civil war and consolidating power for leaders like Lenin and Stalin.
The overall effect of this useless invasion of Soviet sovereignty was to allow the Bolsheviks to claim that they alone had saved the nation from catastrophe of foreign domination. From this moment on, Soviet leadership was able to present itself as a savior of the Russian nation and portray the West as never willing to allow a peaceful relationship with a communist country or even the existence of a non-capitalist nation. Even with the depredations and brutal repressions that would come under Stalin, the Soviets were able to claim that they were the only defense against capitalist aggression.
The West's violent animus towards the communist world would only worsen as the 20th century progressed. With a brief pause for WWII where the two systems were forced into an uneasy alliance against Nazi Germany, the tension and potential for conflict was a constant factor in relations between the two world powers. In the US communism was portrayed as an existential threat that must be eliminated by any means possible. The ends would justify the means it was felt as US allied forces and their intelligence networks orchestrated a global covert war against countries who embraced anything like a government sympathetic to socialism. The overriding ethos was that what was good for corporate America was the natural order and therefor good for the world and any means of destroying resistance to that no matter how ugly or undemocratic was to be employed no matter the consequences. The leaders of the global fight against any form of socialism or communism would be men like John Foster and Allan Dulles, military advisors to presidents on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Curtis Lemay and his homicidal underling Thomas Power and politicians like Richard Nixon and Joseph McCarthy.
These covert and sometimes overt military intelligence operations started right after WWII in Greece and Italy with covert operations all over Europe. Later, operations and outright proxy shooting wars would take place in Latin America, Southeast Asia and Africa causing thousands, maybe millions of deaths and untold human suffering.
But was any of this really necessary? Next I will try to give three examples (just three of many) where US and it's allied interventions against the communist world actually helped create the awful, brutal types of undemocratic communist regimes it claimed to be fighting against.
I'll start in Cuba where the revolution was not even a communist one until US interventions and failed invasions drove Castro into the Soviet camp.
I'll continue in Cambodia where illegal carpet bombing of civilians during the Vietnam war destabilized the country and actually created the conditions that allowed the Khmers to organize resistance in government and fighting militias that would eventually led to Pol Pot's killing regime.
And I'll finish with John Kennedy's struggle with his own military staff such as SAC leader Curtis Lemay who wanted to unilaterally finish off the USSR with a full on surprise nuclear attack and decried Kennedy's weakness in not doing so for years to come. Kennedy was so shaken by the homicidal aggression of his military staff during the Cuban missile crisis that for the rest of his life he dedicated himself to trying to lower nuclear tensions - even agreeing to an above air test treaty with the Soviets - and in creating a safer world where America and the Soviet Union could live together in a more peaceful détente.
If Kennedy had lived, we might have a very different world that the one we see today full of so much conflict and constant threat of war........but that is another story.