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In response to Skako's inquiry about sources for impact studies:

I've copied portions of my chapters for you on the Cal-Tech study, then the Peking University study:

In 2008, a study at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech)
by Margarita Marinova, then a graduate student in Cal-Tech’s
Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences (GPS), confirmed that
Velikovsky’s proposed planetary impact scenario could make sense
in terms of the types of damage that had been observed to exist on
Mars. It is important to note that, after many trials based on widely
varying parameters, the scenario favored by the researchers attributed
the impact to a body much smaller than Venus and assigned it to
an epoch much earlier than Velikovsky proposes. A Cal-Tech press
release states:

Scientists at the California Institute of Technology have shown
through computer modeling that the Mars dichotomy, as the
divided terrain has been termed, can indeed be explained by one
giant impact early in the planet’s history. . . . This size range of
impacts only occurred early in solar system history. . . . The team
modeled a range of projectile parameters that could yield a cavity
the size and ellipticity of the Mars lowlands without melting
the whole planet or making a crater rim. . . . After cranking 500
simulations combining various energies, velocities, and impact
angles through the GPS division’s Beowulf-class computer cluster
CITerra, the researchers narrowed in on a “sweet spot”—a range
of single-impact parameters that would make exactly the type of
crater found on Mars. . . . The favored simulation conditions outlined
by the sweet spot suggest an impact energy of around 10 to
the 29 joules, which is equivalent to 100 billion gigatons of TNT.
The impactor would have hit Mars at an angle between 30 and 60
degrees while traveling at 6 to 10 kilometers per second.By combining
these factors, Marinova calculated that the projectile was
roughly 1,600 to 2,700 kilometers across.”


I made contact personally with one of the researchers who conducted the study, asking among other things whether any of the tested scenarios involved a body the size of Venus, and if the results of that scenario were favorable - but without direct response to that question.

Jupiter and Saturn are thought to have begun life as rocky worlds
with the mass of at least a few Earths. Their gravity then pulled in
gas from their birth nebula, giving them dense atmospheres. In this
picture, all gas giants should have cores of roughly the same size. Yet
spacecraft-based gravity measurements suggest Jupiter’s core weighs
just two to 10 Earth masses, while Saturn’s comes in at 15 to 30.
New simulations by Shu Lin Li of Peking University in China, and
colleagues, may explain why. They calculated what would happen
when a super-Earth of 10 times the mass of our planet slammed into
a gas giant. The rocky body flattened like a pancake when it hit the
gas giant’s atmosphere, then barrelled into the giant’s core about
half an hour later. The energy of the collision could have vaporised
much of the core. These vaporised heavy elements would then have
mixed with the hydrogen and helium of the gas giant’s atmosphere,
leaving only a fraction of the gas giant’s former core behind. This
could explain not only why Jupiter’s core is so small, but also why
its atmosphere is richer in heavy elements compared with the sun,
whose composition is thought to mirror that of the nebula that gave
birth to the solar system’s planets.


- Laird



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 04-Nov-15 21:24 by Laird Scranton.

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Subject Views Written By Posted
More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 1923 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 429 OCaptain 28-Oct-15 23:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 301 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 415 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 298 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 289 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 269 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 00:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 337 laughin 29-Oct-15 16:29
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 330 Starbinder 29-Oct-15 17:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 274 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 18:08
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 laughin 29-Oct-15 18:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 256 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:13
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 260 laughin 31-Oct-15 15:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 288 drrayeye 31-Oct-15 16:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 16:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 234 laughin 31-Oct-15 18:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 19:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 249 laughin 01-Nov-15 03:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 268 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 05:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 303 laughin 01-Nov-15 16:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 202 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:31
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 238 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 221 laughin 30-Oct-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 299 Aine 30-Oct-15 15:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 carolb 30-Oct-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 249 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:55
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 268 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 315 Aine 30-Oct-15 17:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 260 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 197 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 18:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 245 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 236 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 254 laughin 29-Oct-15 20:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 247 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 22:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 carolb 29-Oct-15 22:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 246 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 00:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 240 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 335 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 239 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 15:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 355 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 17:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 321 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 196 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 290 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 250 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 302 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 196 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 21:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 228 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 221 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 188 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 01:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 333 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:38
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 214 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 03:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 300 carolb 31-Oct-15 12:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 194 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 16:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 235 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 18:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 258 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 00:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 220 carolb 01-Nov-15 01:00
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 222 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 01:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 274 skakos 03-Nov-15 09:51
Conspiracy... 210 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 198 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 293 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:30
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 188 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 215 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 12:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 211 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:41
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 166 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 20:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 211 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 12:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 214 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 13:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 239 carolb 01-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 16:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 224 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 265 carolb 01-Nov-15 17:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 196 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 18:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 21:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 178 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 218 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 19:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 303 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 19:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 261 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 laughin 30-Oct-15 20:17
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 20:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 261 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 271 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 21:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 227 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 208 Starbinder 31-Oct-15 01:05
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 214 Starbinder 02-Nov-15 19:40
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 244 carolb 02-Nov-15 21:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 214 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 360 carolb 06-Nov-15 15:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 208 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 18:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 220 carolb 06-Nov-15 20:10
What about scientism? 227 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 08:19
Re: What about scientism? 231 carolb 07-Nov-15 12:59
Re: What about scientism? 266 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:55
Re: What about scientism? 317 carolb 07-Nov-15 17:37
Re: What about scientism? 248 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 19:55
"Blue sky thinking" 244 randompHactor 07-Nov-15 20:15
Re: What about scientism? 238 carolb 07-Nov-15 20:41
Re: What about scientism? 216 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 23:36
Re: What about scientism? 207 carolb 07-Nov-15 23:45
Re: What about scientism? 250 laughin 09-Nov-15 02:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 353 laughin 30-Oct-15 15:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 321 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 464 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 23:51
SUMMARY? 232 skakos 02-Nov-15 21:33
Mod Note > skakos – Switch View 239 Dr. Troglodyte 02-Nov-15 22:33
Re: SUMMARY? 331 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 23:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 340 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 188 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 16:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 319 drrayeye 02-Nov-15 19:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 169 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 286 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 176 drrayeye 03-Nov-15 16:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 OCaptain 03-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 202 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 18:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 354 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 177 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 235 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 04:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 06:18
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 190 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:30
Regarding myths... 210 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:46
Re: Regarding myths... 202 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 17:00
Re: off topic... 187 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 20:15
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 270 skakos 04-Nov-15 13:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 708 skakos 04-Nov-15 22:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 335 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 01:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 skakos 05-Nov-15 14:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 14:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 308 skakos 05-Nov-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 198 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 19:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 298 Laird Scranton 04-Nov-15 21:23
Cosmic Disconnect 216 laughin 06-Nov-15 15:00
Re: Cosmic Disconnect 174 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 390 skakos 16-Nov-15 12:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 304 OCaptain 16-Nov-15 13:54
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 334 skakos 16-Nov-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 401 OCaptain 17-Nov-15 01:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 330 skakos 18-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 350 Ratcho 18-Nov-15 18:45
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 294 OCaptain 19-Nov-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 374 skakos 19-Nov-15 07:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 513 skakos 27-Dec-15 22:04


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