> Without going into detail (sorry):
Here is a thread so you can.
> - Nile level vs. the causeways
> - differences in the condition and quality of the construction
> - differences in satellite pyramids
> - evolution of internal features (especially when not viewed as
> - relative size and position of each 'mid on the plateau
> - royal attribution sequence is the main (but irrelevant)
> reason for their current dating
I'd have to see your details to comment about them, but I believe there is more to this story that is overlooked.
Look here at the massive lower section of G2:
This massive section continues down each side almost to the ends. I don't remember exactly how far. As you can see it rises to the same height as the plateau it was carved from::
(added/edited 6-17-15 after Loveritas provided a better picture which better explained what was being said)
Standing there it occurred to me even at the time the massive lower section of G2 and the enclosure wall was roughly the same height straight across from each other. Most of the lower section of G2, namely radiating from the corner, is solid shaped bedrock and not blocks. What this can only mean is the enclosure was carved out, i.e. levelling this entire section, leaving behind the stepped platform that forms the base of G2. Part of this leveled area would have included G2's often ignored "mortuary temple" namely the larger incongruous front section:
One of the blocks in this section of the mortuary temple is estimated by Hawass to weigh nearly 400 tons. There seems to be some work done after the fact, but it is clear that the mortuary temple was made at the same time by the same people as the builders of the Sphinx, Sphinx Temple, and Valley Temple.
Valley Temple; view of massive exterior archaic blocks:
Interior; later granite facing stones with achaic blocks showing above:
Note the same cyclopean construction of the later granite facing blocks:
Compare to this thread:
And Peru of course.
Sphinx Temple with later granite facing blocks in front:
What we can see is that G2's mortuary temple is no different than the Valley and Sphinx Temples, as a group unique unto themselves, and was built on a section of the plateau that was leveled for at least the construction of the foundation stepped platform of G2 and the temple itself, ergo they must all date to the same time. If, as I believe among many others, the Sphinx and associated temples are the oldest structures on the plateau, clearly older than the granite facing that covers some of them, then by extension this must also include the stepped platform base of G2. This all suggest to me three cultures separated in time with 1) the Sphinx Culture 2) the granite pyramid building culture (which included Dynastic Egyptians as a work force) 3) Old Kingdom Egyptians.
I would also note that there is good reason to believe G3 was built in two stages.
The interior plan of G3 is quite different than any other pyramid:
There are two descending passages/entrances with the first leading from the main chamber area terminating well before the exterior near ground level. Modern Egyptologists consider this now an "abandoned passage" but early Egyptologists like Petrie did not think so:
Reverting now to the original entrance passage (above the present entrance), by which the chambers were first begun, it is 39.3 wide and 51.0 high at the chamber. It runs horizontally for some distance northwards, and then slopes up at the usual passage angle (27º 34' Vyse) and it is 40.6 wide, and 49.0 high, square with the passage floor. It runs through the rock, and then through some masonry; and ends at last at about the level of the present entrance, but far behind — or south of — that, in the masonry of the Pyramid. Over the end of it is a large block, roughly 11¼ x 8½ x 7 feet, or about 50 tons weight; used exactly as the lintel blocks over the entrance passages in the smaller Pyramids.
From all these details it seems plain that the Third Pyramid was first begun no larger than some of the smaller Pyramids on the same hill. That it had a passage descending as usual, with a large lintel block over it; and running horizontally in the rock, into a rock-cut chamber, whose roof was 74.1 above the passage floor. That after this was made, the builders, for some reason, determined on enlarging the Pyramid before it was cased, and on deepening the chamber. They accordingly cut a fresh passage, from the new floor level of the chamber, working this passage from the inside outward They not only deepened the chamber but also cut the sloping passage to the lower, granite-lined, coffer chamber; for the granite lining could not be put in until the second chamber had been deepened to its present extent; so the granite chamber must be part of the second design, or is perhaps in itself a third design. The old entrance passage was then built over on the outside, and the greater part of its height blocked up. The blocking that remains is clearly ancient, as it consists of large blocks wedged in by chips, and worn by passing over the tops. On one block is a saw cut 6 inches deep in part, running vertically on the face; this cut must therefore have been made by the Pyramid builders, before they used the block for filling the passage.
The second descending passage, today's entrance, is part of what I concur with Petrie to be a later addition which includes a Mesopotamian style palace facade chamber which you can see its location in the diagram above. Of particular note is that the rest of the chambers of the interior structure do not incorporate palace facade architecture which in my opinion provides a dichotomy of style that should not be present if built at the same time by the same people.
It is clear the original interior chambers are completely different aesthetically and structurally than the outer pyramid conversion layer with the palace facade architecture being particularly telling as to the difference in ideology of the two builders which to me separates them in time as well. Also to be considered is the unusual layout of the interior compared to other pyramids. To me it seems like a hodgepodge of two connected structures after the fact than a cohesive plan.
Incongruous compared to G1 and G2 palace facade sarcophagi found in G3:
Lost at sea but identical to this one found at Abu Roash:
It is also known regarding G3:
"Investigations of both this pyramid [G3], and the tombs of his royal family that are closest in time (Mastabat Faraun and Khentkaues I's stepped tomb) point to the development of these subchambers in three phases, during which the original plan was enlarged".
Excavations of the temples:
"His [Reisner] excavation reveals granite blocks which have been contoured to fit around an already existing, badly eroded limestone wall."
We know Djoser's pyramid was built on top of existing structures:
As I have argued Meidum was converted to a pyramid from an existing structure:
In conclusion I suggest that the core of G3 was probably much like Meidum and is considerably older than the finished pyramids.
As to what order the pyramids were built I am not sure and hope this thread will inspire some spirited conversation. My only real opinion on the matter is as stated above so I am open to ideas.
Forgot to originally include Menkaure's mortuary temple, but worthwhile noting it too is of the same construction style as the Sphinx/G2 structures noted above which in context should date this structure as well:
Post Edited (29-Jun-15 21:23)