Here are some proposed approximate dates, events, and relevant sites, after different sources, with conflicting climate change dates, as part of the emerging puzzle of the Neolithic population density curve;
BC 18000 Kharneh IV huts, culture Epipaleolithic, pre-Natufian
BC 12500 Younger Dryas end, warming starts?
BC 12400 Jordan Natufian mortars for making bread
BC 12000 Palestine Ain Mallaha domesticated dog, Natufian culture
BC 11500 Jordan Drah, graneries near Dead Sea
BC 11000 Grain cultivation, perhaps due to climate impact on wild grains
BC 11000 Younger Dryas cold period starts?
BC 11000 Extinction of 75% of large mammals
BC 11000 Natifuan culture expands in Levant to Euphrates in Syria
BC 11000 Syria Abu Hureyra wild rye cultivation at Euphrates
BC 11000 Jericho first settlement
BC 10900 Younger Dryas cold period starts?
BC 10200 Palestine Jericho area, Neolithic I PPN A in Levant
BC 10200 Syria Mureybet occupied, to BC 8000
BC 10000 DNA R1a haplogroup expands from Balkan refuge to Eastern Europe
BC 10000 Neolithic Revolution in Mesopotamia?
BC 10000 Palestine Nahal Ein Gev II, Jordan Valley, Natufian culture
BC 9500 Gobekli hill Neolithic I PPN A waste layer, pre buildings
BC 9400 Palestine Jericho figs grown, or traded from Egypt
BC 9000 Damascus settlement in Barada basin
BC 8800 Palestine Jericho Neolithic II PPN B
BC 8600 Chayonu einkorn wheat
BC 8500 Syria Damascus Anatolian hulled emmer wheat grains larger
BC 8400 Nevali Chori founded
BC 8300 DNA Anatolian Neolithic resemble, future European Neolithic farmer stock
BC 8200 Syria Aswad Tell brittle barley grown, free-threshing emmer wheat
BC 8200 Levant Natufian culture ends?
BC 8100 Nevali Chori abandoned
BC 8000 Sahara dries and desertifies
BC 8000 Ice Age effects end?
BC 7000 Gobekli built?
BC 8000 Asikli Hoyuk settled
BC 7500 Sheep and pig domestication in Anatolia
BC 7500 Cappadocia Tepecik Chiftlik agriculture from Mideast, and obsidian tools export
BC 7500 Pigs in SW Turkey; cattle later at same sites
BC 7400 Iraq Jarmo brittle barley grown
BC 7500 Chatal Hoyuk founded
BC 7300 Neolithic Era begins in Levant
BC 7200 Chayonu founded
BC 7000 Jarmo in Zagros range, among oldest sites in N Mesopotamia
BC 7000 Hacilar founded
BC 7000 Earth obliquity reduces from 24.14 degrees?
BC 6700 Sahara rapid desertificaiton
BC 6500 Erbaba cattle domestication, spread in 100 years. Perhaps cattle engraved at Gobekli
BC 6400 Neolithic III Pottery in Mideast
BC 6300 Syria Damascus settled, or re-settled
BC 6200 Cooling event starts? Perhaps prompting a return to tepe houses
BC 6300 Mersin coastal area settled
BC 6100 Halaf culture on Euphrates formed
BC 6000 Earth climate as modern, perhaps allowing Gobekli
BC 6000 Gobekli buried with older soil? (after Dendrinos 2016)
BC 6000 DNA J2 Neolithic farmers from Middle east in Balkans, or return
BC 6000 Britain agriculture from Anatolian einkorn
Also factor in gradual drying of lower areas due to annual ice melt flooding. And the proximity of the Harran plain a few km south of Gobekli.
Gobekli raised this puzzle into the public mind, as on the cover of National Geographic. The timeline is ‘revised to BC 10 000’ only if the infill soil is assumed contemporary with the end of the building phase.
Regarding the case for BC 6000, and dating methods;
Dendrinos, D.S. 1992. Dynamics of Cities: ecological determinism, dualism and chaos. Routledge, London
Dendrinos, D.S. 2016. Gobekli Tepe: A 6th millennium Monument. academia.edu, [www.academia.edu]
Dendrinos, D.S. 2016. Dating Gobekli Tepe. academia.edu, [www.academia.edu]
Dendrinos, D.S. 2017. A Primer on Gobekli Tepe. academia.edu
“What is wrong with fantastically early dates?” That they stand alone, while civil works in stone need population density and agricultural climate.
Regarding language and herding in the Ice Age, there was no writing. But wherever we go, we use the full repertoire of cultural crafts (language, art, ritual, myth, symbol, divination, spirituality) and material culture crafts (tools, textile, hunt, healing, cosmetics, cooking, etc). Rock art abstracts are part of the art repertoire, not ‘proto-writing,’ and rarely ‘messages.’ See two of my papers in the anthropology journal, Expression;
Furter, E. D. (2015b) Art is magic. Expression 10, Dec. Italy, Atelier Etno
Furter, E. D. (2015e) Rock art expresses cultural structure. Expression 9. Italy, Atelier Etno
Regarding early American people from Asia, I merely raise the point that all it takes to re-develop civilisation is a boat or two, water, food and good weather. The end result is the same timeline, same core content, same tribal differences, each styled as differently as possible. Gobekli may have united trading polities, at the end of the relative innocence of sparse populations. The evils of larger towns are well documented, and lyricised in Sumerian tales of the Flood, and Palestinian tales of Abraham.
“A lot of this [debate on Gobekli symbolism and archaeo atsronomy] seems like opinions.”
I have demonstrated the core content of culture, and its context in the relevant sciences, by 300 detailed examples, including Gobekli artworks, houses and village, in the two papers above, and here;
Furter, E. D. (2014) Mindprint, the subconscious art code. USA, Lulu.com
Furter, E. D. (2015a) Gobekli Tepe, between rock art and art. Rock art Where, When, to Whom. Anati, E. Italy, Atelier Etno
Furter, E. D. (2015c) Mindprint in mushroom psilocybin, peyote mescaline, sugar, and chocolate art. www.mindprintart.wordpress.com
Furter, E. D. (2015f) Structuralist rock art analysis. ASAPA conference, Harare, in press 2019 or 2021
Furter, E. D. (2016b) Colonial artists re-style the same characters. Expression 14, Italy, Atelier Etno
Furter, E. D. (2016a) Stoneprint, the human code in art, buildings and cities. Johannesburg, Four Equators Media
Furter, E. D. (2017a) Pregnant is the most consistent typological gender. Expression 15, Italy Atelier Etno
Furter, E. D. (2017b) Recurrent characters in rock art reveal objective meaning. Expression 16, June. The message behind the image. Italy, Atelier Etno
Furter, E. D. (2017c) Stoneprint tour of Paris. Stoneprint Journal 3. USA, Lulu.com
Furter, E. D. (2018a) Babylonian Plough List decans. www.stoneprintjournal.wordpress.com
Furter, E. D. (2018b) Stoneprint tour of London. Stoneprint Journal 4. USA, Lulu.com
Furter, E. D. (2018c) Culture code in seals and ring stamps. Stoneprint Journal 5. USA, Lulu.com
Furter, E. D. (2019) Ayahuasca artists also express cultural structure. DMT Times
Edited 4 time(s). Last edit at 22-Aug-20 14:36 by Edmond.