> First of all, you and many other alternative
> theorists are forgetting one very important
> factor. To the ancient Egyptians, the king was a
> god. The living incarnation of Horus on earth.
This is mere assertion and ignores more evidence than it includes.
> The skilled workmen
> and conscripted peasant farmers who actually built
> the pyramid believed they were ruled over by god
This is more assertion and repetition of the last.
We don't even know how they built the pyramids yet Egyptologists propose peasants slept on wet sand ramps!!!
Nowhere is there evidence that any farmer or anyone else even quarried a (core) stone for the pyramid. No evidence exists any stone was ever dragged by any peasant yet this is the assumption.
> Never mind the fact that the
> king was an absolute monarch who held the power of
> life and death over his subjects.
No such evidence exists.
> During all
> periods of political centralization in ancient
> Egyptian history, but especially during the Old
> Kingdom, the concept of ma'at (which can be
> translated as divinely ordained order) was
> inseparably linked with the will of the pharaoh.
You are assuming the word "maat" did not change its meaning and that the culture remained unchanged. You must do this or you couldn't even use the later language to translate the older writing. You must assume 3000 years of uninterrupted history. It's simply nonsense because there is no history until later.
> For an Egyptian to go against ma'at, by hiding
> underground as per your example, would have been
> seen as tantamount to inviting chaos and damnation
> upon his head.
More nonsense and this is contradicted by the writing which says "men bury themselves, the gods fly up".
> Secondly, your assertion that the Egyptians of the
> Old Kingdom would have been incapable of building
> the Great Pyramid is an entirely baseless
No. Your assertion that they "mustta used ramps" is an entirely baseless assumption.
It seems rather obvious to most reasonable people that the methods and beliefs proposed by Egyptologists could not possibly result in pyramid. Indeed, Egyptologists invariably invoke beliefs to explain how these stinky footed bumpkins could build. "The king was god and this provided the ability to drag mountains".
> Not only did Egypt have sufficient
> manpower, an estimated population of 1.6 million
> of which only about 20,000 men working in three
> month shifts would have been sufficient, but the
> copper and wooden implements employed by the
> Egyptian workmen would have been more than
> adequate to build the Great Pyramid.
Where is the evidence? These are more assertions. The pyramid exists therefore bumpkins dragged stones.
> 1. It is certainly true that copper, in and of
> itself is a relatively soft metal. However,
> Egyptian copper tools and weapons during the Old
> Kingdom were intentionally hardened by adding
> arsenic to the mold.
There is no evidence for this.
Believe me I've looked and hope it's true but most of the known metal is copper. Scientists believe most of the bronze was accidental.
> This produced a metallic
> compound that was similar to bronze in strength.
> Needless to say, the copper saws and chisels would
> have easily cut through the limestone that made up
> the vast bulk of the pyramid.
But no one can duplicate this even with difficulty.
Yes, the core stone is softer but it's still stone.
> 2. For harder stone such as granite, the Egyptians
> would have used copper bow drills in tandem with
> quartzite abrasives which would have been more
> than sufficient to work even the hardest stone
> known to them.
> 3. Through trade with the Levantine city-state of
> Byblos, Egypt received a large supply of cedar
> wood which was used to construct both the river
> barges used to transport the granite and tura
> limestone down the Nile, as well as to build the
> wooden sleds used to haul the blocks up the
> network of ramps.
Assertion. Only one shipment of cedar is known to have occurred.
"Wooden sleds" would wear out so fast that a steady stream of wood would be needed.
> 4. Ramps would in fact have been the most
> efficient method to construct the Great Pyramid.
> I would encourage you to read the very detailed
> monograph written by Jean Pierre Houdin. He
> explains the ancient Egyptian construction
> techniques far better than I could.
Ramps are contraindicated by ALL of the evidence. No evidence exists for them and even the word "ramp" is UNATTESTED.
You are making assertions.
> In conclusion, the Egyptians certainly built the
> Great Pyramid using a combination of manpower,
> copper tools, wooden sleds, and ramps. And the
> Great Pyramid was built for and on the orders of
> King Khufu as his royal tomb. The entire
> construction project would have been completed in
> a maximum of 20 years. Recent evidence from the
> Merer Diary suggests Khufu had a reign of 27
The only thing proven by the Merer Diary is that Egyptology was wrong about Khufu yet they interpret it to prove their assumptions.
We've been through all this before. You might want to choose your battles until you find your way around.