> When you consider just the
> logic of the model as a "funicular system"
> (and not its physical manifestation), it
> suggests a practical purpose for the causeways and
> also renders meaning to the 4.6 degree incline we
> see on several of them. It's something that I
> think warrants further consideration. (btw, I
> think the segment of G1's so-called "causeway" in
> the valley may be the result of later adaption
> after the Nile level receded).
It's possible, that the ruins found in the valley were a later adaption. This would mean that G1 was built dangerously close to the cliff, so close that hardly any allowance was made for a Nile flood. I find it hard to believe the builders would not have factored in possible flooding. What has bothered me is the abrupt end or disappearance of the causeway.
It looks like the pyramids were built before the Nile was 50' higher, and the rest of the causeway was then washed away by a higher Nile.
There is another possible explanation for the causeways.
The FIRST thing, the first necessity on a construction project is access. You're not going to build anything if you can't readily get to it. Access roads are the first thing to go in. Considering the amount of traffic on a pyramid site, with not only the laborers but also the supporting workers, and considering the pyramids are in a sea of sand, it would not be desirable to have personnel trudging through sand to get to work. It would be efficient to lessen the travel time by avoiding the sand. Also, you would not want to drag all the supplies through sand. All the food, sandals, tools, mortar mix, baskets/buckets, anything you can think of would be transported daily to the site.
The causeways may have been roads. I'm not seeing any other signs of access roads.
> In other words, how
> would we be able to build those pyramids today if
> we had never discovered electricity and fossil
> fuels in the abundance required to complete such
> an enormous scope of work?
Well we couldn't, and didn't build anything comparable until the industrial age.