The tables of stars on the ceiling of the tombs of pharaohs Rameses VI and Rameses IX convey indisputable proof that for fixing the hours of the night, a man seated on the ground faced the Astrologer in such a position that the line of observation of the pole star passed over the middle of his head.
On the different days of the year each hour was determined by a fixed star culminating or nearly culminating in it and the position of these stars at the time is given in the tables as in the centre, on the left eye, on the right shoulder etc. According to the texts, in founding or rebuilding temples the north axis was determined by the same apparatus and we may therefore conclude that it was the usual one for astronomical observations. In careful hands it might give results of a high degree of accuracy.
Adapted from Wikipedia as it concisely expresses ideas I understand to be widely accepted, supported by concrete physical, archaeological evidence.
Simply Wiki 'Ancient Egyptian astronomy' and scroll down to see an illustration of the 'star clock' as it is sometimes described to which I have referred in this post.
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