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I did some study on this some years ago. Here is the result.

12 = the number of constellations in the zodiac;

30 = the number of degrees allocated along the ecliptic to each zodiacal constellation;

72 = the number of years required for the equinoctial sun to complete a processional shift of one degree along the ecliptic;

360 = the total number of degrees in the ecliptic;

72 x 30 = 2160 (the number of years required for the sun to complete a passage of 30 degrees along the ecliptic, i.e., to pass entirely through any one of the 12 zodiacal constellations). This number 2160 is seen inscribed in the base of the Great pyramid.

2,160 x 12 (or 360 x 72) = 25,920 (the number of years in one complete precessional cycle or ‘Great Year’, and thus the total number of years required to bring about the ‘Great Return’.

I believe these numbers are as remarkable as they are disturbing, because they are so close to the truth. That the ancients who observed this and realised the importance of these numbers were few compared to the vast populations of today, is astounding, their work deserves the greatest credit. The Earth, which spins like an enormous globular top, also has a pronounced wobble, or precession , such as tops and gyroscopes develop when disturbing forces act upon them. This is no new discovery. More than 2,100 years ago, Hipparchus (146-127 BC) spotted it. It appears that he had written a work bearing ‘precession of the equinoxes’ in the title, and this term is still in current use although the phenomenon is more usually referred to merely as ‘precession’. This discovery was the result of painstaking observations worked upon by an acute mind. Hipparchus observed the positions of the stars and then compared his results with those of Timurcharis of Alexandria 150 years before, and with even earlier observations made in Babylonia. He discovered that the celestial longitudes were different, and this difference was of a magnitude exceeding that attributable to errors of observation. Hipparchus therefore proposed precession to account for this, and gave a value of 45″ or 46″ for the annual change. To him it was the unmistakable movement of the equinoxes, both vernal and autumnal. Relative to the fixed stars they move slowly westward along the path of the ecliptic.

Herbert Arthur Klein, author of The Science of Measurement, A Historical Survey writes:
‘The rate of this significant movement is now 50.26 second of arc per year, or about 1° 24′ per century. In a period of 25,800 years at this rate, the vernal equinox moves completely around the 360° circle of the ecliptic. The effect of this is to make the tropical year shorter by the indicated 1,500 second than the full orbital or anomalistic cycle.

However, even this stately precessional gyration of the Earth’s axis does not proceed at an entirely uniform rate. It accelerates very slightly, adding to the 1° 24′ angular movement per century an additional 0.022 2″ (second of arc).

This does not complete the complexities of the Earth’s motions. Its axis of rotation, while it is slowly changing direction in the gyration of precession, also vibrates in a far smaller cycle called ‘nutation,’ with a period of some 18.6 years. Thus the great precessional circle, completed in nearly 26,000 years, shows nearly 1,400 tiny nutational scallops or wavelets. Their scope is less than ¼ of 1 percent of that of the great precession, but they cannot be overlooked by astronomers seeking to use Earth’s orbit as a clock.

Nutation is fascinating in another way. It tends to turn the direction of Earth’s rotational axis in a direction, or ‘sense,’ opposite to that of the great precession and to the senses of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun and its spin also.

Suppose we were able to observe the solar system from a region of space far above the Sun. ‘Above’ here means northward. As we looked down we should see near the centre of the Sun’s disk that portion which from Earth we see at the left-hand edge of the Sun when it rises in the east, as viewed by us on Earth. From such a lofty vantage point in space we would see the Earth orbiting in a counter clockwise sense, and spinning also in that same sense. Even the slow precessional wobble of the Earth’s rotational axis would follow that same counter clockwise direction, as we observed it.

However, the tiny nutational vibrations would seem to be trying to turn the Earth’s axis in the opposite, or clockwise, direction. (Needless to say, if we observed from the opposite or ‘southern’ side of the plane of the Earth’s orbit, the senses or direction would be reversed orbit, spin and precession would be clockwise; nutation counter clockwise.)

The peculiarities of precession and nutation result from the fact that Earth is not a perfectly round and homogeneous mass of matter. It has a distinct bulge around its midriff. Its circumference around the equator is greater than its circumference measured around the two poles, north and south. The gravitational attractions of Moon and Sun, acting on this additional bulge of matter around Earth’s middle, tend to reduce the tilt of Earth’s rotational axis, from 23½° toward 0°. But since the Earth spins like a great globular top, this deflecting force is transformed into the slow precessional swing of the axis of rotation, with a period of nearly 26,000 years. Accordingly, astronomers call this the lunisolar precession.’

The ancients, with their value for precession of 25,920 years came extremely close.

The use of very large numbers is recorded in many ancient cultures, and those of India and Babylonia being so close to Egypt are of great interest. L. Basham The Wonder that was India tells us much about very large numbers in India (p323).


Hindu cosmology in its final form was perhaps later than the cosmologies of the Buddhists and Jainas. According to this system the cosmos passes through cycles within cycles for all eternity. The basic cycle is the kalpa, a “day of Brahma”, or 4,320 million earthly years. His night is of equal length. 360 such days and nights constitute a “year of Brahma {“and his life lasts for 100 such years. The largest cycle is therefore 311,040,000 million years long, after which the whole universe returns to the ineffable world-spirit, until another creator god is evolved.

In each cosmic day the god creates the universe and again absorbs it. During the cosmic night he sleeps, and the whole universe is gathered up into his body, where it remains as a potentiality. Within each kalpa are fourteen manvantaras, or secondary cycles, each lasting 306,720,000 years, with long intervals between them. In these periods the world is recreated, and a new Manu appears, as the progenitor of the human race. We are now in the seventh manvantara of the kalpa, of which the Manu is known as Manu Vaivasvata.

Each manvantara contains seventy-one Mahayugas, or aeons, of which a thousand form the kalpa. Each mahayuga is in turn divided into four yugas or ages, called Krta, Treta, Dvapara and Kali. (These terms were also used in a form of Indian gambling as they were the terms used for throws of a dice: krta (cater, four), treta (trey), dvapara (deuce), and kali (ace).

The lengths of the yugas or ages are respectively 4,800, 3,600, 2,400 and 1,200 “years of the gods”, each of which equals 360 human years. Each Yuga represents a progressive decline in piety, morality, strength, stature, longevity and happiness. We are at present in the Kali-yuga, which began, according to tradition, in 3102 B. C., believed to be the year of the Mahabharata War. The Mahabharata War marked the end of the Dvapara yuga, a period of 2,400 ‘years of the gods’ and the beginning of the Kali, according to legend the whole of India, from Sind to Assam and from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin, took part in the war.

The system of four yugas immediately brings to mind the four ages of ancient Greece - and indeed the Indian yugas are sometimes named after metals - gold, silver, copper and iron. A similar doctrine of four ages existed in ancient Persia, and the three schemes may have been borrowed from a common source. Confusion of classes, the overthrow of established standards, the cessation of all religious rites, and the rule of harsh and alien kings mark the end of the Kali-yuga, according to many epic passages. Soon after this the world is destroyed by flood and fire.”

This last passage reminded me of the words of Herodotus where he tells the story of Cheops the builder of the Great Pyramid, which was also built around the time of the Mahaabharata War and perhaps to herald in a new age. Herodotus The Historiesp (pp.178-180) Herodotus says: “up to the time of Rhampsinius, Egypt was excellently governed and very prosperous; but his successor Cheops (to continue the account which the priests gave me) brought the country into all sorts of misery. He closed all the temples, then, not content with excluding his subjects from the practice of their religion compelled them without exception to labour as slaves for his own advantage.”

‘But no crime was too great for Cheops: when he was short of money, he sent his daughter to a bawdy-house with instructions to charge a certain sum – they did not tell me how much’.

‘The Egyptians can hardly bring themselves to mention the names of Cheops and Chephren, so great is their hatred of them: they even call the pyramids after Philitis, a shepherd who at that time fed his flocks in the neighbourhood.’

The great numbers mentioned in Indian cosmology seem fantastic, however they can be seen when we measure time.

The solar year is 365.25 days approximately and the Indians and Egyptians knew this. From very early times Hindus have employed luni-solar cycles made by combining solar years and lunar years so as to keep the beginning of the lunar year near that of the solar year. Their solar year is divided into 12 months. The names are those of the signs of the zodiac, and, as the Hindu zodiacs are all of equal length, 30 degrees, as with us, while the speed of the sun (the motion of the Earth in its orbit round the sun) varies according to the time of the year, the lengths of the months are variable. In Egypt however, the Egyptians had begun to observe what is known as the heliacal rising of the star Sirius of Sothis, a conspicuous object in the Egyptian sky. A star is said to rise heliacally on the day on which it first appears again in the sky just before sunrise after being for some time invisible. The Egyptians noted that this rising corresponded very closely with the rise of the Nile, on which the agricultural welfare of the country depended. Small wonder then that they chose this for the first day of the year, and took the period between two such observed risings to form a unit of time which was convenient not only as being much longer than the old month, but as including a whole round of the seasons.

The next step was to subdivide the new unit, and here use was made both of the old months and of the changing seasons. Twelve nominal months of 30 days each gave 360 days, and the missing 5 days were added at the end under the name of ‘days additional to the year’. .

In one mean solar day there are 24 hours, 1,440 minutes and 86,400 seconds.
In 360 days there are 8,640 hours, 518,400 minutes and 31,104,000 seconds. This last number equates to the largest cycle in Indian cosmology 311,040,000. What we are essentially talking about are lengths of distance and time.

Measures of time in India

Ancient Indian learned men devised a detailed terminology for minute intervals of time, which had little relation to everyday life and must be looked on as a flight of fancy. The longer measurements in most general use were:

18 nimesas (winks) = 1 kastha (3.2 seconds)
30 kasthas = 1 kala (1.8 minutes)
15 kalas = 1 nadika or nalika (24 minutes)
30 kalas or 2 nadikas = 1 muhurta or ksana (48 minutes)
30 muhurtas = 1 aho-ratra (day and night, 24 hours)

Just as there are 30 days in a month, here there are 30 hours in a day, and each hour has 48 minutes, interestingly featuring the same number as feet in a Saxon mile – 4,800.

Now to Babylonia where similar numbers appear.

Berossus was a priest of Bel at Babylon, who translated into Greek the standard Babylonian work on astrology and astronomy, and compiled (in three books) the history of his country from native documents, which he published in Greek in the reign of Antiochus II (250 BC) His works have perished, but Josephus and Eusebius have preserved extracts from the history. It is believed Eusebius probably derived them indirectly from Berossus, through the medium of Alexander Polyhistor and Apollodorus. The extracts containing Babylonian cosmology, the list of the antediluvian kings of Babylonia, and the Chaldean story of the deluge have been shown by the decipherment of the cuneiform texts to have faithfully reproduced the native legends.

According the Berossus, Xisuthrus was the last of the ten primitive Babylonian kings, whose immensely long lives are closely related to the theory of an artificially calculated cosmic year. The Berossian cosmic year had the enormous duration of 518,400 ordinary years, and each of its 12 months consisted of 12 Sari – i.e. (12 x 3600), 43,200 ordinary years. According to this system, ten cosmic months are equivalent to 432,000 years, and this is exactly the number of the years assigned by Berossus to the ten Babylonian kings.

In the paragraph above the numbers 518,400 and 43,200 are found.
in the Great Pyramid, 51.84 degrees being the slant angle and 432 Saxon feet being the height of the pyramid to the base of the capstone..


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