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Steve,

A scientist is allowed (even required) to "guess" and make assumptions (even outrageous assumptions) as long as it leads to experiment. If the "guess" is not supported by evidence, one either rejects the guess, or refines the study and tries again.

The scientist always knows that his "guess" is wrong--and that it will be amended or replaced by a better "guess" in the future. Meanwhile, the prevailing statistically significant findings remain "king of the hill."

Those high numbers come from statistical "counting rules" that calculate the number of different combinations of events are possible with a given sample.

As to which animal, it's clearly the cow--if you believe the story about Mrs. O'leary and the Chicago fire.

Ray

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Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 57071 Graham Hancock 05-Aug-19 12:38
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 158 Martinsw1 05-Aug-19 12:54
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 123 cloister 06-Aug-19 04:28
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 132 Martinsw1 06-Aug-19 09:00
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 91 cloister 07-Aug-19 10:54
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 97 Martinsw1 07-Aug-19 13:58
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 82 cloister 08-Aug-19 07:53
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 79 Martinsw1 08-Aug-19 14:55
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 164 Edmond 06-Aug-19 19:51
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 112 Martinsw1 07-Aug-19 05:51
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 126 Edmond 07-Aug-19 08:48
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 102 Martinsw1 07-Aug-19 14:05
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 90 Martinsw1 07-Aug-19 20:28
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 85 Merrell 08-Aug-19 11:48
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 96 Martinsw1 07-Aug-19 21:28
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 116 Edmond 08-Aug-19 07:42
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 99 Martinsw1 08-Aug-19 14:35
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 85 Barbelo 09-Aug-19 01:15
Re: Sweatman's diluted pseudo archaeo astronomy 89 Edmond 09-Aug-19 16:51
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 87 Eddie Larry 07-Aug-19 22:52
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 74 Poster Boy 08-Aug-19 20:50
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 132 Susan Doris 05-Aug-19 17:32
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 106 Martinsw1 05-Aug-19 20:23
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 99 Susan Doris 06-Aug-19 05:02
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 107 Edmond 07-Aug-19 13:23
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 103 Martinsw1 07-Aug-19 14:10
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 93 Susan Doris 07-Aug-19 15:07
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 91 drrayeye 08-Aug-19 04:15
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 85 Martinsw1 08-Aug-19 07:23
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 108 Merrell 08-Aug-19 08:29
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 74 drrayeye 08-Aug-19 17:27
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 123 Rebecca Bradley 08-Aug-19 15:21
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 100 Poster Boy 08-Aug-19 18:34
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 79 Rebecca Bradley 10-Aug-19 03:44
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 67 Susan Doris 10-Aug-19 05:34
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 71 Rebecca Bradley 10-Aug-19 05:57
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 66 Poster Boy 10-Aug-19 14:45
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 62 Corpuscles 10-Aug-19 22:37
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 61 Poster Boy 10-Aug-19 23:05
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 91 Poster Boy 11-Aug-19 15:56
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 71 Corpuscles 12-Aug-19 05:58
Props to Corps 59 Poster Boy 12-Aug-19 17:03
Great job! 61 drrayeye 12-Aug-19 18:01
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured NONSENSE author for August 2019 102 Corpuscles 09-Aug-19 01:50
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured NONSENSE author for August 2019 83 Susan Doris 09-Aug-19 06:30
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured NONSENSE author for August 2019 74 Rebecca Bradley 10-Aug-19 03:46
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 93 Martinsw1 09-Aug-19 07:14
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 76 Susan Doris 09-Aug-19 10:01
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 96 Martinsw1 09-Aug-19 10:40
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 65 Susan Doris 09-Aug-19 12:38
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 82 Martinsw1 09-Aug-19 13:07
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 94 unchartedxben 09-Aug-19 16:54
Plenty to talk about for thousands of years after the event! 69 greengirl5 10-Aug-19 01:29
Fall of a thousand suns 67 greengirl5 10-Aug-19 02:02
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 107 Rebecca Bradley 10-Aug-19 06:05
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 68 Eddie Larry 10-Aug-19 13:20
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 89 Rebecca Bradley 10-Aug-19 15:16
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 60 Eddie Larry 11-Aug-19 13:53
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 67 Martinsw1 11-Aug-19 19:42
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 65 Poster Boy 11-Aug-19 23:27
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 68 Martinsw1 12-Aug-19 08:49
A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 64 Barbelo 12-Aug-19 21:16
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 63 Martinsw1 13-Aug-19 10:28
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 59 Martinsw1 13-Aug-19 18:18
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 62 Barbelo 13-Aug-19 23:46
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 61 Poster Boy 14-Aug-19 00:12
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 61 Barbelo 14-Aug-19 04:03
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 57 Poster Boy 14-Aug-19 14:26
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 56 Barbelo 14-Aug-19 21:09
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 54 Poster Boy 14-Aug-19 21:55
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 50 Poster Boy 15-Aug-19 03:19
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 56 Barbelo 15-Aug-19 04:28
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 59 Poster Boy 15-Aug-19 14:24
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 59 Eddie Larry 15-Aug-19 15:56
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 49 Poster Boy 15-Aug-19 16:49
Re: A Sealed Deal? Of Course You Jest 49 Eddie Larry 15-Aug-19 18:35
The rest of us 62 drrayeye 15-Aug-19 19:28
Little stone in the middle of nowhere 48 greengirl5 15-Aug-19 23:05
Re: Little stone in the middle of nowhere 52 Poster Boy 15-Aug-19 23:19
Re: Little stone in the middle of nowhere 48 greengirl5 15-Aug-19 23:54
Re: Little stone in the middle of nowhere 54 greengirl5 16-Aug-19 00:14
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 80 Martinsw1 12-Aug-19 09:06
Re: Your scorpion or your Scorpius is back to front 120 Edmond 12-Aug-19 10:13
Re: Your scorpion or your Scorpius is back to front 61 Martinsw1 13-Aug-19 10:30
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 78 Poster Boy 12-Aug-19 14:21
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 61 Martinsw1 13-Aug-19 10:33
Constellation, or death-cult? 76 Merrell 13-Aug-19 06:55
Re: Constellation, or death-cult? 65 Martinsw1 13-Aug-19 10:44
Re: Constellation, or death-cult? 67 Poster Boy 13-Aug-19 18:46
Re: Constellation, or death-cult? 58 Martinsw1 14-Aug-19 08:40
Re: Constellation, or death-cult? 59 Poster Boy 14-Aug-19 14:11
Lost or last civilisation? 55 greengirl5 14-Aug-19 22:28
Re: Lost or last civilisation? 52 greengirl5 15-Aug-19 00:06
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 75 Rebecca Bradley 12-Aug-19 06:26
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 76 Martinsw1 12-Aug-19 08:56
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 66 Corpuscles 12-Aug-19 23:01
Planet destruction 57 greengirl5 13-Aug-19 00:04
Re: Planet destruction 60 Corpuscles 13-Aug-19 01:50
Re: Planet destruction 58 Eddie Larry 13-Aug-19 04:09
Re: Planet destruction 48 greengirl5 13-Aug-19 06:11
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 59 Susan Doris 13-Aug-19 05:01
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 64 Martinsw1 13-Aug-19 10:49
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 74 Rebecca Bradley 13-Aug-19 02:47
Composite animals 56 greengirl5 13-Aug-19 06:16
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 82 Martinsw1 13-Aug-19 11:02
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 77 Rebecca Bradley 14-Aug-19 06:56
Ibex or Feline? 61 greengirl5 14-Aug-19 08:40
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 138 Martinsw1 14-Aug-19 08:44
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 66 Poster Boy 14-Aug-19 14:09
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 83 Rebecca Bradley 15-Aug-19 04:36
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 71 Corpuscles 15-Aug-19 06:03
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 67 cloister 15-Aug-19 07:50
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 81 Martinsw1 16-Aug-19 08:25
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 64 Poster Boy 16-Aug-19 16:35
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 75 Rebecca Bradley 17-Aug-19 06:48
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 70 Martinsw1 17-Aug-19 07:59
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 71 Susan Doris 17-Aug-19 10:21
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 62 Rebecca Bradley 18-Aug-19 07:42
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 68 Martinsw1 18-Aug-19 08:17
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 82 Rebecca Bradley 18-Aug-19 09:08
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 67 Corpuscles 18-Aug-19 22:36
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 70 Martinsw1 19-Aug-19 08:24
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 62 Corpuscles 20-Aug-19 12:54
coming from a casual reader 62 drrayeye 20-Aug-19 14:20
Re: coming from a casual reader 58 Corpuscles 20-Aug-19 15:57
Re: coming from a casual reader 48 drrayeye 20-Aug-19 17:41
Re: coming from a casual reader 51 Corpuscles 20-Aug-19 20:18
280 million years 53 greengirl5 20-Aug-19 21:56
Re: 280 million years 50 Corpuscles 20-Aug-19 22:23
Re: 280 million years 53 greengirl5 21-Aug-19 06:41
Support for Mrs. O'Leary's "milk factory" (in song) 45 drrayeye 21-Aug-19 00:55
Re: coming from a casual gambler 47 Barbelo 20-Aug-19 21:36
Re: coming from a casual gambler 47 Corpuscles 20-Aug-19 21:46
Re: coming from a casual reader 49 Eddie Larry 21-Aug-19 00:03
Re: coming from a casual reader 45 Corpuscles 21-Aug-19 01:21
American joke 44 drrayeye 21-Aug-19 02:11
Re: coming from a casual reader 47 Eddie Larry 21-Aug-19 02:23
Re: coming from a casual reader 59 Poster Boy 20-Aug-19 16:32
Re: coming from a casual reader 44 drrayeye 20-Aug-19 17:46
Re: coming from a casual reader 50 Poster Boy 20-Aug-19 18:06
Re: coming from a casual reader 56 Corpuscles 20-Aug-19 20:33
Re: coming from a casual reader 44 Poster Boy 20-Aug-19 22:29
Re: coming from a casual reader 45 Corpuscles 20-Aug-19 22:52
Zodiacal Art & Precession 52 Barbelo 20-Aug-19 22:25
Re: Zodiacal Art & Precession 51 Poster Boy 21-Aug-19 04:36
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 71 Poster Boy 17-Aug-19 15:14
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 70 Rebecca Bradley 18-Aug-19 08:48
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 63 Poster Boy 18-Aug-19 16:38
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 55 Rebecca Bradley 20-Aug-19 07:53
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 50 Susan Doris 20-Aug-19 10:23
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 53 Poster Boy 20-Aug-19 19:36
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 59 Martinsw1 20-Aug-19 08:17
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 59 Rebecca Bradley 20-Aug-19 22:55
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 57 Corpuscles 20-Aug-19 23:16
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 59 Rebecca Bradley 22-Aug-19 06:48
The Test? 82 Poster Boy 21-Aug-19 15:59
Re: The Test? 54 Corpuscles 21-Aug-19 21:25
Re: The Test? 40 Poster Boy 21-Aug-19 21:58
Re: The Test? 48 Barbelo 21-Aug-19 22:05
Re: The Test? 50 Corpuscles 21-Aug-19 22:52
Re: The Test? 63 Rebecca Bradley 22-Aug-19 05:31
Re: The Test? 59 Barbelo 22-Aug-19 05:48
Re: The Test? 55 Poster Boy 22-Aug-19 14:21
Revising... The Test? 74 Poster Boy 22-Aug-19 16:48
animal anatomy lesson #1 76 hendrik dirker 22-Aug-19 19:02
Re: animal anatomy lesson #1 74 Poster Boy 22-Aug-19 19:06
Re: animal anatomy 59 hendrik dirker 24-Aug-19 06:09
Re: animal anatomy 70 Poster Boy 24-Aug-19 16:25
Re: Revising... The Test? 60 Rebecca Bradley 24-Aug-19 07:22
Re: Revising... The Test? 50 Poster Boy 24-Aug-19 15:30
Re: Revising... The Test? 42 Rebecca Bradley 31-Aug-19 06:03
Re: Revising... The Test? 34 Poster Boy 31-Aug-19 17:08
Re: Revising... The Test? 33 Eddie Larry 31-Aug-19 17:32
Re: Revising... The Test? 36 Poster Boy 31-Aug-19 19:52
Re: Revising... The Test? 38 Rebecca Bradley 01-Sep-19 04:03
Re: Revising... The Test? 31 Poster Boy 01-Sep-19 15:30
Re: Revising... The Test? 33 Eddie Larry 01-Sep-19 15:45
Re: Revising... The Test? 40 Rebecca Bradley 01-Sep-19 04:15
Research design perspective 74 drrayeye 14-Aug-19 22:21
Re: Research design perspective 53 Eddie Larry 14-Aug-19 22:43
Re: Research design perspective 57 Susan Doris 15-Aug-19 05:01
Re: Research design perspective 65 Martinsw1 15-Aug-19 07:08
Re: Research design perspective 55 Poster Boy 17-Aug-19 15:43
Re: Research design perspective 65 drrayeye 17-Aug-19 17:25
Re: Research design perspective 60 Martinsw1 18-Aug-19 08:00
Re: Research design perspective 55 drrayeye 18-Aug-19 21:42
Re: Research design perspective 56 Martinsw1 19-Aug-19 08:32
Re: Research design perspective 56 Corpuscles 19-Aug-19 22:32
Not Science, No Proof 80 Barbelo 18-Aug-19 22:44
Re: Not Science, No Proof 62 Martinsw1 19-Aug-19 08:35
Pomposity Levels Not Exceeded On This Board 60 Barbelo 19-Aug-19 11:03
Re: Pomposity Levels Not Exceeded On This Board 68 Martinsw1 20-Aug-19 08:58
Re: Pomposity Levels Not Exceeded On This Board 59 Barbelo 20-Aug-19 12:00
Earth orbital antics 72 hendrik dirker 20-Aug-19 18:39
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 107 Martinsw1 11-Aug-19 19:56
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 74 Corpuscles 12-Aug-19 06:12
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 85 Rebecca Bradley 12-Aug-19 06:42
individual subjectivity and objective consensus 70 Poster Boy 12-Aug-19 16:59
Re: individual subjectivity and objective consensus 72 Martinsw1 13-Aug-19 10:40
Other thoughts. 61 Poster Boy 13-Aug-19 16:32
Re: Other thoughts. 54 drrayeye 13-Aug-19 17:48
Re: Other thoughts. 58 Poster Boy 13-Aug-19 18:42
Re: Other thoughts. 55 drrayeye 13-Aug-19 19:06
Reading the book 56 greengirl5 13-Aug-19 22:40
Re: Reading the book 53 Poster Boy 14-Aug-19 03:11
Re: Other thoughts. 59 Corpuscles 14-Aug-19 01:20
Re: Other thoughts. 59 Poster Boy 14-Aug-19 02:51
Re: Other thoughts. 51 Eddie Larry 14-Aug-19 03:35
Re: Other thoughts. 49 Poster Boy 14-Aug-19 03:53
Re: Other thoughts. 55 Eddie Larry 14-Aug-19 17:54
Re: Other thoughts. 49 Poster Boy 14-Aug-19 19:02
Re: Other thoughts. 55 Eddie Larry 14-Aug-19 19:32
Re: Other thoughts. 51 Poster Boy 14-Aug-19 20:24
Re: Other thoughts. 68 Corpuscles 14-Aug-19 04:49
Re: Other thoughts. 67 Corpuscles 14-Aug-19 05:13
Re: Other thoughts. 62 Poster Boy 14-Aug-19 14:35
Dr. Sweatman, in case you didn't know... 122 Poster Boy 09-Aug-19 15:56
The Zodiac 89 hendrik dirker 10-Aug-19 12:00
Re: The Zodiac 78 Poster Boy 10-Aug-19 14:58
Scorpius, Orions belt, pareidolia 62 greengirl5 10-Aug-19 23:15
Re: Scorpius, Orions belt, pareidolia 62 Poster Boy 10-Aug-19 23:52
Re: Scorpius, Orions belt, pareidolia 67 greengirl5 11-Aug-19 00:07
Re: Scorpius, Orions belt, pareidolia 64 Poster Boy 11-Aug-19 00:20
Re: Scorpius, Orions belt, pareidolia 76 greengirl5 11-Aug-19 00:26
Just been outside to see Scorpius 74 greengirl5 11-Aug-19 11:40
Re: Just been outside to see Scorpius 81 greengirl5 11-Aug-19 12:51
Re: Just been outside to see Scorpius 106 Susan Doris 11-Aug-19 12:53
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 98 Poster Boy 12-Aug-19 14:18
Regarding the wider picture down the line 103 Poster Boy 14-Aug-19 16:47
Re: Regarding the wider picture down the line 104 Martinsw1 15-Aug-19 07:14
Re: Welcoming Dr Martin Sweatman our featured author for August 2019 74 Corpuscles 21-Aug-19 23:13
A new question 48 Poster Boy 01-Sep-19 17:25
Re: A new question 352 Rebecca Bradley 02-Sep-19 04:20


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