As far as I can see, Lucifer simply means "light bearer". It's a latin term that can mean more or less anyone who bears light and that includes you and I! The problem arises when we try to decide if the light being shone is leading us in the right direction or not!
It was Lee who likened Lucifer to Prometheus but many have also commented that Lucifer could also refer to the Serpent that tempted Eve because the Serpent was also said to have brought Knowledge to mankind. Anyone can be a Lucifer but generally the term is given to certain principal characters in the cosmic play that we are involved in here on Earth, particularly the dynasty of Egyptian and Babylonian Kings, out of which our present rulers are said to have descended from.
You asked what the "Great Work" is. IMO, the "Great Work of the Ages" is to establish a worldwide government, coupled with a worldwide humanitarian religion based on the goals of science. In my view, this is a trap designed to imprison mankind in the world of matter with no hope of salvation because it's my belief that mankind was destined to rise above matter and be guided by the spirit, a concept that science denies.
So, what essentially we have is a Babylonian plan whose architects are endeavouring to substitute the promised Kingdom of the spirit with a virtual reality matrix designed to enslave mankind to material pursuits. These two plans, ie, God's plan and the plan of the "Lucifers", have been in contention with eachother throughout history and it will lead to the an all out final battle, commonly known as Armageddon but just before Armageddon it was foretold that there would be a great Apocalypse, which means a great revealing and this appears to be the period we are now in.
"But you, O Daniel, make secret the words, and seal up the book, until the time of the end: many shall rove about, and the true knowledge shall become abundant." (Daniel 12:4)
"And he said, go thy way, Daniel: for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end. Many shall be purified, and made white, and tried; but the wicked shall do wickedly: and none of the wicked shall understand; but the wise shall understand." (Daniel 12: 9 - 10, KJV)
"Whatever is covered up will be uncovered and every secret will be made known. Wherefore what things you say in the darkness will be heard in the light, and what you whisper in private rooms will be preached from the housetops." (Luke 12:2)
"For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places." - Ephesians 6:12
"...the whole world lies in the power of the Evil One." - 1 John 5:19
I quoted the above verses simply to give you an idea, one point of view, of some of the issues that are floating around. I hope you find my post informative and of some help in your own personal endeavour to make sense of some of the dramatic power plays that abound in our reality. I personally have also learned a lot from reading other peoples' contributions to this forum!