> And that quote from the Treaty of Tripoli was never really in
> the treaty.
> From the National Archives footnote on the Treaty of
> "The Barlow translation of the Treaty of Tripoli is at best a
> poor attempt at a paraphrase or summary of the sense of the
> Arabic . . . . Most extraordinary (and wholly unexplained) is
> the fact that Article 11 of the Barlow translation, with its
> famous phrase, ‘the government of the United States of America
> is not in any sense founded on the Christian Religion,’ DOES
> NOT EXIST AT ALL [in the Arabic]. There is no Article 11 [in
> the Arabic]. The Arabic text which is between Articles 10 and
> 12 is in form a letter, crude and flamboyant and withal quite
> unimportant, from the Dey of Algiers to the Pasha of Tripoli.
> How that script came to be written and to be regarded, as in
> the Barlow translation, as Article 11 of the treaty as there
> written, is a mystery and seemingly must remain so. Nothing in
> the diplomatic correspondence of the time throws any light
> whatever on the point."
> So I do not trust this "obscure version of the treaty" to be of
> any value.
In our discussion some weeks back I refuted this, but it may have gotten lost among all the other passages. You are right that the Arabic original does not contain Article 11, however this is irrelevant to the question at hand. Whether the translator inserted this language for his own reasons or was directed to is also not germane to the discussion. There is no question that the Treaty was read and voted on in English with the Article 11 language included.
The Official Journal of the Senate states the treaty was sent by Adams to the Senate in late May of 1797 and it was read aloud on the floor; it's only a couple pages long. Copies were printed for each Senator that included Article 11. All treaty collections from 1797 contain the treaty in English with Article 11 included. A committee considered the treaty and recommended that it be ratified. A fifth of those present voted to have the vote recorded. It was only the third unanimous vote among the 300 odd ones to be recorded during the first five congressional sessions. John Adams signed it and proclaimed it to the nation on June 10, 1797 with the following statement.
"Now be it known, That I John Adams, President of the United States of America, having seen and considered the said Treaty do, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, accept, ratify, and confirm the same, and every clause and article thereof. And to the End that the said Treaty may be observed and performed with good Faith on the part of the United States, I have ordered the premises to be made public; And I do hereby enjoin and require all persons bearing office civil or military within the United States, and all other citizens or inhabitants thereof, faithfully to observe and fulfill the said Treaty and every clause and article thereof."
The treaty with Adams remarks was then printed in full, complete with Article 11, in two Philadelphia newspapers and one New York paper. The Library of Congress has them all on microfilm and at least one hard copy of The Philadelphia Gazette and Universal Daily Advertiser for Saturday June 17,1797 is in the archives.