There are other blood typing systems, but ABO is the dominant one. According to D'Adamo, each blood type is susceptible to specific diseases, but I do not think that this hypothesis has been tested scientifically.
As for the shroud of Turin, I will have to retract my statement that it contained AB type blood. I will bow to the claim that it is pigment on the shroud not blood. In any case the shroud is certainly a medieval fake. Any argument that it is not is just faith-based, and not worth pursuing.