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In response to Skako's inquiry about sources for impact studies:

I've copied portions of my chapters for you on the Cal-Tech study, then the Peking University study:

In 2008, a study at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech)
by Margarita Marinova, then a graduate student in Cal-Tech’s
Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences (GPS), confirmed that
Velikovsky’s proposed planetary impact scenario could make sense
in terms of the types of damage that had been observed to exist on
Mars. It is important to note that, after many trials based on widely
varying parameters, the scenario favored by the researchers attributed
the impact to a body much smaller than Venus and assigned it to
an epoch much earlier than Velikovsky proposes. A Cal-Tech press
release states:

Scientists at the California Institute of Technology have shown
through computer modeling that the Mars dichotomy, as the
divided terrain has been termed, can indeed be explained by one
giant impact early in the planet’s history. . . . This size range of
impacts only occurred early in solar system history. . . . The team
modeled a range of projectile parameters that could yield a cavity
the size and ellipticity of the Mars lowlands without melting
the whole planet or making a crater rim. . . . After cranking 500
simulations combining various energies, velocities, and impact
angles through the GPS division’s Beowulf-class computer cluster
CITerra, the researchers narrowed in on a “sweet spot”—a range
of single-impact parameters that would make exactly the type of
crater found on Mars. . . . The favored simulation conditions outlined
by the sweet spot suggest an impact energy of around 10 to
the 29 joules, which is equivalent to 100 billion gigatons of TNT.
The impactor would have hit Mars at an angle between 30 and 60
degrees while traveling at 6 to 10 kilometers per second.By combining
these factors, Marinova calculated that the projectile was
roughly 1,600 to 2,700 kilometers across.”


I made contact personally with one of the researchers who conducted the study, asking among other things whether any of the tested scenarios involved a body the size of Venus, and if the results of that scenario were favorable - but without direct response to that question.

Jupiter and Saturn are thought to have begun life as rocky worlds
with the mass of at least a few Earths. Their gravity then pulled in
gas from their birth nebula, giving them dense atmospheres. In this
picture, all gas giants should have cores of roughly the same size. Yet
spacecraft-based gravity measurements suggest Jupiter’s core weighs
just two to 10 Earth masses, while Saturn’s comes in at 15 to 30.
New simulations by Shu Lin Li of Peking University in China, and
colleagues, may explain why. They calculated what would happen
when a super-Earth of 10 times the mass of our planet slammed into
a gas giant. The rocky body flattened like a pancake when it hit the
gas giant’s atmosphere, then barrelled into the giant’s core about
half an hour later. The energy of the collision could have vaporised
much of the core. These vaporised heavy elements would then have
mixed with the hydrogen and helium of the gas giant’s atmosphere,
leaving only a fraction of the gas giant’s former core behind. This
could explain not only why Jupiter’s core is so small, but also why
its atmosphere is richer in heavy elements compared with the sun,
whose composition is thought to mirror that of the nebula that gave
birth to the solar system’s planets.


- Laird



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 04-Nov-15 21:24 by Laird Scranton.

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Subject Views Written By Posted
More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 1795 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 405 OCaptain 28-Oct-15 23:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 284 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 385 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 281 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 267 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 255 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 00:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 320 laughin 29-Oct-15 16:29
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 312 Starbinder 29-Oct-15 17:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 254 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 18:08
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 laughin 29-Oct-15 18:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:13
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 240 laughin 31-Oct-15 15:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 270 drrayeye 31-Oct-15 16:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 16:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 laughin 31-Oct-15 18:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 19:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 231 laughin 01-Nov-15 03:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 243 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 05:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 281 laughin 01-Nov-15 16:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 185 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:31
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 laughin 30-Oct-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 Aine 30-Oct-15 15:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 carolb 30-Oct-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:55
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 247 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 289 Aine 30-Oct-15 17:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 179 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 18:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 226 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 239 laughin 29-Oct-15 20:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 227 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 22:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 carolb 29-Oct-15 22:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 00:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 225 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 311 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 15:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 332 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 197 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 179 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 17:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 301 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 187 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 180 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 272 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 188 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 233 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 180 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 21:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 204 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 172 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 01:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 312 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:38
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 171 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 198 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 03:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 278 carolb 31-Oct-15 12:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 189 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 178 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 16:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 18:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 240 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 188 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 00:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 carolb 01-Nov-15 01:00
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 01:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 258 skakos 03-Nov-15 09:51
Conspiracy... 193 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 179 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 270 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:30
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 172 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 181 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 12:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:41
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 150 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 20:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 194 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 185 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 12:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 13:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 221 carolb 01-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 16:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 248 carolb 01-Nov-15 17:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 179 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 18:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 21:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 161 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 19:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 283 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 19:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 231 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 184 laughin 30-Oct-15 20:17
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 208 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 20:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 241 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 247 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 21:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 187 Starbinder 31-Oct-15 01:05
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 196 Starbinder 02-Nov-15 19:40
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 227 carolb 02-Nov-15 21:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 343 carolb 06-Nov-15 15:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 18:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 carolb 06-Nov-15 20:10
What about scientism? 206 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 08:19
Re: What about scientism? 214 carolb 07-Nov-15 12:59
Re: What about scientism? 230 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:55
Re: What about scientism? 297 carolb 07-Nov-15 17:37
Re: What about scientism? 227 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 19:55
"Blue sky thinking" 218 randompHactor 07-Nov-15 20:15
Re: What about scientism? 217 carolb 07-Nov-15 20:41
Re: What about scientism? 197 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 23:36
Re: What about scientism? 186 carolb 07-Nov-15 23:45
Re: What about scientism? 234 laughin 09-Nov-15 02:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 331 laughin 30-Oct-15 15:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 293 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 427 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 23:51
SUMMARY? 216 skakos 02-Nov-15 21:33
Mod Note > skakos – Switch View 220 Dr. Troglodyte 02-Nov-15 22:33
Re: SUMMARY? 312 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 23:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 316 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 172 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 16:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 279 drrayeye 02-Nov-15 19:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 151 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 264 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 162 drrayeye 03-Nov-15 16:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 190 OCaptain 03-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 185 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 18:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 321 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 160 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 218 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 186 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 04:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 06:18
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 171 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:30
Regarding myths... 194 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:46
Re: Regarding myths... 186 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 17:00
Re: off topic... 171 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 20:15
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 248 skakos 04-Nov-15 13:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 196 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 181 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 605 skakos 04-Nov-15 22:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 306 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 01:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 skakos 05-Nov-15 14:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 14:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 284 skakos 05-Nov-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 182 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 19:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 265 Laird Scranton 04-Nov-15 21:23
Cosmic Disconnect 204 laughin 06-Nov-15 15:00
Re: Cosmic Disconnect 159 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 359 skakos 16-Nov-15 12:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 287 OCaptain 16-Nov-15 13:54
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 311 skakos 16-Nov-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 376 OCaptain 17-Nov-15 01:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 303 skakos 18-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 322 Ratcho 18-Nov-15 18:45
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 OCaptain 19-Nov-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 346 skakos 19-Nov-15 07:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 489 skakos 27-Dec-15 22:04


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