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The Pyramid Texts are perceived to be a collection of weird quasi-religious or magic spells aimed to ease the journey of the departed into the afterlife … but that is all a gross misunderstanding. A plain English summary tells a very different story.

The host Old Kingdom pyramids at Saqqara date to ca 2300 BCE, but evidence suggests that the garbled Texts were added much later in the Middle Kingdom by bumbling copyists … then doubly distorted by modern-era mistranslations. There are 759 ‘Utterances’; a few are missing, several are fragmentary, many are highly repetitious, and most of the rest are incomprehensible. The standard translations are couched in a 18th century Biblical religious personalised language (thee, thou, thine) … whether that is appropriate to the original or not. The hieroglyphic text contains many errors with words missing or mis-spelled, along with obvious grammatical mistakes … altogether indicating that the work is not original but has been transposed later by credulous copyists. Faulkner’s highly regarded 1969 translation is peppered with words and phrases that he footnotes as untranslatable, unknown, doubtful, speculative, a pure guess. At Utt. 318 he footnotes … ‘It is obvious that the ancient copyists themselves did not understand (this Utterance), and in attempting to edit it they have made it even more incomprehensible.’

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All that said, with the help of complementary sources, it is possible to discern a disjointed thread, which falls into four sections … preparation of ‘the body’; provision of ‘food’; transfer to the upper chamber; and final resurrection and ascension. The locale is within the passages and chambers of the Great Pyramid – preparation and feeding in the lower Queen’s chamber; transfer up the Grand Gallery ‘Stairway’; and ascension from the King’s chamber. The main characters of the story include –
Ra (Re, Atum) – the primary sun-god, the personified sun.
Osiris – the imaginary, personified son of the sun, manifested on Earth
Horus – a later [imaginary] derivative of Osiris
Thoth and Isis – real human ‘lords’, managers of the process.

A literal, impersonal interpretation, stripped of the religious embroidery, tells a very different story … summarized below. The language is quoted or paraphrased from Faulkner, 1969 (1), with numbers in parenthesis indicating the source Utterance(s).

Summary
Thoth and Isis manage the preparation of the ‘dead body’ [of Osiris] in the stone coffer; they give it food and drink which provides the ‘efflux’ power of the eye ; they transfer the filled coffer up the stairway to the upper chamber; where it ascends ‘by magic’ in a glorious blaze of sunlight.

Preparation
The King (Osiris) is the first-born mortal son (2-3), the dweller in god’s booth, in the coffer, in the chest, in the Castle of the Mace. (219, 262, 665)
Isis provides the heart for the body (4), Isis and Thoth fasten the head to the bones, and provide eyes (13-18), the Eye of Horus, giving the perfume of incense and fire (24-31). Osiris takes the strong, green Eye of Horus (186-190) which gives incense, savour, or perfume (200). Osiris is circular and round (366, 454). It is provided with the eye of Horus … and his testicles [balls] in the Castle of the Mace (475). The eye is in it in the cavern (389), in the egg (408). Thoth has reckoned it up, filled it with the eye of Horus (658). Thoth has re assembled it so nothing is disturbed (366-8); Thoth ensures everything is pure, because he detests faeces and urine (210).
All its parts are collected (606, 667). All is set in order, made complete, made hale (590, 591, 631, 637, 638, 664, 665, 666).

Provision of ‘food and drink’
Thoth provides the efflux of cold water, so that the heart will not be inert (32-34); Isis provides milk and cake and beer (42, 46-57)
Osiris takes the water which is in the Eye of Horus (58-68); the eye is filled with unguent or ointment of festival perfume which causes Osiris to have power (72-77); Osiris takes the loaf of bread or cakes and jar of strong ale, or wine or beer which provides the ferment which refreshes (89-95, 110-123, 142-154)
Isis provides milk from the milk goddess (211); the milk of two black cows (325); the milk of a great white cow which suckled you (406, 412); milk from the breasts of Isis (413, 470); the milky fluid from the breasts of Isis (661, 675).
The youth of Nubia gives incense of the gods (437, 459, 483, 610); the bread which does not grow moldy and beer which does not go sour (373, 457, 521); the bread of eternity and beer of everlasting (515, 553); the bread and beer and balls of incense (468).
Osiris received the efflux which issued from the cold water (423), the fluid that issued from god, the exudation, the perfume of Tht-wtt (436); the efflux of decay (536, 553); cold water is yours, efflux is yours, the powers are in it (676, 679).
The magic is in its belly (538); it is set in order, the waters are in it, the bread and beer are in it (587); it is filled with the power of the winds (602). In the coffer, are all its members are made hale, with no unsteadiness, it is filled with the eye of Horus, with god’s oblation … for it to have power to go up like the sun from the horizon (364).
Osiris received power from the meal of loaves (110-123) or cakes and ale or wine or milk (142-154) … a quintet of meals, a trio of meals, and a pair of meals (205); it received 5 meals, 3 meals, 2 meals (409). It received power from the efflux of the decay of Unknown-235.

Transfer
The ferry boat is ready to the south of the winding waterway (555); go to the waterway (437); the nurse canal is opened, the winding waterway is flooded (264-265, 556, 609, 613); it is placed on the Sokar boat (645, 647); the ropes of ferry boat are made ready, the tow-rope is made fast (256, 615, 624); the ferryman brings it (270, 300).
Thoth is at the uprights of the ladder, at the edge of the winding waterway (304); a ladder is knotted together (305), mount it up on the ladder (306, 474, 478, 480, 530, 568, 586, 688), a stairway to reach the (chamber) above (505, 619). A stairway to the sky is set up for it (in the Grand Gallery), those in the horizon row it, convey it (268); it ascends on a ladder to a flat-topped gate way (271-2) (the flat stone at the top of the Grand Gallery).
One snake swallows another (an endless rope & pulley system) … until it reaches the cavern (King’s chamber), the Cooking Pot of Horus (240). The double gate (portcullis) is opened, which keeps out the plebs (611, 667, 676).
Finally, the personified figure of Osiris sits on the iron throne (coffer) in the King’s chamber (536, 609, 610, 674, 676).

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The imaginary personification of Osiris, seated on his iron throne, in the ‘cooking pot’.

Resurrection and ascension
Osiris appears, first-born son of his father (577); it ascends to shine as Ra (586) the son of Atum his first born (660). It has radiance in its eye which makes the lapis lazuli grow (319). It is in the horizon, the powers are about it, efficient for burning, with bodies full of magic, in the island of fire, its name is hidden (unknown) (273-4). It ascends in a great storm from the inner horizon (663, 677), a great Flood came forth (311, 313, 317, 344. 436). It ascends to the sky (302).
The sky doors (vent shafts) are opened, the sunlight is released (313, 355, 374, 437, 456, 461, 503, 510, 536, 563, 604, 666, 670, 676). The doors are opened, it comes forth as a star (322, 325) in a blast of fire (332). The furnace heat pours out (313). The doors of the horizon are opened, the fiery serpent comes by great magic (220-222).
It rises in the horizon as an imperishable spirit (217); it issues as a brilliant star (248) from the Island of Fire … it issues from the horizon like a great flood from the Great One (Ra) (249). It comes out of the waters of the flood, a green plume, the raging one in the sunshine (317).
Osiris ascends to his father (Ra) in the starry firmament (crystal) (214); the earth quakes the sky trembles as the child of Atum comes into being (215). Osiris is fierce of brilliance, a flame before the wind to the ends of the sky and the earth, making the heart leap with fright (261). The fear of it is on those who are on earth (574); it makes men tremble (690); the sky thunders, the earth quakes in dread and terror (337, 472, 474, 477, 508, 509, 511,627,667, 690, 719, 720).
The god comes into being, the sky is aflame, earth quakes, the perfume of Tht-wtt is in the king, the unguent fills him, the perfume is in him, he has power by means of it (685-7). The inundation (flood) comes from the efflux of Horus (690); Osiris comes, glorious, shining, besouled, strong, mighty, far-striding, far-reaching (691), great of magic (715), of no human father, no human mother (703). Osiris ascends as magic, fierce of brilliance, a flame before the wind to the ends of the sky and the earth … whose hand no earthlings have grasped [understood (484).

Conclusion: the inert body [of Osiris] was a stone coffer filled with lapis lazuli spheres [eyes]; it was fed 2-3-5 meals of Tht-wtt food of ‘efflux’; which gave it power to transform into awesome, dreadful light.

[1] Faulkner, 1969. The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts.

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Subject Views Written By Posted
The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts revisited 372 william gleeson 17-Jul-20 04:38
Re: The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts revisited 133 cladking 17-Jul-20 14:36
Re: The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts revisited 123 Hanslune 17-Jul-20 23:48
Re: The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts revisited 144 eyeofhorus33 19-Jul-20 16:04
Re: The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts revisited 112 cladking 19-Jul-20 19:06
Still wholly wrong Batman 101 Hanslune 21-Jul-20 02:41
Re: The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts revisited 163 Hanslune 21-Jul-20 02:43
Re: The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts revisited 110 william gleeson 18-Jul-20 05:39
Re: The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts revisited 116 cladking 19-Jul-20 19:08
Re: The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts revisited 145 Thanos5150 17-Jul-20 14:58
Re: The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts revisited 136 william gleeson 18-Jul-20 05:42
Re: The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts revisited 134 Thanos5150 18-Jul-20 15:49


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