> A ramp 80ft tall, in G1's case for example, would
> get you 50% of the total volume of the pyramid...
And that 50% would include none of the hard stones; the stones that had to be lifted over 80'. A stone lifted to the top of the pyramid was six times harder than one lifted to 80' and if they used a straight ramp then it was SIXTY times more work to lift because they had to build a ramp TOO. And they had to build it over and over to finish the structure.
> Not sure where you get that from, but no, though
> others have.
Theyt would not have built a tower if it had no function.
> In the case of Meidum and Djoser's pyramid at the
> very least, no, this is not an assumption. Given
> as I have shown numerous times now that all
> exposed pyrmaids have stepped tower cores of some
> kind it stands to reason this would apply to all.
Just because there is a tower doesn't mean it was built first. This isn't about the nature of the pyramid it is about ramps.
There is NO reason the tower might not have been built as the steps were being built.
> Meidum and Djoser are direct evidence with the
> rest implied. Rigano identifies of the 30 OK
> pyramids, the 22 that have some kind of exposure
> to there cores are all stepped.
I believe they needed steps in order to pull up stones.
So does Rigano.
> > and second is that building a tower is orders
> > of magnitude more difficult than merely
> > the stepped pyramids we know they built.
> This is nonsense. You literally just made this up
> to be argumentative to preserve your 5 stepped
> theory for G1.
If it were built with ramps then all else being equal a tower is far more difficult than a pyramid.
> As with Meidum, for example, the
> towers did have steps, just not as you envision,
> but regardless, as discussed at lenght before with
> other fresh thinkers who could not grasp the
> concept, whether a tower core or a stepped core
> make no difference.
Most all considerations depend upon how the stones were lifted. If you start with ramps you end up on ramps.
Start with the evidence (tower core and steps) and see where we end up.
> Rigano suggests they were made this way to
> accurately maintain the lines for the apex.
I doubt it. Yes, it's possible and a fair enough hypothesis but it's little benefit in the solution of how they were built. Rigano certainly doesn't believe in ramps.
In summary, it seems probable that the
> architects and builders of later Old Kingdom
> pyramids used and improved on methods that had
> proven to be successful in early pyramids. They
> found that a stepped interior would improve
> building efficiency by permitting the use of
> inferior, unfinished and less labor-intensive core
> material. The size and shape of the interior step
> pyramid did not have to be finely controlled since
> it would be hidden. Building the interior step
> pyramid first, while possibly not the most
> efficient method, did provide a means for marking
> the apex and providing control of the true pyramid
> I think there is more to it than that, but
Again, I don't disagree but it brings us no closer to explaining the lack of evidence for ramps nor the actual physical evidence. It is merely expert speculation.