The first long-chain DNA extractions and clonings from the blood on the Shroud were conducted by Prof. Marcello Canale of The Genoa Institute of Legal Medicine in 1995. However, since this Institute is in Catholic Italy, a further analysis was called for in order to support or challenge the findings.
In view of this, the blood was subsequently and independently analysed in 1996 at the Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Center for Advanced DNA Technologies in San Antonio. In charge of operations was Dr. Victor Tyron, Director of the Center, along with his wife and chief technician, Nancy Mitchell Tyron. The Texas Center was chosen because it was at that time a key DNA analysis lab for courts of law, and subject to very stringent controls.
Apparently, there was no variation in the blood samples from location to location on the cloth, and it was consistently from the same person. It was Type AB. The point was made in the American Journal of Medical Genetics that, although this blood group is pretty rare -- about 3.2% of world population -- it is 600% more common in Babylonia and Northern Palestine than anywhere else.
From employing routine polymerase chain reactions, which can detect pieces of double-strand DNA, they found unmistakable gene segments, including (1) Beta globin gene segment from chromosome 11; (2) Amelogenin X gene segment from chromosome X, and (3) Amelogenin Y gene segment from chromosome Y.
Dr. Thomas Loy of Queensland University's Center for Molecular and Cellular Biology was brought in to double-check the results, and fully confirmed the Texas findings.
Clearly, the tests did not reveal or prove whose blood it was, but they did prove that it was extremely old and male, containing X and Y chromosomes. The precise age of the blood was not determined, except that it was from a period before AD 400.
Because of degradation in some molecular segments, it was not possible to obtain a complete genome, but there were enough base pair nucleotides to create an individual identification blueprint, and the genome readout as it stands has since been logged at DNA centers around the world.