" ... what they represent nonetheless is a clear change in ideology of what came directly before. Where did the idea of Sun Temples come from? "
The idea of course is one related to monotheism. The idea is very, very old, but the temples increasingly become more elaborate as cultures grow and hybridize resulting in better building skills. The first "temples" were probably outdoor alters, as found practically around the world.
The one-god concept, and the religions (re-ligere) that grew on to it seem to have been required by the one(s) who ruled at their time, to consolidate their power.
The victorious need an all-powerful dominate god to raise as their regal standard; and also to embody that spirit in their own being, and thereby become the focus of the population's veneration, the 'first-born' of the deity and plus be able to join that god in the afterlife. Lofty elevation indeed.
For some emperor/kings it wasn't a hard break from the nature spirit worship and pantheism of the tribal ages, as everybody had to be brought in and along with the conquests, forced migrations & etc; but at least there was always then a supreme deity of whichever chosen pantheon.
You lay out very nicely the vagaries of temple-building and different dynasty customs that came with the invasions, migrations and changes in neighborhood,
of that burgeoning age.
as an aside, what is the male figure meant to be holding in his left hand, in your 4th dynasty image ?
Edited 2 time(s). Last edit at 11-Feb-20 02:12 by seasmith.