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Coral Reef

From Plato’s Timaeus Section 25d: “For which reason the sea in those parts is impassable and impenetrable, because there is a shoal of mud in the way; and this was caused by the subsidence of the island.”

“A shoal of mud” is the generally published translation of the Ancient Greek phrase “πηλοῦ κάρτα βραχέος” written by Plato. “κάρτα βραχέος” is not syntactically good and it is not found in any manuscript; “πηλός” is masculine and is the antecedent of the relative pronoun; “κατὰ βραχέος”, for its turn, is adverbial. The simple meanings are: πηλοῦ for “clay” or “mud”, κάρτα for “very” and βραχέος for “shoal” or “reef”. Other alternative translation is “the clay that exists in large quantity there and of the small depth” (Rodolfo Lopes, 2011).

The author translated πηλοῦ κάρτα βραχέος into “coral reef” for the reason that this sea formation is scarce in the Mediterranean so that the Greeks and the Egyptians did not own the term. The Mediterranean no longer shelters the great coral reefs that thrived 60 million years ago. This is due to millennia of climactic and oceanographic changes. Today, there are only a few species of colonial anthozoans that have the capacity to create the coral reefs. In 2010, the exploration vessel Nautilus has discovered for the first time an area of reefs with deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean, offshore of Israel. This area apparently stretches over a few kilometers, 700 meters under the surface and some 30 – 40 km off the coast.

In the above Plato’s account, the citadel of Atlantis was impassable and impenetrable at the time of Solon (about 600 BC) because of the growth of a coral reef caused by sea level rise during the Ice Age (“subsidence of the island”). The present condition of the hypothesized site is that there is a coral reef identified by the sailors as Gosong Gia or Annie Florence Reef, a coral reef described as small in extent and dries at low water.

Coral reefs begin to form when free-swimming coral larvae attach to submerged rocks or other hard surfaces along the edges of islands or continents. As the corals grow and expand, reefs take on one of three major characteristic structures – fringing, barrier or atoll. Fringing reefs, which are the most common, project seaward directly from the shore, forming borders along the shoreline and surrounding islands. Barrier reefs also border shorelines, but at a greater distance. They are separated from their adjacent land mass by a lagoon of open, often deep water. If a fringing reef forms around a volcanic island that subsides completely below sea level while the coral continues to grow upward, an atoll forms. Atolls are usually circular or oval, with a central lagoon. Parts of the reef platform may emerge as one or more islands, and gaps in the reef provide access to the central lagoon (Lalli and Parsons, 1995; Levinton, 1995; Sumich, 1996 as cited by NOAA).

In addition to being some of the most beautiful and biologically diverse habitats in the ocean, barrier reefs and atolls also are some of the oldest. With growth rates of 0.3 to 2 centimeters per year for massive corals, and up to 10 centimeters per year for branching corals, it can take up to 10,000 years for a coral reef to form from a group of larvae (Barnes, 1987 as cited by NOAA). Depending on their size, barrier reefs and atolls can take from 100,000 to 30,000,000 years to fully form.

The rate of seawater rise in the Last Glacial Period is in average 0.6 centimeters per year. Because of the warm water at the hypothesized site, the growth rate of the coral reef is expectedly higher that the rate of seawater rise. Accordingly, the vertical growth rate of the coral reef at the site is parallel to the seawater rise.

Citations:
1. Rodolfo Lopes, Platão, Timeu-Crítias. Tradução do grego, introdução e notas, Centro de Estudos Clássicos e Humanísticos, 2011
2. OCEANA, The Corals of the Mediterranean. [oceana.org]
3. NOAA, How Do Coral Reefs Form? [oceanservice.noaa.gov]

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Re: Evidences of existence of Atlantis 1170 Dhani Irwanto 22-Apr-15 11:04
Re: Evidences of existence of Atlantis 1047 Porta 22-Apr-15 17:57
Re: Evidences of existence of Atlantis 1077 Dhani Irwanto 22-Apr-15 18:16
Re: Evidences of existence of Atlantis 996 Porta 22-Apr-15 19:26
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Re: Evidences of existence of Lemuria 780 molder 27-Sep-16 11:15
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Mod Note > Cut & Paste 718 Dr. Troglodyte 31-Mar-17 19:41
Re: Evidences of existence of Atlantis 930 D-Archer 23-Apr-15 09:26
Re: Evidences of existence of Atlantis 917 Dhani Irwanto 23-Apr-15 10:47
Re: Evidences of existence of Atlantis 918 D-Archer 24-Apr-15 12:30
Re: Evidences of existence of Atlantis 898 Dhani Irwanto 24-Apr-15 13:05
Re: Evidences of existence of Atlantis 827 D-Archer 24-Apr-15 15:51
Re: Evidences of existence of Atlantis 832 Dhani Irwanto 25-Apr-15 12:08
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 849 Dhani Irwanto 22-Apr-15 17:46
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 882 Skatha 23-Apr-15 01:50
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 850 Dhani Irwanto 23-Apr-15 04:18
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 900 k-mo1967 23-Apr-15 04:23
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 818 Dhani Irwanto 23-Apr-15 11:14
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 975 Corpuscles 23-Apr-15 04:52
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 891 Dhani Irwanto 23-Apr-15 11:30
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 867 Corpuscles 23-Apr-15 12:02
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 1009 Dhani Irwanto 23-Apr-15 13:13
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 802 Corpuscles 23-Apr-15 14:08
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 775 k-mo1967 23-Apr-15 16:59
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 827 Dhani Irwanto 23-Apr-15 18:00
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 942 Aine 26-Apr-15 17:24
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 750 Dhani Irwanto 26-Apr-15 20:59
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 803 Peter Daughtrey 23-Apr-15 22:47
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 781 Lobsang 25-Apr-15 16:36
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 810 Dhani Irwanto 25-Apr-15 17:10
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 774 Lobsang 25-Apr-15 19:08
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 1220 Dhani Irwanto 25-Apr-15 19:25
This is Dr. Arysio Santos' Theory and Research 1026 Deep1 26-Apr-15 17:06
Re: This is Dr. Arysio Santos' Theory and Research 948 Dhani Irwanto 26-Apr-15 20:51
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 897 Doc Cartwright 13-May-15 02:53
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 818 Dhani Irwanto 13-May-15 04:49
The geography of Atlantis as described by Plato 879 Dhani Irwanto 14-May-15 16:55
A brief summary of my research, the latest one 881 Dhani Irwanto 26-May-15 23:43
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 841 pennylane 27-May-15 21:21
Coral Reef 1055 Dhani Irwanto 18-Aug-15 03:50
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 813 Dhani Irwanto 21-Aug-15 21:54
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 776 drrayeye 24-Aug-15 20:29
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 827 Dhani Irwanto 24-Aug-15 23:11
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 862 Doc Cartwright 04-Sep-15 11:33
Occam's Razor 872 AndyBlackard 08-Sep-15 11:32
Enneadecaeteris 772 Dr. Troglodyte 08-Sep-15 13:19
Re: Enneadecaeteris 693 Eddie Larry 09-Sep-15 12:59
Re: Enneadecaeteris 718 AndyBlackard 12-Sep-15 17:31
Re: Enneadecaeteris 741 Dr. Troglodyte 12-Sep-15 20:43
Re: Enneadecaeteris 741 AndyBlackard 12-Sep-15 21:17
The Biblical Garden of Eden was in Kalimantan Island 1162 Dhani Irwanto 13-Sep-15 05:28
Re: The Biblical Garden of Eden was in Kalimantan Island 826 AndyBlackard 13-Sep-15 13:22
Re: The Biblical Garden of Eden was in Kalimantan Island 1000 Dhani Irwanto 13-Sep-15 14:05
Re: The Biblical Garden of Eden was in Kalimantan Island 826 m111ark 06-Oct-15 02:28
Re: The Biblical Garden of Eden was in Kalimantan Island 797 drrayeye 06-Oct-15 19:44
Re: The Biblical Garden of Eden was in Kalimantan Island 891 m111ark 09-Oct-15 01:22
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Re: Odoric of Pordenone 730 Dhani Irwanto 07-Oct-15 06:54
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Re: Cave found by George Grey 1838 747 Dhani Irwanto 12-Nov-15 03:47
Re: Cave found by George Grey 1838 646 molder 12-Nov-15 21:25
Re: Odoric of Pordenone 363 Dhani Irwanto 17-Dec-17 01:23
Re: Odoric of Pordenone 358 molder 17-Dec-17 02:34
Re: Odoric of Pordenone 370 Dhani Irwanto 17-Dec-17 07:25
Re: Odoric of Pordenone 408 molder 17-Dec-17 11:01
Land of Punt is Sumatera 1239 Dhani Irwanto 15-Nov-15 05:11
Conference 906 Dhani Irwanto 12-Dec-15 20:20
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 615 Dhani Irwanto 09-Sep-16 00:15
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Re: Athens 692 Dhani Irwanto 15-Sep-16 22:13
Re: Athens 559 Heron 16-Sep-16 19:18
Re: Athens meteor strike 539 molder 16-Sep-16 21:12
Re: Athens meteor strike 665 Dhani Irwanto 16-Sep-16 23:11
Re: Athens 653 Dhani Irwanto 16-Sep-16 23:05
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 708 molder 16-Sep-16 08:48
Re: Atlantis: The lost city is in Java Sea 652 Dhani Irwanto 16-Sep-16 16:27
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Re: Does Sundaland fit the bill? 527 Dhani Irwanto 28-Mar-17 23:20
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Youtube video 537 Dhani Irwanto 27-Oct-17 05:00
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Re: Youtube video 545 Dhani Irwanto 29-Oct-17 14:45
Re: Youtube video 469 molder 30-Nov-17 08:02
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