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In response to Skako's inquiry about sources for impact studies:

I've copied portions of my chapters for you on the Cal-Tech study, then the Peking University study:

In 2008, a study at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech)
by Margarita Marinova, then a graduate student in Cal-Tech’s
Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences (GPS), confirmed that
Velikovsky’s proposed planetary impact scenario could make sense
in terms of the types of damage that had been observed to exist on
Mars. It is important to note that, after many trials based on widely
varying parameters, the scenario favored by the researchers attributed
the impact to a body much smaller than Venus and assigned it to
an epoch much earlier than Velikovsky proposes. A Cal-Tech press
release states:

Scientists at the California Institute of Technology have shown
through computer modeling that the Mars dichotomy, as the
divided terrain has been termed, can indeed be explained by one
giant impact early in the planet’s history. . . . This size range of
impacts only occurred early in solar system history. . . . The team
modeled a range of projectile parameters that could yield a cavity
the size and ellipticity of the Mars lowlands without melting
the whole planet or making a crater rim. . . . After cranking 500
simulations combining various energies, velocities, and impact
angles through the GPS division’s Beowulf-class computer cluster
CITerra, the researchers narrowed in on a “sweet spot”—a range
of single-impact parameters that would make exactly the type of
crater found on Mars. . . . The favored simulation conditions outlined
by the sweet spot suggest an impact energy of around 10 to
the 29 joules, which is equivalent to 100 billion gigatons of TNT.
The impactor would have hit Mars at an angle between 30 and 60
degrees while traveling at 6 to 10 kilometers per second.By combining
these factors, Marinova calculated that the projectile was
roughly 1,600 to 2,700 kilometers across.”


I made contact personally with one of the researchers who conducted the study, asking among other things whether any of the tested scenarios involved a body the size of Venus, and if the results of that scenario were favorable - but without direct response to that question.

Jupiter and Saturn are thought to have begun life as rocky worlds
with the mass of at least a few Earths. Their gravity then pulled in
gas from their birth nebula, giving them dense atmospheres. In this
picture, all gas giants should have cores of roughly the same size. Yet
spacecraft-based gravity measurements suggest Jupiter’s core weighs
just two to 10 Earth masses, while Saturn’s comes in at 15 to 30.
New simulations by Shu Lin Li of Peking University in China, and
colleagues, may explain why. They calculated what would happen
when a super-Earth of 10 times the mass of our planet slammed into
a gas giant. The rocky body flattened like a pancake when it hit the
gas giant’s atmosphere, then barrelled into the giant’s core about
half an hour later. The energy of the collision could have vaporised
much of the core. These vaporised heavy elements would then have
mixed with the hydrogen and helium of the gas giant’s atmosphere,
leaving only a fraction of the gas giant’s former core behind. This
could explain not only why Jupiter’s core is so small, but also why
its atmosphere is richer in heavy elements compared with the sun,
whose composition is thought to mirror that of the nebula that gave
birth to the solar system’s planets.


- Laird



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 04-Nov-15 21:24 by Laird Scranton.

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Subject Views Written By Posted
More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 1816 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 409 OCaptain 28-Oct-15 23:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 289 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 393 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 286 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 269 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 258 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 00:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 325 laughin 29-Oct-15 16:29
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 315 Starbinder 29-Oct-15 17:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 258 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 18:08
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 224 laughin 29-Oct-15 18:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:13
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 245 laughin 31-Oct-15 15:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 273 drrayeye 31-Oct-15 16:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 16:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 221 laughin 31-Oct-15 18:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 215 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 19:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 laughin 01-Nov-15 03:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 247 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 05:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 laughin 01-Nov-15 16:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 188 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:31
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 224 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 laughin 30-Oct-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 287 Aine 30-Oct-15 15:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 225 carolb 30-Oct-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:55
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 293 Aine 30-Oct-15 17:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 246 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 182 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 18:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 laughin 29-Oct-15 20:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 230 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 22:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 carolb 29-Oct-15 22:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 228 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 00:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 227 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 317 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 222 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 15:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 335 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 221 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 181 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 17:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 305 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 185 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 274 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 236 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 284 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 182 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 21:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 176 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 01:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 316 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:38
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 176 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 202 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 03:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 carolb 31-Oct-15 12:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 183 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 238 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 16:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 18:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 189 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 00:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 carolb 01-Nov-15 01:00
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 01:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 260 skakos 03-Nov-15 09:51
Conspiracy... 195 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 185 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 274 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:30
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 176 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 194 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 185 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 12:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 198 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:41
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 153 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 20:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 196 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 188 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 12:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 13:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 carolb 01-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 16:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 209 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 carolb 01-Nov-15 17:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 181 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 18:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 21:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 163 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 19:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 288 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 209 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 19:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 187 laughin 30-Oct-15 20:17
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 20:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 246 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 21:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 211 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 188 Starbinder 31-Oct-15 01:05
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 Starbinder 02-Nov-15 19:40
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 carolb 02-Nov-15 21:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 198 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 347 carolb 06-Nov-15 15:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 196 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 18:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 208 carolb 06-Nov-15 20:10
What about scientism? 214 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 08:19
Re: What about scientism? 218 carolb 07-Nov-15 12:59
Re: What about scientism? 235 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:55
Re: What about scientism? 302 carolb 07-Nov-15 17:37
Re: What about scientism? 230 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 19:55
"Blue sky thinking" 222 randompHactor 07-Nov-15 20:15
Re: What about scientism? 218 carolb 07-Nov-15 20:41
Re: What about scientism? 199 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 23:36
Re: What about scientism? 189 carolb 07-Nov-15 23:45
Re: What about scientism? 241 laughin 09-Nov-15 02:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 336 laughin 30-Oct-15 15:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 298 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 430 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 23:51
SUMMARY? 219 skakos 02-Nov-15 21:33
Mod Note > skakos – Switch View 224 Dr. Troglodyte 02-Nov-15 22:33
Re: SUMMARY? 315 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 23:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 321 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 176 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 16:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 drrayeye 02-Nov-15 19:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 154 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 269 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 165 drrayeye 03-Nov-15 16:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 193 OCaptain 03-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 189 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 18:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 325 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 164 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 222 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 193 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 04:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 06:18
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 178 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:30
Regarding myths... 197 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:46
Re: Regarding myths... 189 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 17:00
Re: off topic... 176 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 20:15
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 254 skakos 04-Nov-15 13:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 186 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 616 skakos 04-Nov-15 22:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 311 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 01:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 skakos 05-Nov-15 14:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 195 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 14:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 288 skakos 05-Nov-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 185 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 19:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 266 Laird Scranton 04-Nov-15 21:23
Cosmic Disconnect 207 laughin 06-Nov-15 15:00
Re: Cosmic Disconnect 164 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 365 skakos 16-Nov-15 12:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 288 OCaptain 16-Nov-15 13:54
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 316 skakos 16-Nov-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 379 OCaptain 17-Nov-15 01:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 308 skakos 18-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 325 Ratcho 18-Nov-15 18:45
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 284 OCaptain 19-Nov-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 353 skakos 19-Nov-15 07:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 495 skakos 27-Dec-15 22:04


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