> engbren Wrote:
> > It was the variation in size of the discs,
> > variation in materials and form/shape that
> > to variation in mass of the discs that had me
> > questioning whether the game theory is correct.
> I am not sure why this would be what makes you
> question the idea. There are many games/sports
> whose playing pieces/equipment, though the same
> design, are of different sizes, shapes or
I want to clarify my thinking - I’m not ruling out the game theory. However, Emery has presented a hypothesis with limited supporting evidence. As such, I argue we should consider alternatives and evaluate on their respective merits.
> > Unfortunately,
> > Emery doesn’t give us data on
> > mass of the discs.
> Why is this needed really?
Elementary physics teaches us
F = m.a or Force (F) = mass (m) x acceleration (a)
When undergoing circular motion, even at a constant revolutions per minute, an object is constantly accelerating. This force is known as Centripetal force.
Mass is also important in determining an objects momentum (p) = mass x velocity. Thus mass is critically important to the force generated by the spinning top and its momentum which determines how long it will spin for.
By varying the materials which each have a different density, the size of the object and it’s shape, they changed the mass. Hemaka and the first dynasty Egyptians didn’t need to understand the Newtonian physics equations at all, just through practical means of observation of the different materials as how long they spin for.
I don’t know their capability in the first dynasty but certainly were aware of how to weigh something with a scale relative to another objects in later times. These different shapes and forms therefore represent an opportunity to explore practical applications of a spinning mass such as in a flywheel.
> > The size of the discs in
> > relation to the size of the box also raises
> > questions. There are 5 photographed discs which
> > are decorated out of the 45 or so discs meaning
> > nearly 90% of the discs are unadorned.
> Maybe the decorated ones are for official play and
> the rest for practice. Maybe they are part of the
> game along with the undecorated pieces.
> > A counter
> > point to these being unadorned is The variation
> > materials here would vary the colour /texture
> > these discs.
> > Interesting to note that a couple of discs are
> > made of crystal formed into a flat / convex
> > which isn’t noted as having any optical
> > but may be relevant to one of my other threads
> > optics in terms of development of grinding
> > capability.
> > Perhaps the discs and arrows to spin them on do
> > represent a knowledge of circular motion
> > to a form of entertainment but I keep thinking
> > there may be something more practical or
> > instructional about these discs.
> What is the practical or instructional purpose
> (other than playing the game and/or how to spin
> tops for whatever reason) of having nearly 100
> small, randomly assorted weighted discs, some
> decorated (implying more than a utilitarian
> function), some with slightly different shapes,
> some made of different materials all with no
> apparent standardization other than they are all
> between roughly 3-6in in diameter? Housed in a
> specially decorated ornate box and proudly buried
> in a tomb to also have in the afterlife no less.
> To each their own, though interesting for what it
> is, I do not see some great mystery here or
> advanced purpose of these disks.
I queried the game theory by asking the question of whether there could be a practical or instructional purpose to these discs. The purpose of these items could be an instructional or a teaching aid. I note that the principles applied could be used in the development of simple machines that spin. I don’t see any further advanced purpose.
> Hemaka was seal bearer of king Den, effectively
> the "hand" of the king, part of whose job was the
> administration of lands and actions of the state
> including matters of treasury. The magnitude of
> his tomb and the grave goods within, more
> significant than the king himself, a phenomenon of
> 1st Dynasty tombs
> 57597]I have spoken of at length before[/url],
> shows he was a very important and wealthy
> individual. It is hard to understand why he would
> have a centrifugal force test/instructional kit
> buried with him in his tomb.
Many of the mathematical problems attempted in the papyri of much later periods concerned themselves with what I would call operations research. Perhaps Hermaka was also concerned with the ability to increase productivity.
The fast potters wheel quoting Wikipedia was developed in Egypt circa 3,000 BC:
“Others consider Egypt as "being the place of origin of the potter's wheel. It was here that the turntable shaft was lengthened about 3000 BC and a flywheel added. The flywheel was kicked and later was moved by pulling the edge with the left hand while forming the clay with the right. This led to the counterclockwise motion for the potter's wheel which is almost universal."
Hemaka is thought to live in the time of circa 3,100 BC so the development of the fast potters wheel is close in timeframe. According to the same wiki article, there is evidence of Mesopotamian pottery that is wheel thrown that dates to 3,100 BC.
> As an aside, it is interesting to note Hemaka's
> title was [b]"seal-bearer of the king of Lower
> Egypt"[/b], i.e. king of the north, and not a
> unified "seal bearer of the king of Egypt". Den's
> tomb of course is located in the south at the
> royal cemetery near Abydos.
Edited 2 time(s). Last edit at 04-Oct-19 10:33 by engbren.