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In response to Skako's inquiry about sources for impact studies:

I've copied portions of my chapters for you on the Cal-Tech study, then the Peking University study:

In 2008, a study at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech)
by Margarita Marinova, then a graduate student in Cal-Tech’s
Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences (GPS), confirmed that
Velikovsky’s proposed planetary impact scenario could make sense
in terms of the types of damage that had been observed to exist on
Mars. It is important to note that, after many trials based on widely
varying parameters, the scenario favored by the researchers attributed
the impact to a body much smaller than Venus and assigned it to
an epoch much earlier than Velikovsky proposes. A Cal-Tech press
release states:

Scientists at the California Institute of Technology have shown
through computer modeling that the Mars dichotomy, as the
divided terrain has been termed, can indeed be explained by one
giant impact early in the planet’s history. . . . This size range of
impacts only occurred early in solar system history. . . . The team
modeled a range of projectile parameters that could yield a cavity
the size and ellipticity of the Mars lowlands without melting
the whole planet or making a crater rim. . . . After cranking 500
simulations combining various energies, velocities, and impact
angles through the GPS division’s Beowulf-class computer cluster
CITerra, the researchers narrowed in on a “sweet spot”—a range
of single-impact parameters that would make exactly the type of
crater found on Mars. . . . The favored simulation conditions outlined
by the sweet spot suggest an impact energy of around 10 to
the 29 joules, which is equivalent to 100 billion gigatons of TNT.
The impactor would have hit Mars at an angle between 30 and 60
degrees while traveling at 6 to 10 kilometers per second.By combining
these factors, Marinova calculated that the projectile was
roughly 1,600 to 2,700 kilometers across.”


I made contact personally with one of the researchers who conducted the study, asking among other things whether any of the tested scenarios involved a body the size of Venus, and if the results of that scenario were favorable - but without direct response to that question.

Jupiter and Saturn are thought to have begun life as rocky worlds
with the mass of at least a few Earths. Their gravity then pulled in
gas from their birth nebula, giving them dense atmospheres. In this
picture, all gas giants should have cores of roughly the same size. Yet
spacecraft-based gravity measurements suggest Jupiter’s core weighs
just two to 10 Earth masses, while Saturn’s comes in at 15 to 30.
New simulations by Shu Lin Li of Peking University in China, and
colleagues, may explain why. They calculated what would happen
when a super-Earth of 10 times the mass of our planet slammed into
a gas giant. The rocky body flattened like a pancake when it hit the
gas giant’s atmosphere, then barrelled into the giant’s core about
half an hour later. The energy of the collision could have vaporised
much of the core. These vaporised heavy elements would then have
mixed with the hydrogen and helium of the gas giant’s atmosphere,
leaving only a fraction of the gas giant’s former core behind. This
could explain not only why Jupiter’s core is so small, but also why
its atmosphere is richer in heavy elements compared with the sun,
whose composition is thought to mirror that of the nebula that gave
birth to the solar system’s planets.


- Laird



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 04-Nov-15 21:24 by Laird Scranton.

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Subject Views Written By Posted
More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 2037 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 482 OCaptain 28-Oct-15 23:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 335 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 460 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 333 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 323 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 315 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 00:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 369 laughin 29-Oct-15 16:29
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 367 Starbinder 29-Oct-15 17:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 307 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 18:08
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 275 laughin 29-Oct-15 18:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 291 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:13
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 297 laughin 31-Oct-15 15:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 331 drrayeye 31-Oct-15 16:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 254 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 16:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 265 laughin 31-Oct-15 18:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 261 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 19:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 291 laughin 01-Nov-15 03:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 307 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 05:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 343 laughin 01-Nov-15 16:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 248 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:31
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 273 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 258 laughin 30-Oct-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 346 Aine 30-Oct-15 15:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 270 carolb 30-Oct-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 280 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:55
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 303 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 353 Aine 30-Oct-15 17:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 304 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 18:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 281 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 283 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 287 laughin 29-Oct-15 20:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 278 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 22:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 carolb 29-Oct-15 22:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 287 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 00:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 274 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 378 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 276 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 15:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 417 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 281 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 250 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 17:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 360 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 226 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 327 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 238 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 283 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 339 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 230 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 21:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 258 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 255 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 255 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 222 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 01:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 368 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:38
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 258 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 03:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 339 carolb 31-Oct-15 12:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 239 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 231 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 286 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 16:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 268 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 18:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 298 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 238 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 00:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 carolb 01-Nov-15 01:00
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 257 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 01:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 306 skakos 03-Nov-15 09:51
Conspiracy... 247 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 334 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:30
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 220 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 264 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 243 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 12:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 256 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:41
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 20:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 248 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 12:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 261 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 13:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 285 carolb 01-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 262 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 16:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 262 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 299 carolb 01-Nov-15 17:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 18:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 244 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 21:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 215 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 261 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 19:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 351 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 258 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 19:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 311 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 laughin 30-Oct-15 20:17
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 274 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 20:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 305 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 309 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 21:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 259 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 238 Starbinder 31-Oct-15 01:05
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 255 Starbinder 02-Nov-15 19:40
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 281 carolb 02-Nov-15 21:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 247 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 407 carolb 06-Nov-15 15:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 241 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 18:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 253 carolb 06-Nov-15 20:10
What about scientism? 291 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 08:19
Re: What about scientism? 274 carolb 07-Nov-15 12:59
Re: What about scientism? 318 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:55
Re: What about scientism? 372 carolb 07-Nov-15 17:37
Re: What about scientism? 286 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 19:55
"Blue sky thinking" 279 randompHactor 07-Nov-15 20:15
Re: What about scientism? 270 carolb 07-Nov-15 20:41
Re: What about scientism? 261 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 23:36
Re: What about scientism? 256 carolb 07-Nov-15 23:45
Re: What about scientism? 293 laughin 09-Nov-15 02:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 390 laughin 30-Oct-15 15:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 353 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 521 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 23:51
SUMMARY? 264 skakos 02-Nov-15 21:33
Mod Note > skakos – Switch View 284 Dr. Troglodyte 02-Nov-15 22:33
Re: SUMMARY? 375 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 23:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 385 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 235 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 16:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 364 drrayeye 02-Nov-15 19:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 318 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 drrayeye 03-Nov-15 16:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 251 OCaptain 03-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 245 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 18:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 390 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 222 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 270 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 241 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 04:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 265 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 06:18
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 235 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:30
Regarding myths... 246 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:46
Re: Regarding myths... 236 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 17:00
Re: off topic... 218 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 20:15
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 313 skakos 04-Nov-15 13:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 260 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 235 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 810 skakos 04-Nov-15 22:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 370 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 01:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 254 skakos 05-Nov-15 14:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 257 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 14:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 352 skakos 05-Nov-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 247 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 19:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 343 Laird Scranton 04-Nov-15 21:23
Cosmic Disconnect 266 laughin 06-Nov-15 15:00
Re: Cosmic Disconnect 222 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 426 skakos 16-Nov-15 12:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 338 OCaptain 16-Nov-15 13:54
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 383 skakos 16-Nov-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 442 OCaptain 17-Nov-15 01:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 376 skakos 18-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 384 Ratcho 18-Nov-15 18:45
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 328 OCaptain 19-Nov-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 407 skakos 19-Nov-15 07:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 553 skakos 27-Dec-15 22:04


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