By the first millennium, South America's vast rainforests, mountains, plains, and coasts were the home of tens of millions of people. Some groups formed permanent settlements. Among those groups were the Chibchas (or "Muiscas" or "Muyscas"), Valdivia and the Tairona. The Chibchas of Colombia, Valdivia of Ecuador, the Quechuas of Peru, and the Aymara of Bolivia were the four most important sedentary Amerindian groups in South America. From the 1970s, numerous geoglyphs have been discovered on deforested land in the Amazon rainforest, Brazil, leading to claims about an ancient complex Amazonian civilization.
Charles C. Mann goes into greater detail how early misperceptions of the populations and strategies of the pre-columbian Americas is in need of extensive revision in his book 1491, which we have discussed here previously.
As we have seen with Gobekli Tepe this revision is not limited to any one continent. Extensive Pre-Inca stone ruins abound in South America and have been noted by Europeans ever since Francisco de Orellana's exploration of the Amazon in 1541-1546. Such blanket denials of large populations and civic achievements in pre-columbian South America can no longer go without challenge from empirical evidence.
> MichaelTellinger wrote:
> > The fact that there is evidence of over 10 million stone
> > in SA - most of which would have been connected into a giant
> > energy grid - connected with channels of two walls - that
> > like roads from the air - clearly indicates that there must
> > have been large numbers of people that lived in this part of
> > the world for extended periods of time. Gold mining is
> > undoubtedly the central activity - together with agricultural
> > terraces that cover more than 450,000 square km. - They were
> > growing huge amount of food and feeding large numbers of
> > people. The evidence of the people is missing - this remains
> > the biggest mystery yet. Where are the skeletal or fossil
> > remains?
> The Americas for the most part are nutrient-poor. Huge amounts
> of food on the scale you're describing just weren't grown.
> There were no draft or domesticated animals to use as a protein
> source or to pull plows. Now, farming did occur, of course, but
> maize was one of the few choices they had. Wild maize was very
> tiny, and only over very long periods of time--along with
> genetic modification--did it become the crop we know today.
> Best guess is that it took nearly 10,000 years to domesticate
> and diversify genetically.
> All of these factors would have led to an inability to support
> huge populations in one place.