> The only standard I see is they were built around a tower core.
> All I can say is that we look at
> every single intact exposed pyramid from the OK to
> the MK we find tower cores at their center,
> including G3....
I might have missed it in your previous posts, but where do we see a central tower in G3?
> When thinking about how they were constructed,
> regardless of which ones when or by whom, it stands to
> reason they were likely all built around this model.
Bonnie Sampsell writes that Lepsius, and by association Borchardt, were wrong about the broad application of accretion and that many OK pyramids were built strictly in horizontal layers as their final design with no indication of an inner perimeter that would define a central tower. She cites that M&R didn’t find any evidence of accretion in many OK stone pyramids including the 3 Gizamids as well as Red, Userkaf, and Sahure. According to Sampsell:
- Italians Vito Maragioglio and Celeste Rinaldi studied the architecture of many Old Kingdom pyramids in great detail. They paid particular attention to the issue of accretion layers. They found that for the most part the major pyramids at Dahshur and Giza were too well preserved to reveal much about their interior structure, but in every place where they could examine portions of the nucleus of these pyramids they saw only blocks laid horizontally rather than on a slant. In fact, they found no evidence for any internal faces that could be associated with accretion layers in any Dynasty IV or V pyramid.
- Miroslav Verner excavated the unfinished pyramid of Dynasty V king, Raneferef [Neferefre]. Verner reported that this pyramid provides absolutely no evidence of building by accretion layers saying: “If the [accretion] theory was valid, then...it should have been possible to find -- as in cross section -- stone masonry arranged on all four sides in parallel layers. It would be as if an onion not circular, but square, had been sliced across horizontally.
- The reports of Maragioglio, Rinaldi, and Verner, taken in conjunction with personal observations made during several trip to Egypt, make me confident that the Dynasty IV pyramids at both Dahshur and Giza were constructed using the new method of horizontal courses rather than with inclined accretion layers.
Where do you see a central tower as being ‘the only standard’ design in the OK pyramids?
How can any of us ever know, when all we can do is think?