Khufu’s reign is believed to be 2589 BC - 2566 BC
We are told in the Westcar Papyrus that Khufu is interested in copying the ipwt of the House of Thoth for use in his own horizon. Ipwt has been translated as chambers, numbers or plans. Djedi tells Khufu the eldest of three boys born to Ruddjedet will provide the Ipwt to him.
We are told that Ruddjedet will give birth on the 15th day of the first month of growing season. Growing season generally translates to early January. I have assumed that the 15th day will correspond to the 15th day of the moon. Thoth is a lunar deity and as such, the house of Thoth will be the constellation that the moon is in at a particular time on that day.
Interestingly through the story of the birth of Ruddjedet, we are told one of the three children is Keku. Keku is the Egyptian god of darkness, specifically, the darkness that immediately precedes the daylight. Now we have the time of viewing of the moon. Is this the scene the story is describing:
Note that the moon (Thoth) is in the Selkis constellation. Interestingly, for anyone that has studied the great pyramid, the star in Selkis (Sigma Leonis) that the moon is near is 220 light years away according to Stellarium. Given the baselength of the Great Pyramid is 440 RC, that is a remarkable coincidence.
A further indication of Reusre’s connection to Osiris is the gift of barley that he gives to the gods:
“These gods then went out, having delivered Ruddjedet of the three children, and they said: 'Rejoice, Reusre, for three children have been born to you!' Then he said to them: 'My ladies, what can I do for you? Please give this barley to your bearer, and accept it as a tip.’" - Nederhof
According to Smith, Osiris is associated to barley which is regarded as having sprung from his body and through imagery where Osiris says “I am barley”. With the connection to barley and the similar spelling to Osiris’ Egyptian name there appears to be a significant case to argue that Reusre is a personification of Osiris and should be connected to Sah.
It is important to identify the children appropriately as in the story of Djedi, Djedi tells Cheops/Khufu that the eldest of the three children will bring him the number of chambers of the sanctuary of Thoth:
Then king Cheops, justified, said:
'Now, what is said is that you know the number of chambers of the sanctuary of Thoth.' And Djedi said:
'I beg your pardon, I don't know the number thereof, sovereign (l.p.h.!),
my lord, but I know the place where it is kept.'
Then His Majesty said:
And this Djedi said:
'There is a casket of flint in a room called the Inventory in Heliopolis; (well, it is) in that casket.'
(Then His Majesty said: 'Go and bring it to me!') And Djedi said:
'Sovereign (l.p.h.!), my lord, look, I am not the one who will bring it to you.'
Then His Majesty said:
Who then will bring it to me?'
And Djedi said:
'The eldest of the three children who are in the womb of Ruddjedet will bring it to you.'
Reviewing the children that are born to Ruddjedet, the papyrus tells us their names
'May you not be powerful in her womb, in this name of yours of Userref!'
'May you not kick in her womb, in this name of yours of Sahure!’
'May you not stay dark in her womb, in this name of yours of Keku!'
Nederhof, in his translation includes a footnote that to be historically accurate, Userref should be Userkaf and Keku should be Neferirkare. It is assumed that Sahure is correct as Sahure is the name of a Pharoah that follows Khufu. However, let's examine the evidence in Isis’ utterances that may indicate otherwise. Taking the first child, Isis utters 'May you not be powerful in her womb, in this name of yours of Userref!’ User is a name for Osiris as established above in the discussion on Reusre. Osiris is also connected to the concept of power and of re-birth. As such, I suggest that Userref is a re-birthing of Osiris.
Now lets deal with the third child where Isis utters 'May you not stay dark in her womb, in this name of yours of Keku!’ Keku is the Egyptian god of darkness, which along with the Isis’ statement appears to be designed to invoke Keku. According to Budge, “Kekui represents that period of the night which immediately precedes the day”. Budge further notes that Kekui was at one point considered an Elephantine god identified with Khnemu which came about due to considering Kekui a personification of the Nile god Hapi. Budge also informs us that at Kom Ombo, Sebek (a crocodile god) was a personification of Kekui.
Nederhof, Westcar Papyrus accessed from [mjn.host.cs.st-andrews.ac.uk]
Lull and Belmonte, The Constellations of Ancient Egypt, accessed from [www.iac.es]
Smith, G. Elliot, In The Beginning The Origin Of Civilization, 1932, pp 87-88
Budge, EA Wallis, The Gods of the Egyptians, Methuen & Co, 1904, pp 285-286
Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 05-Aug-19 10:29 by engbren.