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In response to Skako's inquiry about sources for impact studies:

I've copied portions of my chapters for you on the Cal-Tech study, then the Peking University study:

In 2008, a study at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech)
by Margarita Marinova, then a graduate student in Cal-Tech’s
Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences (GPS), confirmed that
Velikovsky’s proposed planetary impact scenario could make sense
in terms of the types of damage that had been observed to exist on
Mars. It is important to note that, after many trials based on widely
varying parameters, the scenario favored by the researchers attributed
the impact to a body much smaller than Venus and assigned it to
an epoch much earlier than Velikovsky proposes. A Cal-Tech press
release states:

Scientists at the California Institute of Technology have shown
through computer modeling that the Mars dichotomy, as the
divided terrain has been termed, can indeed be explained by one
giant impact early in the planet’s history. . . . This size range of
impacts only occurred early in solar system history. . . . The team
modeled a range of projectile parameters that could yield a cavity
the size and ellipticity of the Mars lowlands without melting
the whole planet or making a crater rim. . . . After cranking 500
simulations combining various energies, velocities, and impact
angles through the GPS division’s Beowulf-class computer cluster
CITerra, the researchers narrowed in on a “sweet spot”—a range
of single-impact parameters that would make exactly the type of
crater found on Mars. . . . The favored simulation conditions outlined
by the sweet spot suggest an impact energy of around 10 to
the 29 joules, which is equivalent to 100 billion gigatons of TNT.
The impactor would have hit Mars at an angle between 30 and 60
degrees while traveling at 6 to 10 kilometers per second.By combining
these factors, Marinova calculated that the projectile was
roughly 1,600 to 2,700 kilometers across.”


I made contact personally with one of the researchers who conducted the study, asking among other things whether any of the tested scenarios involved a body the size of Venus, and if the results of that scenario were favorable - but without direct response to that question.

Jupiter and Saturn are thought to have begun life as rocky worlds
with the mass of at least a few Earths. Their gravity then pulled in
gas from their birth nebula, giving them dense atmospheres. In this
picture, all gas giants should have cores of roughly the same size. Yet
spacecraft-based gravity measurements suggest Jupiter’s core weighs
just two to 10 Earth masses, while Saturn’s comes in at 15 to 30.
New simulations by Shu Lin Li of Peking University in China, and
colleagues, may explain why. They calculated what would happen
when a super-Earth of 10 times the mass of our planet slammed into
a gas giant. The rocky body flattened like a pancake when it hit the
gas giant’s atmosphere, then barrelled into the giant’s core about
half an hour later. The energy of the collision could have vaporised
much of the core. These vaporised heavy elements would then have
mixed with the hydrogen and helium of the gas giant’s atmosphere,
leaving only a fraction of the gas giant’s former core behind. This
could explain not only why Jupiter’s core is so small, but also why
its atmosphere is richer in heavy elements compared with the sun,
whose composition is thought to mirror that of the nebula that gave
birth to the solar system’s planets.


- Laird



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 04-Nov-15 21:24 by Laird Scranton.

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Subject Views Written By Posted
More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 1869 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 420 OCaptain 28-Oct-15 23:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 298 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 406 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 294 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 283 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 265 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 00:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 333 laughin 29-Oct-15 16:29
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 325 Starbinder 29-Oct-15 17:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 269 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 18:08
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 laughin 29-Oct-15 18:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:13
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 256 laughin 31-Oct-15 15:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 drrayeye 31-Oct-15 16:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 16:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 230 laughin 31-Oct-15 18:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 225 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 19:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 245 laughin 01-Nov-15 03:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 256 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 05:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 296 laughin 01-Nov-15 16:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 198 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:31
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 234 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 218 laughin 30-Oct-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 295 Aine 30-Oct-15 15:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 233 carolb 30-Oct-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 246 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:55
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 264 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 311 Aine 30-Oct-15 17:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 256 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 193 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 18:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 241 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 250 laughin 29-Oct-15 20:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 22:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 227 carolb 29-Oct-15 22:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 238 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 00:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 236 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 331 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 15:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 346 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 212 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 233 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 17:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 317 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 202 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 193 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 283 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 246 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 298 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 21:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 225 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 214 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 184 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 01:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 329 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:38
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 186 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 03:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 295 carolb 31-Oct-15 12:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 190 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 248 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 16:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 218 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 18:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 253 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 198 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 00:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 214 carolb 01-Nov-15 01:00
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 218 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 01:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 271 skakos 03-Nov-15 09:51
Conspiracy... 206 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 193 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 289 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:30
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 184 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 194 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 12:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:41
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 162 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 20:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 12:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 13:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 235 carolb 01-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 16:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 218 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 261 carolb 01-Nov-15 17:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 190 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 18:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 21:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 173 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 212 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 19:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 299 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 218 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 19:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 249 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 196 laughin 30-Oct-15 20:17
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 221 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 20:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 257 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 266 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 21:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 Starbinder 31-Oct-15 01:05
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 Starbinder 02-Nov-15 19:40
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 241 carolb 02-Nov-15 21:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 209 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 357 carolb 06-Nov-15 15:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 204 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 18:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 carolb 06-Nov-15 20:10
What about scientism? 222 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 08:19
Re: What about scientism? 226 carolb 07-Nov-15 12:59
Re: What about scientism? 256 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:55
Re: What about scientism? 312 carolb 07-Nov-15 17:37
Re: What about scientism? 244 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 19:55
"Blue sky thinking" 238 randompHactor 07-Nov-15 20:15
Re: What about scientism? 227 carolb 07-Nov-15 20:41
Re: What about scientism? 210 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 23:36
Re: What about scientism? 200 carolb 07-Nov-15 23:45
Re: What about scientism? 248 laughin 09-Nov-15 02:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 349 laughin 30-Oct-15 15:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 319 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 453 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 23:51
SUMMARY? 229 skakos 02-Nov-15 21:33
Mod Note > skakos – Switch View 234 Dr. Troglodyte 02-Nov-15 22:33
Re: SUMMARY? 328 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 23:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 336 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 183 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 16:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 311 drrayeye 02-Nov-15 19:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 165 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 283 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 171 drrayeye 03-Nov-15 16:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 202 OCaptain 03-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 196 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 18:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 349 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 174 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 04:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 215 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 06:18
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 186 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:30
Regarding myths... 207 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:46
Re: Regarding myths... 198 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 17:00
Re: off topic... 183 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 20:15
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 266 skakos 04-Nov-15 13:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 194 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 676 skakos 04-Nov-15 22:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 330 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 01:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 skakos 05-Nov-15 14:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 14:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 305 skakos 05-Nov-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 194 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 19:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 294 Laird Scranton 04-Nov-15 21:23
Cosmic Disconnect 213 laughin 06-Nov-15 15:00
Re: Cosmic Disconnect 169 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 382 skakos 16-Nov-15 12:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 301 OCaptain 16-Nov-15 13:54
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 329 skakos 16-Nov-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 395 OCaptain 17-Nov-15 01:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 324 skakos 18-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 346 Ratcho 18-Nov-15 18:45
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 291 OCaptain 19-Nov-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 369 skakos 19-Nov-15 07:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 508 skakos 27-Dec-15 22:04


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