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In response to Skako's inquiry about sources for impact studies:

I've copied portions of my chapters for you on the Cal-Tech study, then the Peking University study:

In 2008, a study at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech)
by Margarita Marinova, then a graduate student in Cal-Tech’s
Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences (GPS), confirmed that
Velikovsky’s proposed planetary impact scenario could make sense
in terms of the types of damage that had been observed to exist on
Mars. It is important to note that, after many trials based on widely
varying parameters, the scenario favored by the researchers attributed
the impact to a body much smaller than Venus and assigned it to
an epoch much earlier than Velikovsky proposes. A Cal-Tech press
release states:

Scientists at the California Institute of Technology have shown
through computer modeling that the Mars dichotomy, as the
divided terrain has been termed, can indeed be explained by one
giant impact early in the planet’s history. . . . This size range of
impacts only occurred early in solar system history. . . . The team
modeled a range of projectile parameters that could yield a cavity
the size and ellipticity of the Mars lowlands without melting
the whole planet or making a crater rim. . . . After cranking 500
simulations combining various energies, velocities, and impact
angles through the GPS division’s Beowulf-class computer cluster
CITerra, the researchers narrowed in on a “sweet spot”—a range
of single-impact parameters that would make exactly the type of
crater found on Mars. . . . The favored simulation conditions outlined
by the sweet spot suggest an impact energy of around 10 to
the 29 joules, which is equivalent to 100 billion gigatons of TNT.
The impactor would have hit Mars at an angle between 30 and 60
degrees while traveling at 6 to 10 kilometers per second.By combining
these factors, Marinova calculated that the projectile was
roughly 1,600 to 2,700 kilometers across.”


I made contact personally with one of the researchers who conducted the study, asking among other things whether any of the tested scenarios involved a body the size of Venus, and if the results of that scenario were favorable - but without direct response to that question.

Jupiter and Saturn are thought to have begun life as rocky worlds
with the mass of at least a few Earths. Their gravity then pulled in
gas from their birth nebula, giving them dense atmospheres. In this
picture, all gas giants should have cores of roughly the same size. Yet
spacecraft-based gravity measurements suggest Jupiter’s core weighs
just two to 10 Earth masses, while Saturn’s comes in at 15 to 30.
New simulations by Shu Lin Li of Peking University in China, and
colleagues, may explain why. They calculated what would happen
when a super-Earth of 10 times the mass of our planet slammed into
a gas giant. The rocky body flattened like a pancake when it hit the
gas giant’s atmosphere, then barrelled into the giant’s core about
half an hour later. The energy of the collision could have vaporised
much of the core. These vaporised heavy elements would then have
mixed with the hydrogen and helium of the gas giant’s atmosphere,
leaving only a fraction of the gas giant’s former core behind. This
could explain not only why Jupiter’s core is so small, but also why
its atmosphere is richer in heavy elements compared with the sun,
whose composition is thought to mirror that of the nebula that gave
birth to the solar system’s planets.


- Laird



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 04-Nov-15 21:24 by Laird Scranton.

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Subject Views Written By Posted
More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 1855 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 417 OCaptain 28-Oct-15 23:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 297 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 403 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 292 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 281 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 262 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 00:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 331 laughin 29-Oct-15 16:29
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 324 Starbinder 29-Oct-15 17:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 267 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 18:08
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 230 laughin 29-Oct-15 18:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 250 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:13
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 255 laughin 31-Oct-15 15:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 280 drrayeye 31-Oct-15 16:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 215 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 16:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 228 laughin 31-Oct-15 18:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 19:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 244 laughin 01-Nov-15 03:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 256 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 05:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 293 laughin 01-Nov-15 16:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 195 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:31
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 laughin 30-Oct-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 292 Aine 30-Oct-15 15:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 231 carolb 30-Oct-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 245 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:55
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 264 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 307 Aine 30-Oct-15 17:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 254 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 18:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 239 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 250 laughin 29-Oct-15 20:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 240 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 22:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 220 carolb 29-Oct-15 22:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 235 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 00:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 234 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 327 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 15:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 344 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 17:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 315 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 244 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 296 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 190 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 21:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 224 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 214 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 182 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 01:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 327 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:38
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 184 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 03:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 293 carolb 31-Oct-15 12:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 189 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 247 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 16:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 18:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 197 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 00:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 carolb 01-Nov-15 01:00
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 01:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 267 skakos 03-Nov-15 09:51
Conspiracy... 204 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 286 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:30
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 182 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 208 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 12:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 204 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:41
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 160 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 20:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 12:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 13:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 233 carolb 01-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 211 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 16:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 261 carolb 01-Nov-15 17:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 188 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 18:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 21:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 171 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 211 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 19:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 296 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 19:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 247 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 194 laughin 30-Oct-15 20:17
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 20:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 256 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 263 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 21:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 221 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 198 Starbinder 31-Oct-15 01:05
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 209 Starbinder 02-Nov-15 19:40
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 240 carolb 02-Nov-15 21:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 208 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 355 carolb 06-Nov-15 15:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 204 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 18:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 214 carolb 06-Nov-15 20:10
What about scientism? 220 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 08:19
Re: What about scientism? 224 carolb 07-Nov-15 12:59
Re: What about scientism? 251 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:55
Re: What about scientism? 309 carolb 07-Nov-15 17:37
Re: What about scientism? 241 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 19:55
"Blue sky thinking" 232 randompHactor 07-Nov-15 20:15
Re: What about scientism? 227 carolb 07-Nov-15 20:41
Re: What about scientism? 208 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 23:36
Re: What about scientism? 197 carolb 07-Nov-15 23:45
Re: What about scientism? 246 laughin 09-Nov-15 02:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 349 laughin 30-Oct-15 15:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 311 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 443 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 23:51
SUMMARY? 226 skakos 02-Nov-15 21:33
Mod Note > skakos – Switch View 231 Dr. Troglodyte 02-Nov-15 22:33
Re: SUMMARY? 324 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 23:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 332 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 181 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 16:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 299 drrayeye 02-Nov-15 19:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 163 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 278 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 170 drrayeye 03-Nov-15 16:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 OCaptain 03-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 195 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 18:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 338 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 170 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 04:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 06:18
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 183 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:30
Regarding myths... 204 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:46
Re: Regarding myths... 196 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 17:00
Re: off topic... 182 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 20:15
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 265 skakos 04-Nov-15 13:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 194 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 660 skakos 04-Nov-15 22:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 324 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 01:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 skakos 05-Nov-15 14:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 14:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 301 skakos 05-Nov-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 19:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 284 Laird Scranton 04-Nov-15 21:23
Cosmic Disconnect 213 laughin 06-Nov-15 15:00
Re: Cosmic Disconnect 168 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 377 skakos 16-Nov-15 12:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 298 OCaptain 16-Nov-15 13:54
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 325 skakos 16-Nov-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 393 OCaptain 17-Nov-15 01:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 321 skakos 18-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 343 Ratcho 18-Nov-15 18:45
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 288 OCaptain 19-Nov-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 366 skakos 19-Nov-15 07:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 506 skakos 27-Dec-15 22:04


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