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In response to Skako's inquiry about sources for impact studies:

I've copied portions of my chapters for you on the Cal-Tech study, then the Peking University study:

In 2008, a study at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech)
by Margarita Marinova, then a graduate student in Cal-Tech’s
Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences (GPS), confirmed that
Velikovsky’s proposed planetary impact scenario could make sense
in terms of the types of damage that had been observed to exist on
Mars. It is important to note that, after many trials based on widely
varying parameters, the scenario favored by the researchers attributed
the impact to a body much smaller than Venus and assigned it to
an epoch much earlier than Velikovsky proposes. A Cal-Tech press
release states:

Scientists at the California Institute of Technology have shown
through computer modeling that the Mars dichotomy, as the
divided terrain has been termed, can indeed be explained by one
giant impact early in the planet’s history. . . . This size range of
impacts only occurred early in solar system history. . . . The team
modeled a range of projectile parameters that could yield a cavity
the size and ellipticity of the Mars lowlands without melting
the whole planet or making a crater rim. . . . After cranking 500
simulations combining various energies, velocities, and impact
angles through the GPS division’s Beowulf-class computer cluster
CITerra, the researchers narrowed in on a “sweet spot”—a range
of single-impact parameters that would make exactly the type of
crater found on Mars. . . . The favored simulation conditions outlined
by the sweet spot suggest an impact energy of around 10 to
the 29 joules, which is equivalent to 100 billion gigatons of TNT.
The impactor would have hit Mars at an angle between 30 and 60
degrees while traveling at 6 to 10 kilometers per second.By combining
these factors, Marinova calculated that the projectile was
roughly 1,600 to 2,700 kilometers across.”


I made contact personally with one of the researchers who conducted the study, asking among other things whether any of the tested scenarios involved a body the size of Venus, and if the results of that scenario were favorable - but without direct response to that question.

Jupiter and Saturn are thought to have begun life as rocky worlds
with the mass of at least a few Earths. Their gravity then pulled in
gas from their birth nebula, giving them dense atmospheres. In this
picture, all gas giants should have cores of roughly the same size. Yet
spacecraft-based gravity measurements suggest Jupiter’s core weighs
just two to 10 Earth masses, while Saturn’s comes in at 15 to 30.
New simulations by Shu Lin Li of Peking University in China, and
colleagues, may explain why. They calculated what would happen
when a super-Earth of 10 times the mass of our planet slammed into
a gas giant. The rocky body flattened like a pancake when it hit the
gas giant’s atmosphere, then barrelled into the giant’s core about
half an hour later. The energy of the collision could have vaporised
much of the core. These vaporised heavy elements would then have
mixed with the hydrogen and helium of the gas giant’s atmosphere,
leaving only a fraction of the gas giant’s former core behind. This
could explain not only why Jupiter’s core is so small, but also why
its atmosphere is richer in heavy elements compared with the sun,
whose composition is thought to mirror that of the nebula that gave
birth to the solar system’s planets.


- Laird



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 04-Nov-15 21:24 by Laird Scranton.

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Subject Views Written By Posted
More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 1955 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 440 OCaptain 28-Oct-15 23:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 306 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 425 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 303 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 294 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 273 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 00:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 341 laughin 29-Oct-15 16:29
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 336 Starbinder 29-Oct-15 17:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 280 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 18:08
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 243 laughin 29-Oct-15 18:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 261 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:13
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 266 laughin 31-Oct-15 15:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 300 drrayeye 31-Oct-15 16:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 16:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 238 laughin 31-Oct-15 18:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 234 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 19:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 253 laughin 01-Nov-15 03:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 273 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 05:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 312 laughin 01-Nov-15 16:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:31
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 227 laughin 30-Oct-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 305 Aine 30-Oct-15 15:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 243 carolb 30-Oct-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 253 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:55
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 273 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 322 Aine 30-Oct-15 17:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 265 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 202 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 18:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 250 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 241 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 259 laughin 29-Oct-15 20:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 251 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 22:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 carolb 29-Oct-15 22:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 253 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 00:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 244 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 339 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 247 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 15:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 366 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 221 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 209 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 17:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 327 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 212 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 298 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 211 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 255 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 309 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 21:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 226 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 225 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 193 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 01:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 337 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:38
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 198 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 03:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 307 carolb 31-Oct-15 12:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 211 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 258 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 16:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 240 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 18:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 264 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 209 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 00:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 226 carolb 01-Nov-15 01:00
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 227 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 01:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 278 skakos 03-Nov-15 09:51
Conspiracy... 214 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 303 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:30
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 220 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 12:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 215 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:41
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 171 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 20:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 215 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 212 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 12:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 13:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 245 carolb 01-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 222 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 16:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 234 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 269 carolb 01-Nov-15 17:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 18:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 212 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 21:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 183 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 222 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 19:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 307 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 19:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 264 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 laughin 30-Oct-15 20:17
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 245 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 20:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 266 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 276 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 21:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 231 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 Starbinder 31-Oct-15 01:05
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 221 Starbinder 02-Nov-15 19:40
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 250 carolb 02-Nov-15 21:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 366 carolb 06-Nov-15 15:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 18:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 225 carolb 06-Nov-15 20:10
What about scientism? 236 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 08:19
Re: What about scientism? 236 carolb 07-Nov-15 12:59
Re: What about scientism? 281 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:55
Re: What about scientism? 327 carolb 07-Nov-15 17:37
Re: What about scientism? 254 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 19:55
"Blue sky thinking" 248 randompHactor 07-Nov-15 20:15
Re: What about scientism? 242 carolb 07-Nov-15 20:41
Re: What about scientism? 222 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 23:36
Re: What about scientism? 216 carolb 07-Nov-15 23:45
Re: What about scientism? 256 laughin 09-Nov-15 02:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 358 laughin 30-Oct-15 15:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 324 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 471 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 23:51
SUMMARY? 237 skakos 02-Nov-15 21:33
Mod Note > skakos – Switch View 242 Dr. Troglodyte 02-Nov-15 22:33
Re: SUMMARY? 337 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 23:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 344 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 195 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 16:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 324 drrayeye 02-Nov-15 19:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 173 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 290 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 181 drrayeye 03-Nov-15 16:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 OCaptain 03-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 18:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 358 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 182 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 241 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 209 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 04:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 226 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 06:18
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 193 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:30
Regarding myths... 215 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:46
Re: Regarding myths... 208 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 17:00
Re: off topic... 192 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 20:15
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 275 skakos 04-Nov-15 13:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 222 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 208 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 741 skakos 04-Nov-15 22:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 341 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 01:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 skakos 05-Nov-15 14:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 214 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 14:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 312 skakos 05-Nov-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 204 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 19:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 302 Laird Scranton 04-Nov-15 21:23
Cosmic Disconnect 221 laughin 06-Nov-15 15:00
Re: Cosmic Disconnect 181 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 395 skakos 16-Nov-15 12:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 310 OCaptain 16-Nov-15 13:54
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 338 skakos 16-Nov-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 414 OCaptain 17-Nov-15 01:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 336 skakos 18-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 356 Ratcho 18-Nov-15 18:45
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 301 OCaptain 19-Nov-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 380 skakos 19-Nov-15 07:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 518 skakos 27-Dec-15 22:04


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