It cannot create theories based on... nothing.
There must be some axioms to start with.
What is important I would say is that scientists today tend to believe axioms/ assumptions to be "TRUE".
And that is where dogmatism actually starts.
A true scientist would immediately publish the data, given some reasonable time to also publish his own theory to explain them. A multi-month delay for a multi-person NASA team is not acceptable if you ask me. We do not expect them to create a new solar-system-formation theory in one month, we expect them to do what they are supposed to do: expose the data for everyone to see.
The same happened with the 5th axiom of Euclid.
For 2,000 years it was considered "CORRECT".
Until we DECIDED to change it...
Science today is just data analysis. No imagination, no free thinking, just repetition of the same experiments in order to verify the same assumptions. We really miss people like Einstein who thought of new theories from his... desk with no CERN or NASA backing him up.