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I’ve updated the essay below substantially. I need to supply some updated diagrams which I will produce over the coming days.

The Westcar Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian papyrus thought to date to the Hyksos period (circa 18th to 16th century BCE). The collection of stories centres around the IVth Dynasty Pharaoh Khufu (aka Cheops) and a series of wonders or acts of magic performed by various priests. The stories have been given the title “King Cheops and the magicians”. In this paper, I review three of the stories within the Westcar Papyrus (The Wonder of Djadjaemankh, Djedi the magician and Ruddjedet gives birth) and seek to:
1.Establish that the stories are using elements of mythological storytelling to convey astronomical data;
2. Offer a new understanding of what Khufu seeks for his horizon or Pyramid through a new translation of a critical phrase within the story of Djedi; and
3. Establish a date based on the astronomical data encoded within the stories that informs us when Khufu was designing his Pyramid.
I make extensive use of the translations provided by Nederhof and all quotes from the stories in this paper are attributable to Nederhof unless otherwise specified.
To establish that the stories of the Westcar Papyrus are using elements of mythological storytelling, first I will seek to clarify what I mean by mythological storytelling. Kelly has studied indigenous knowledge systems and found that across a range of pre-literate cultures that mythological storytelling aids in the memorialisation of knowledge:
Quote
Kelly, Lynne
“The Rhetorica ad Herennium advises its orators that to make information most memorable, mental images should be as striking as possible with vibrant active characters displaying exceptional beauty or singular ugliness. They should be engaged in striking or comic effects involving heroes and trauma, disasters and great feats.”

Kelly also notes that these stories are often performed repetitively, in ritual at specific locations, making use of memory palace techniques in a similar fashion to the Greek orator’s use of the method of loci. Despite being a literate culture, there is evidence within the Westcar Papyrus stories that they have been constructed in such a manner.
The first story in the Westcar Papyrus has suffered from significant loss of content with only the end of the story available. There is a significant portion of the second story available and translated for which I have not attempted an analysis. Therefore, the analysis will commence with the third story “The Wonder of Djadjaemankh” which is set as though being told to the Pharaoh Khufu by his son Prince Baufre. It tells of a wonder or act of magic performed during the time of the IVth Dynasty Pharoah Snofru (Sneferu) by the Chief Lector Priest Djadjaemankh. The story is unusual in its treatment of the deceased Pharoah Snofru who is presented as petulant, starting out with his introduction as being bored or depressed and in need of cheering up, requiring the immediate attention of the Cheif Lector Priest:
Quote
Westcar Papyrus
[...] day, the things that have not happened every [room] of the palace (l.p.h.!) to seek distraction for himself, but he couldn't find any.
Then he said: "Go and bring me the chief lector priest and book-scribe Djadjaemankh."
And he was brought to him immediately. Then His Majesty said to him:
"I've gone through every room of the palace (l.p.h.!) to seek distraction for myself, but I couldn't find any."
The Pharoah Sneferu and Chief Lector Priest Djadjaemankh are already being formed as vivid characters when the story takes a comical turn as Djadjaemankh prescribes that being rowed on his lake by the most beautiful women in his palace will cheer the Pharoah. The comical aspect of the story is ramped up when Pharoah Sneferu accepts Djadamank’s prescription and mandates that these women be full breasted, have braided hair, take off their clothes and wear nets:
Quote
Westcar Papyrus
“Then Djadjaemankh said to him:
“may Your Majesty proceed to the lake of the palace (l.p.h.!), and man a ship with all beautiful women from inside your palace. The heart of Your Majesty will be gladdened by seeing them row a trip back and forth, and seeing the beautiful reeds of your lake, and seeing its (surrounding) fields and its beautiful watersides. Your heart will be gladdened by this."
"So I will arrange my rowing trip. Let me be brought twenty oars of ebony plated with gold, with handles of sqb-wood plated with electrum.
Let me be brought twenty women who have beautiful bodies, who have well-developed bosoms, who have braided hair, and who have not been opened by childbirth. And let me be brought twenty nets and let these nets be given to these women after their clothes have been taken off."
And one did as everything that His Majesty had ordered.”

The characters of Djadjaemankh and Pharoah Snofru in the story thus far have already become vivid, memorable and comical. The story is about to setup trauma through the loss experienced by one of the rowers:
Quote
Westcar Papyrus
“Then they rowed back and forth, and the heart of His Majesty was gladdened by seeing them row. Then one woman who was at the stroke oar got entangled in her braids and a fish-pendant of new turquoise fell into the water. Then she became still, without rowing, and her side became still, without rowing.
Then His Majesty said: "Can't you row?"
And they said: "Our stroke has become still, without rowing."
Then His Majesty said to her: "Why aren't you rowing?"
And she said: "This fish-pendant of new turquoise has fallen into the water."
This passage has setup more than the trauma of the young stroke rower losing her pendant as it also introduces the first hint of an astronomical theme. As she has become still and therefore her entire side of rowers have stopped rowing, there is no information about the other side of rowers having stopped. Therefore, we must assume that they have continued to row and the consequence of rowing on one side only is that the boat will not be travelling in a straight line but will be constantly turning. As such, I propose that the boat is travelling in an elliptical motion on the lake and this motion of the boat on the lake is representative of the stars and constellations travelling at night as observed from sunset to sunrise.
We are treated to a further comical scene where Pharoah Sneferu attempts to convince the stroke rower that he will replace the fish pendant but fails and summons Djadjaemankh setting the Pharoah up as a fool and the priest to become the hero of the story:
Quote
Westcar Papyrus
“Then the chief lector priest Djadjaemankh said his magic spell and put one side of the water of the lake on top of the other, and found the fish-pendant lying on a shard.
He then fetched it and gave it to its owner. Now, as for the water, it was twelve cubits in its middle, and it ended up being twenty-four cubits after its folding up.
Then he said his magic spell and returned the parts of water of the lake to their positions.”
Having established the elements of a mythological tale including vivid characters, trauma and a hero performing an incredible act, lets examine whether the characters of the story could also have an astronomical meaning to them. These characters are:
(1) The Fish Pendant;
(2) The lake;
(3) The boat;
(4) The nets worn by the rowers;
(5) The rowers themselves; and
(6) The Pharaoh Sneferu
The fish pendant is described in the story as of new turquoise. My initial research led me to believe that the colour turquoise is typically associated by the ancient Egyptians with a Talapia fish. Talapia being an important enough species of fish to the Ancient Egyptians to have a specific hieroglyph which is denoted as K1 in Gardiner’s list. Reviewing Nederhof’s conversion of the Westcar Papyrus original hieratic into equivalent heiroglyphs, I was curious to find that no instance of the fish in fish pendant uses the K1 glyph. Instead, the glyph is K5. Reviewing Lull and Belmonte, the K5 glyph makes an appearance in table 6.2 on p163 in the Egyptian constellation hnwy or the 2 Khanuwy Fishes. The same species of fish and indeed fashioned in the form of the K5 glyph appear in the Zodiac of Dendera in figures 6.16 and 6.17. On p183, Lull and Belmonte identify these two fish as Pisces noting there is “an inundated field in the middle of Pisces”. I argue the inundated field is the sign for a body of water (she) such as a lake. I propose that the specific references to the height of the lake being 12 cubits in the middle and 24 cubits when folded represent the number of hours in the day, which the Egyptians divided into two blocks of 12 hours.
The K5 glyph is representative of a variety of elephant fish worshipped in a town known as Oxyrhynchus.
Quote
Roca and Mellado
“As a result of clandestine excavations in the area of El-Bahnasa and Zawiyet Barmacha in the 1960s and 70s, large quantities of bronze oxyrhynchus fish of the Saite-Persian Period began to arrive on the antiquities market. Many of these bronze fish wear an Hathoric crown and rest on a sled-shaped base, which in all likelihood indicates that they represent the goddess Thoeris. In some cases a figure of a priest kneels in front the fish”


Recalling the visual from the story, of the Chief Lector Priest Djadjaemankh leaning down to collect the Oxyrunchus fish pendant which is lying on a shard, could the story also be indicating a linkage to Thoeris? Thoeris is typically represented by a female hippopotamus with a crocodile on her back which is also the symbol of Reret the hippopotamus identified in Lull and Belmonte’s table 6.1.
According to Roca and Mellado, “The oxyrhynchus fish is also of central importance in Plutarch’s account of Set’s fratricidal fight with Osiris in order to wrestle from him the throne of Egypt. After cutting Osiris ́s body into fourteen pieces he spread the pieces throughout Egypt. The phallus was thrown into the river and devoured by three fish” introducing the possibility the fish is representative of half of the lunar cycle of approximately 28 days.
Moving on, the rowers are provided with oars made of ebony and plated in gold. According to Lull and Belmonte p 179, the inscription on the Zodiac of Dendara reads “(This is) The sky of gold, the sky of gold, (it is) Isis the Great, mother of the god (Horus), lady of the Primordial Hill at Iunut (Dendara), (this is) the sky of gold. His great divinities are the stars: Horus-son-of-Isis, his god of the morning, Sokar his god of light, Ihy, his visible star; Osiris the moon, Sah is his god; Sopdet is his goddess” I argue the plating of gold is indicative the oars are for the sky of gold, rowing a mythological boat of the sky.
The boat is a known constellation, in table 6.1 of Lull and Belmonte wi3 or “The Boat” is found to be Sagittarius. Moving to the nets which are worn by the women rowing the boat. We aren’t told much of these nets, but in table 6.2 of Lull and Belmonte, a constellation the Egyptians knew as Kdty or the 2 nets. The rowers I propose to be representative of the Goddesses Isis and Nepthys who are represented by the constellation twins and two ladies by Lull and Belmonte which translates to the Southern Cross.
The Pharaoh Snofru is possibly represented by the Egyptian constellation “Nht” which has been translated as “The Giant” by Lull and Belmonte in Table 6.1. According to Leprohon, nht is also used in many titles of Horus over a large number of sites, including:
Barque Stand, Avaris: “k3 nht mry re (ka nakht mery ra)” or Victorius Bull, beloved of Re
Obelisk, Heliopolis: “k3 nht dr h3swt m nhtw .f” or The victorious bull who has repelled foreign lands with his victories; and
Abydos, Great Temple: “k3 nht ‘3-hps” or “Victorious bull, great of strong arm”
These are just a few examples of the titles containing nht and referring to Horus in Leprohon’s work. Therefore, I argue that nht is associated with the Victorious Bull or Victory and strongly associated to Horus.
The ruling Pharoah of the time is in turn representative of Horus. According to Wikipedia on Horus: “The earliest recorded form of Horus is the tutelary deity of Nekhen in Upper Egypt, who is the first known national god, specifically related to the ruling pharaoh who in time came to be regarded as a manifestation of Horus in life and Osiris in death.”
This concludes the review of the story of the Wonder of Djadjaemankh which has used the elements of vivid characters, comedy, trauma and a hero to tell the story of a night sky similar to the one shown below which has been produced in Stellarium with the Egyptian Star Lore setting turned on:

The story of Djedi the magician immediately follows that of the Wonder of Djadjaemankh. To set the scene, in this story, it is another of Khufu’s sons Prince Hordedef telling the story to Khufu. Almost immediately, this story turns to introduce Djedi a vivid, highly memorable character as he is of an advanced age and yet has a ferocious appetite and is able to perform tricks such as the mending of a severed head:
Quote
Westcar Papyrus
'There is a commoner called Djedi who lives in Djed-Snofru. He is a commoner a hundred and ten years old, who eats five hundred loaves of bread, a shoulder of beef for meat, and drinks a hundred jars of beer, up to this day. He knows how to mend a severed head. He knows how to make a lion walk behind him, with its leash on the ground.”
The elements of mythological story grow with the trauma of two geese and a bull being decapitated. Djedi an already vivid character is setup as the hero by reanimating these animals.
'Is it the truth what they say, that you know how to mend a severed head?'
And Djedi said:
'Yes, I know how to, sovereign (l.p.h.!), my lord.'
Then His Majesty said:
'Let me be brought a criminal who is in prison, and let his sentence be executed.'
Whereupon Djedi said:
'But not to a human, sovereign (l.p.h.!), my lord! Look, doing something like that to the 'noble flock' is not ordained.'
Then a goose was brought to him and its head was cut off.
The goose was placed at the west side of the audience hall and its head at the east side of the audience hall.
Then Djedi said his magic spell, and the goose stood up, waddling, its head likewise. After one had reached the other, the goose stood up, cackling.
Then he had a hts3-goose brought to him, and the same was done to it.
Then His Majesty had a bull brought to him, and its head was felled to the ground.
Then Djedi said his magic spell, and the bull stood up behind him, its leash having fallen on the ground.
At this halfway point in the story of Djedi, we have established the story is certainly using elements of mythological storytelling with a vivid character, trauma and a wondrous act. Lets commence an investigation into the following characters which may represent astronomical data:
1. The two geese - a regular goose and a hts3-Goose;
2. The Bull;
3. The Lion; and
4. Djedi.
Starting with the two Geese. Immediately prior to the first goose being decapitated, Djedi had pushed back against decapitating a prisoner claiming “doing something like that to the noble flock is not ordained”. Lull & Belmonte on p173, discuss clusters (or “ht”) of stars including s3wi sit which is represented in hieroglyphs as two geese. Lull and Belmonte do not claim a known set of stars for this decan in their table 6.1. There is a further possible linkage to this decan or cluster (ht) in the name of the second goose which has been translated as hts3-Goose in Nederhof.
Referring to the bull, on p181 and with reference to the Zodiac of Dendera, Lull and Belmonte note that “the bull of Taurus, which is curiously represented in a very non-standard fashion, looking backwards and with its body extending to the east”
The lion is identified to Leo on p166, when discussing the position of the Lion constellations, they are in agreement the Lion constellations in Ancient Egyptian star charts refers to Leo. I note that in the case of the Lion and the Bull, the story uses the notion of a cord “fallen the ground” this means that the cord or leash is slack not taught and implies an elliptical shape, suggestive of the constellations movements through the sky or in relation to another constellation.
I propose that Djed is an ancient name for a constellation. According to Bunson, Djed “was the sacred sign of the god OSIRIS, considered the deity’s backbone… The Djed Pillar Festival, a cultic celebration of the symbol and its powers was held annually in Egypt… The priests raised up the Djed Pillar on the first day of SHOMU, the season of harvesting on the Nile.”
I note that in the story, Hordedef raises up Djedi. Using the connection of Djed being associated with Leo and Taurus, I identify a the most likely candidate to be a portion of Gemini. This identification could improve with identification of the geese decan.
Continuing the story, Djedi tells the Pharoah Khufu that he doesn’t know the numbers Khufu seeks setting up a new trauma for Khufu, the resolution of which requires triplets to be born to a hereto unknown priests wife called Ruddjedet. The eldest child will bring the numbers to Djedi setting up something of a tragic comedy which continues to the story following Djedi, where we learn that Ruddjedet lives in a house with another character Reusre. The sun god Re has sent the gods Isis, Nepthsys, Heqet and, Khnum disguised as musicians arrive to assist Ruddjedet, they find Reusre standing with his kilt upside down. In this third story, immediately there are elements of vivid characters, comedy and the trauma of the birth of triplets.
I suggest Reusre is representative of Osiris, whose name according to Mark is the Latinized form of the Egyptian Usir which is interpreted as 'powerful' or 'mighty'. Evidence for an alternative transliteration is found in Unterhaltungsblätter für Welt- und Menschenkunde, which states “Osiris, Gemahl der Isis, geschrieben: Usre oder Usri;” which translates to “Osiris, husband of Isis, written Usre or Usri”.
Further support of Reusre’s connection to Osiris is found in the gift of barley that he gives to the gods following their assistance with the birth. According to Smith, Osiris is associated to barley which is regarded as having sprung from his body. Reusre is thus a personification of Osiris and should be connected to the constellation Sah which is made up of a portion of Orion.
It is important to identify the children appropriately as in the story of Djedi, Djedi tells Cheops/Khufu that the eldest of the three children will bring him the number of chambers of the sanctuary of Thoth. Reviewing the children that are born to Ruddjedet, the papyrus tells us their names
'May you not be powerful in her womb, in this name of yours of Userref!'
'May you not kick in her womb, in this name of yours of Sahure!’
'May you not stay dark in her womb, in this name of yours of Keku!'
Nederhof, in his translation includes a footnote that to be historically accurate, Userref should be Userkaf and Keku should be Neferirkare. It is assumed that Sahure is correct as Sahure is the name of a Pharoah that follows Khufu. However, let's examine the evidence in Isis’ utterances that may indicate otherwise. Taking the first child, Isis utters 'May you not be powerful in her womb, in this name of yours of Userref!’ User is a name for Osiris as established above in the discussion on Reusre. Osiris is also connected to the concept of power and of re-birth. As such, I suggest that Userref is a re-birthing of Osiris.
Supporting this notion, Budge in discussing the Tuat on p179 “As the sun passed though the Tuat large numbers of souls made their way into his boat, and although it was only the dead sun that was their guide and protector, and his passage was through the realms of the dead which were under the sovereignty of Osiris, the god of the dead, they were brought forth at length to renewed life and light as soon as the boat passed out from the eastern end of the Tuat into the day.”. Budge further expands upon this by discussing the Tuat [pp 259-260] from the perspective of the cult of Osiris and identifies that there “lies a mummified form, representing Osiris, and called Sem-Ȧf, i.e., the “Image (or Form) of “Ȧf”” Further “As Ȧf, the dead body of Ra, passes into our world, his new life begins, and for men and women the night passes away, and a new day is born.” I argue therefore that Userref is in fact Osiris in the form of Ȧf and represents the rising sun in the morning.
Returning to the Westcar story, Isis utters 'May you not stay dark in her womb, in this name of yours of Keku!’ for the third child. Keku is the Egyptian god of darkness, which aligns to Isis invocation. According to Budge, “Kekui represents that period of the night which immediately precedes the day”. Budge further notes that Kekui was at one point considered an Elephantine god identified with Khnemu which came about due to considering Kekui a personification of the Nile god Hapi. Budge also informs us that at Kom Ombo, Sebek (a crocodile god) was a personification of Kekui.
The second child’s name of Sahure is considered to mean “He who is close to Re” with respect to the Pharoah Sahure. This combination of the third child Keku being the period of the night which immediately precedes the day, 2nd child Sahure being close to Re lends support to the notion that the first and therefore eldest child of Ruddjedet Userref is a form of Osiris-Ȧf and therefore represents the rising sun.
Then His Majesty said:
'When will Ruddjedet give birth?'
(And Djedi said:) 'She will give birth on the fifteenth day of the first month of the Season of Growing.'
Then His Majesty said:
'But that's when the sandbanks of Two-Fish Canal are cut off. Might I visit it myself, so that I could see the temple of Re, lord of Sakhbu!'
The first month of the season of growing roughly translates to early January. There is an interesting hint that the temple of Re is the lord of Sakhbu. This is interesting because the 15th day of the lunar month in the season of growing would see the moon and sun in the sky in the early morning so we have the darkness of Keku immediately before the light of Userref rising. The temple of Re here could indicate a station of the sun.

I have reviewed two possible interpretations of Sakhbu. Nederhof offers the phonetic representation of Sakhbu as S3hbw. Looking at the root of the word Sakhbu it starts with s3h which could be interpreted to Sah. However if Sah which includes the belt stars of Orion were housing the sun in early January when the moon and sun are jointly in the sky in the morning, it would push the date back into a remote past.
According to Jones, S3h-t3 means landing place. Therefore, an interpretation of the S3h in Sakhbu is that of a landing place. If we are to use this interpretation, we must then look to the rest of the word to attempt to understand who or what is at the landing place. Reviewing a number of deity’s, the closest match for the remainder of the word that I could find was Quebui a minor deity associated with the North wind.
According to Budge (vol II) when discussing Isis:
“Among her general titles may be mentioned those of " the divine one, the only one, the greatest of the gods and goddesses, the queen of all gods, the female Ra, the female Horus, the eye of Ra, the crown of Ra-Heru, Sept, opener of the year, lady of the New Year, maker of the sunrise, lady of heaven, the light-giver of heaven, lady of the North Wind, queen of the earth”
These titles and the preceding discussion link Isis to Wadjet and the North Wind. Wadjet is one of the twins of the twins and two ladies constellation which is known and linked to the Southern Cross in Lull & Belmonte.
“ He knows the number of chambers of the sanctuary of Thoth. Now, the majesty of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Cheops, justified, spent the day seeking for himself these chambers of the sanctuary of Thoth, in order to make something similar for himself, for his 'horizon'.'
Djedi is made more memorable through his rumoured possession of knowledge of the number of chambers of the sanctuary of Thoth. This knowledge is presented as highly valuable to Khufu who wants to use it for his horizon (Pyramid). On the sanctuary of Thoth, Gardiner informs us “I have no light to throw on the whereabouts of the wnt; it may be the name of the sanctuary of Hermopolis Magna, or it may be the name of an earlier sanctuary of Thoth in the Delta; or it may be a purely mythical building”. Examining Thoth as a lunar deity, Boylan interprets that “Thoth is Iooh, the moon." Boylan also tells us The Egyptians had setup a lunar calendar, based on the regular cycles of the moon and that this calendar was important for agricultural purposes. In keeping with the mythological storyline with encoded astronomical data, the sanctuary of Thoth therefore could be the station of the moon, a concept used in the establishment of lunar calendars.
With an understanding of the sanctuary of Thoth to mean the station of the moon, we can examine whether the translation of the word chambers is valid. Nederhof has followed the prior translation of Gardiner for the specific phrase Ipwt to mean “chambers”. Berrgren identifies that this translation is not conclusive and presents on p12 various meanings of one of the roots of the word Ipwt "ip means to 1) count, reckon up, make reckoning (with), assess (dues), pay, allot (to), exact (from), detail (s’one for work), claim (from), examine (persons), recognize (s’one), revise (schedules), take heed of, set in order (bones of decapitated body), muster, assemble (of persons)."
Placing the sentence in context now with the clear astronomical theme of the Papyrus established from the story of Djadjaemankh with the lunar station interpretation of the sanctuary of Thoth, a valid interpretation of the sentence is that “Khufu is seeking the numbers from the <reckoning|details|examination|assessment> of the stations of the moon Khufu wants to use these numbers in his Horizon (aka Pyramid). This could also refer to measurements of some kind. To support this interpretation, lets look at the continuation of the astronomical theme in the story of Djedi.

This information can in turn be used to attempt to date the event in the story using astronomy software such as Stellarium. As the story should in theory, point to a date in which Khufu was undertaking the design of his pyramid, an extensive search for alignments has not been completed. Instead, a review of the early years of Khufu’s expected reign were reviewed and a good fit occurs on January 21 in the year 2587 BCE thus marking the year in which Khufu’s horizon or pyramid was being designed.
With this alignment, we can attempt to identify the station of the moon (the sanctuary of Thoth). The station or house of the moon as the moon sets would be the Egyptian constellation of Selkis. We know that Khufu is seeking the numbers from the <reckoning|details|examination|assessment> of the station of the moon and that Khufu wants to use these numbers in his Horizon (aka Pyramid). Examining Selkis, the star at the scorpions tail which is the star closest to the moon is Sigma Leonis. Sigma Leonis is 220.08 light years away from Earth according to the 2007 Hipparcus data. We know from Petrie’s survey of Khufu’s pyramid that the base-length is expected to be 440 Royal Cubits. As such, an intriguing possibility arises - did the astronomer priests of heliopolis understand the speed of light? Other possible sources of numbers from the Selkis constellation have not been fully explored so another explanation of the numbers of the house of the moon may arise.
A final note on this particular alignment, the constellations we were introduced to in the story of Djadjaemankh being the Giant, the fish, the net and the Southern Cross representing the twins Isis and Nepthys are all present in the span of the sky between the rising sun and the setting moon. This could be a form of redundancy in the stories to enable a cross reference or check to be performed.
In conclusion, each of the three stories analysed exhibit the key characteristics of mythological storytelling. The alignment of the characters to known asterisms or constellations of the Egyptians is demonstrated, enabling us to date the story. This in turn allows us to date when the Great Pyramid of Giza was being designed to January 2587 BCE. A review of the house of the moon on this date raises the possibility that the priests of heliopolis had a more advanced science than we currently allow.



References:
Nederhof, Westcar Papyrus accessed from [mjn.host.cs.st-andrews.ac.uk]
Lull and Belmonte, The Constellations of Ancient Egypt, accessed from [www.iac.es]
Margaret Bunson, Encyclopaedia of Ancient Egypt, p101
Maite Mascort Roca & Esther Pons Mellado, Fish offerings found in Area 32 of the archaeological site of Oxyrhynchus (El-Bahnasa, Egypt), Proceedings of the XI International Congress of Egyptologists Florence Egyptian Museum Florence, 23-30 August 2015, pp389-393, accessed from [www.oxirrinc.com]
Ronald J. Leprohon, The Great Name: Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary, pp 111 - 112
Mark, Joshua, Osiris, accessed from [www.ancient.eu]
Unterhaltungsblätter für Welt- und Menschenkunde, Volume 4, Sauerländer, 1827, p446
Smith, G. Elliot, In The Beginning The Origin Of Civilization, 1932, pp 87-88
Budge, EA Wallis, The Gods of the Egyptians Vol 1, Methuen & Co, 1904, pp 179, 259-260 & 285-286
Budge, EA Wallis, From Fetish to God in Ancient Egypt, p239
Berrgren, Jenny, “The ‘Ipwt in Papyrus Westcar (7,5-8; 9,1-5)”, Uppsala University Department of Archeology and Ancient History accessed from [web.archive.org]
Boylan, Patrick “Thoth, the Hermes of Egypt : a study of some aspects of theological thought in ancient Egypt” accessed from [archive.org]
Gardiner, Alan H. “The Secret Chambers of the Sanctuary of Thoth.” The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, vol. 11, no. 1/2, 1925, pp. 2–5. JSTOR, JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3854265.
Jones, Dilwyn, Glossary of Ancient Egyptian Nautical Terms, Routledge 1988
p222
Kelly, Lynne, Grounded: Indigenous Knowing in a Concrete Reality



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 22-Aug-19 22:26 by engbren.

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Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus story of the Wonder of Djadjaemankh 327 engbren 04-Aug-19 23:01
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus story of the Wonder of Djadjaemankh 322 GramPong 05-Aug-19 07:49
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus story of the Wonder of Djadjaemankh 368 engbren 05-Aug-19 10:15
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus story of the Wonder of Djadjaemankh 333 engbren 07-Aug-19 13:16
Unlocking the punch-line 441 hendrik dirker 10-Aug-19 08:59
Re: Unlocking the punch-line 371 engbren 10-Aug-19 09:35
Re: Unlocking the punch-line 311 engbren 11-Aug-19 23:00
Re: Unlocking the punch-line 346 hendrik dirker 12-Aug-19 14:23
Re: Unlocking the punch-line 323 engbren 12-Aug-19 22:40
The plot & motive 338 hendrik dirker 13-Aug-19 10:56
Re: The plot & motive 305 engbren 13-Aug-19 12:10
Re: The plot & motive 368 hendrik dirker 13-Aug-19 14:04
Re: The plot & motive 314 engbren 13-Aug-19 23:04
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus story of the Wonder of Djadjaemankh 321 engbren 12-Aug-19 13:17
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 332 engbren 15-Aug-19 12:20
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 335 engbren 19-Aug-19 11:50
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 335 engbren 22-Aug-19 09:18
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 328 Spiros 23-Aug-19 14:56
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 301 engbren 23-Aug-19 23:41
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 311 Spiros 24-Aug-19 06:16
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 321 engbren 24-Aug-19 10:52
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 312 Spiros 26-Aug-19 09:28
Egyptian seasons in the Phaistos disk 307 Spiros 26-Aug-19 09:55
Is Sopdet Involved? 285 engbren 13-Sep-19 11:45
Re: Is Sopdet Involved? 285 Spiros 13-Sep-19 13:47
Re: Is Sopdet Involved? 343 engbren 13-Sep-19 23:54
Re: Is Sopdet Involved? 288 Spiros 15-Sep-19 06:54
Re: Is Sopdet Involved? 279 engbren 16-Sep-19 12:16
Re: Is Sopdet Involved? 264 Glass Jigsaw 28-Sep-19 17:54
Re: Is Sopdet Involved? 281 engbren 29-Sep-19 09:08
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 331 engbren 27-Aug-19 08:07
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 315 Spiros 29-Aug-19 05:56
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 304 engbren 29-Aug-19 08:46
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 279 Spiros 07-Sep-19 04:07
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 272 engbren 08-Sep-19 02:32
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 263 Spiros 08-Sep-19 14:18
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 298 engbren 28-Aug-19 13:57
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 312 engbren 30-Aug-19 13:06
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 295 engbren 31-Aug-19 12:35
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 323 Spiros 31-Aug-19 19:21
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 276 engbren 04-Sep-19 13:49
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 269 Spiros 07-Sep-19 04:36
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 280 engbren 07-Sep-19 11:35
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 265 Spiros 08-Sep-19 14:50
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 254 engbren 27-Oct-19 12:21
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 258 Spiros 29-Oct-19 13:20
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 273 engbren 29-Oct-19 19:21
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 238 Spiros 30-Oct-19 18:22
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 234 engbren 30-Oct-19 19:29
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 263 Spiros 30-Oct-19 19:59
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 261 Glass Jigsaw 30-Oct-19 13:00
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 264 Spiros 31-Oct-19 15:19
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 260 Glass Jigsaw 31-Oct-19 16:16
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 282 drew 05-Sep-19 04:06
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 314 Spiros 05-Sep-19 06:31
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 311 engbren 05-Sep-19 09:26
Re: 1/14 of Osiris 315 drew 06-Sep-19 00:11
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 275 Spiros 07-Sep-19 05:03
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 273 engbren 06-Sep-19 00:44
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 297 drew 06-Sep-19 01:47
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 287 engbren 06-Sep-19 07:45
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 286 drew 06-Sep-19 08:14
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 274 engbren 06-Sep-19 08:39
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 299 engbren 06-Sep-19 09:02
The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 344 engbren 09-Sep-19 12:21
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 309 Spiros 09-Sep-19 15:40
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 328 Glass Jigsaw 09-Sep-19 20:13
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 317 engbren 10-Sep-19 05:52
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 280 Glass Jigsaw 10-Sep-19 10:54
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 273 engbren 11-Sep-19 13:14
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 297 Glass Jigsaw 11-Sep-19 14:37
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 286 drew 13-Sep-19 04:04
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 287 engbren 13-Sep-19 09:24
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 273 drew 13-Sep-19 10:46
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 283 Glass Jigsaw 13-Sep-19 11:21
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 279 drew 13-Sep-19 11:52
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 285 Glass Jigsaw 13-Sep-19 12:09
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 277 engbren 22-Sep-19 12:32
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 273 cladking 22-Sep-19 13:15
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 314 Glass Jigsaw 22-Sep-19 14:02
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 302 engbren 23-Sep-19 00:42
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 286 Spiros 23-Sep-19 02:54
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 278 Glass Jigsaw 23-Sep-19 10:43
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 275 Spiros 23-Sep-19 13:20
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 282 Glass Jigsaw 23-Sep-19 13:58
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 269 Spiros 23-Sep-19 17:30
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 313 Glass Jigsaw 23-Sep-19 23:51
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 262 Spiros 24-Sep-19 17:41
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 285 Glass Jigsaw 24-Sep-19 22:26
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 277 Spiros 25-Sep-19 13:39
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 297 Glass Jigsaw 25-Sep-19 15:15
The Age of Pisces 407 hendrik dirker 28-Sep-19 08:36
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 286 drew 25-Sep-19 00:49
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 273 Glass Jigsaw 25-Sep-19 11:34
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 266 Glass Jigsaw 25-Sep-19 12:29
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 300 engbren 22-Oct-19 11:07
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 265 Glass Jigsaw 22-Oct-19 14:18
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 245 engbren 25-Oct-19 11:06
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 254 drew 23-Oct-19 23:51
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 236 Glass Jigsaw 24-Oct-19 00:20
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 271 engbren 25-Oct-19 05:57
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 236 engbren 28-Oct-19 20:48
Re: The Age of Pisces or Aquarius? 242 Glass Jigsaw 28-Oct-19 23:23
Astrological signs with human and creature idioms.... 246 Itatw70s 02-Nov-19 00:15
Re: Astrological signs with human and creature idioms.... 268 Glass Jigsaw 02-Nov-19 01:35
Re: Astrological signs with human and creature idioms.... 260 Itatw70s 02-Nov-19 13:45
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 331 Glass Jigsaw 07-Sep-19 12:03
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 337 cladking 07-Sep-19 14:07
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 238 Itatw70s 02-Nov-19 14:20
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 255 Glass Jigsaw 02-Nov-19 14:56
Khnum Khufu 285 engbren 08-Sep-19 13:11
Re: Khnum Khufu 276 Spiros 08-Sep-19 14:46
Trimming away unnecessary observations... 316 drew 09-Sep-19 00:30
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 296 drew 11-Sep-19 03:31
The moon and number 41 304 engbren 11-Sep-19 13:19
Re: The moon and number 41 256 thinkitover 23-Oct-19 05:48
Re: The moon and number 41 253 Glass Jigsaw 23-Oct-19 16:18
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 250 engbren 24-Oct-19 09:51
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 243 Glass Jigsaw 24-Oct-19 11:32
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 272 engbren 25-Oct-19 03:27
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 262 gulsbo 25-Oct-19 19:43
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 264 engbren 29-Oct-19 08:55
Some Random Ideas... 257 thinkitover 01-Nov-19 00:19
Re: Some Random Ideas... 235 engbren 03-Nov-19 21:47
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 272 engbren 04-Nov-19 12:26
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 266 engbren 16-Nov-19 12:02
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 238 Glass Jigsaw 27-Nov-19 00:59
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 245 Sirfiroth 27-Nov-19 04:47
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 244 magisterchessmutt 27-Nov-19 05:45
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 258 Sirfiroth 27-Nov-19 17:34
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 218 magisterchessmutt 28-Nov-19 00:38
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 222 Sirfiroth 28-Nov-19 01:29
Deleted n/t 221 cladking 27-Nov-19 12:33
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 249 engbren 02-Dec-19 12:09
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 234 Thanos5150 06-Dec-19 15:52
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 221 engbren 07-Dec-19 09:22
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 219 Spiros 07-Dec-19 21:54
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 223 engbren 12-Dec-19 11:36
Diameter of Alhena vs Coffer volume sphere theory 192 engbren 17-Dec-19 09:51
Re: Diameter of Alhena vs Coffer volume sphere theory 191 engbren 19-Dec-19 20:23
Re: Diameter of Alhena vs Coffer volume sphere theory 198 Glass Jigsaw 20-Dec-19 03:14
Re: Diameter of Alhena vs Coffer volume sphere theory 213 Spiros 23-Dec-19 22:27
Re: Diameter of Alhena vs Coffer volume sphere theory 158 engbren 29-Dec-19 04:58
Re: Diameter of Alhena vs Coffer volume sphere theory 134 engbren 08-Jan-20 20:01
In the Northern Skies 166 engbren 30-Dec-19 02:26
Re: In the Northern Skies 168 engbren 30-Dec-19 10:39
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 171 engbren 09-Jan-20 12:46
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 177 engbren 10-Jan-20 13:30
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 166 Spiros 12-Jan-20 19:32
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 177 Thanos5150 13-Jan-20 00:03
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 161 Spiros 15-Jan-20 13:32
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 177 engbren 15-Jan-20 11:08
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 184 Spiros 15-Jan-20 19:16
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 181 engbren 17-Jan-20 09:34
On the identity of the Children 175 engbren 19-Jan-20 08:15
Re: On the identity of the Children 152 Glass Jigsaw 19-Jan-20 20:21
Speculation on the offerings 170 engbren 21-Jan-20 12:26
Re: Speculation on the offerings 166 Glass Jigsaw 21-Jan-20 13:04
Not enough here to connect a date! Massive Speculation 169 Sirhope 22-Jan-20 02:14
Re: Not enough here to connect a date! Massive Speculation 152 engbren 23-Jan-20 03:25
The Egyptian Civil Calendar 165 engbren 27-Jan-20 03:05
Re: The Egyptian Civil Calendar 170 engbren 28-Jan-20 11:57
Re: The Egyptian Civil Calendar 172 Spiros 29-Jan-20 15:20
Re: The Egyptian Civil Calendar 149 engbren 30-Jan-20 12:11
Re: The Egyptian Civil Calendar 163 Spiros 01-Feb-20 15:07
Re: The Egyptian Civil Calendar 136 engbren 02-Feb-20 13:31
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 145 engbren 31-Jan-20 09:24
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 139 engbren 08-Feb-20 07:21
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 152 Spiros 08-Feb-20 22:37
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 148 engbren 10-Feb-20 06:43
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 142 engbren 13-Feb-20 13:03
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 146 Manu 13-Feb-20 16:58
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 123 engbren 14-Feb-20 10:03
On the Provions of Vegetables to Djedi 143 engbren 05-Feb-20 07:00
The house of Reusre 146 engbren 06-Feb-20 08:42
Re: The house of Reusre 161 hendrik dirker 06-Feb-20 12:54
Re: The house of Reusre 158 engbren 07-Feb-20 05:38
Re: The house of Reusre 139 engbren 14-Feb-20 10:49
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 140 engbren 15-Feb-20 09:14
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 143 Spiros 16-Feb-20 19:32
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 134 Spiros 17-Feb-20 01:21
The location of the pool and possibly Meskhenet 166 engbren 17-Feb-20 08:51
Re: The location of the pool and possibly Meskhenet 182 Spiros 17-Feb-20 19:13
Re: The location of the pool and possibly Meskhenet 167 engbren 18-Feb-20 09:46
Re: The location of the pool and possibly Meskhenet 180 Glass Jigsaw 18-Feb-20 14:21
Re: The location of the pool and possibly Meskhenet 131 engbren 20-Feb-20 08:11
Re: The location of the pool and possibly Meskhenet 144 Glass Jigsaw 20-Feb-20 14:53
Re: The location of the pool and possibly Meskhenet 135 engbren 22-Feb-20 06:14
Re: The location of the pool and possibly Meskhenet 107 Spiros 07-Mar-20 22:47
Feedback 170 engbren 25-Feb-20 12:15
Re: Feedback 111 Mercurial 06-Mar-20 18:53
Re: Feedback 133 engbren 07-Mar-20 12:51
Re: Feedback 128 Mercurial 11-Mar-20 13:08
Re: Feedback 113 SandyJesse 08-Apr-20 21:49
Re: Feedback 128 Spiros 08-Apr-20 22:26
Re: Feedback 149 SandyJesse 08-Apr-20 23:00
Re: Feedback 129 engbren 30-Apr-20 14:31
Re: Feedback 102 Glass Jigsaw 11-May-20 17:58
Re: Feedback 94 Mercurial 12-May-20 10:23
Re: Feedback 92 Glass Jigsaw 13-May-20 12:13
Re: Feedback 126 cladking 06-Mar-20 20:28
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 191 engbren 01-Mar-20 01:38
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 105 engbren 06-Mar-20 10:26
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 125 Manu 06-Mar-20 10:55
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 123 engbren 07-Mar-20 04:21
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 125 Manu 07-Mar-20 07:45
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 118 engbren 07-Mar-20 12:33
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 119 Manu 08-Mar-20 00:17
Puchkov vs Belmonte, Spence and Rawlins and Pickering 124 engbren 08-Mar-20 03:37
Re: Puchkov vs Belmonte, Spence and Rawlins and Pickering 124 Manu 08-Mar-20 04:35
Re: Puchkov vs Belmonte, Spence and Rawlins and Pickering 123 Glass Jigsaw 08-Mar-20 16:46
Re: Puchkov vs Belmonte, Spence and Rawlins and Pickering 141 Manu 08-Mar-20 16:56
Re: Puchkov vs Belmonte, Spence and Rawlins and Pickering 124 engbren 09-Mar-20 12:05
Re: Puchkov vs Belmonte, Spence and Rawlins and Pickering 115 Glass Jigsaw 09-Mar-20 14:17
Re: Puchkov vs Belmonte, Spence and Rawlins and Pickering 131 Glass Jigsaw 09-Mar-20 14:29
Re: Unlocking the Westcar Papyrus with Egyptian Astronomy 124 Spiros 08-Mar-20 16:08
On the offerings 83 engbren 16-May-20 11:21
Re: On the offerings 107 Glass Jigsaw 16-May-20 13:02
Re: On the offerings 98 engbren 19-May-20 13:06
Re: On the offerings 95 Glass Jigsaw 19-May-20 18:22
Re: On the offerings 115 engbren 20-May-20 14:11
Re: On the offerings 126 engbren 22-May-20 13:55
Re: On the offerings 116 engbren 24-May-20 13:20
Is Khufu's Pyramid based on Saturn? 105 engbren 25-May-20 13:53
Re: On the offerings..Query 76 Glass Jigsaw 11-Jun-20 11:45
Re: On the offerings..Query 56 Mercurial 19-Jun-20 04:22
Re: On the offerings..Query 50 Glass Jigsaw 19-Jun-20 13:34
Re: On the offerings..Query 49 Mercurial 19-Jun-20 17:31
Re: On the offerings..Query Wallpaper 83 Glass Jigsaw 19-Jun-20 18:25


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