I've heard a number of different stories concerning who and how MH17 was shot down. The Russians agree it was destroyed by a missile but disagree on the type and the delivery system.
As you stated no direct evidence has been provided by the USA or EU which shows the missiles origins on the ground. The 320 square kilometer ( 200 square miles )area designated as possible launch sites illustrates the lack of any radar or satellite evidence. If this was available the launch site would be identified.
One can only assume that Ukraine had either/or both intel aircraft in the air or ground radar coverage of the disputed area. This is basic military tactics. They would have to be aware of any rebel aircraft or missiles in the air or equipment movements on the ground. So someone should have a missile track recording of any missile launch.