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OCaptain
And who exactly created them to invalidate Velikovsky?





please see this post

[grahamhancock.com]

[www.aip.org]

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The Discovery of Global Warming June 2011
Venus & Mars

In the 1960s and 1970s, observations of Mars and Venus showed that planets that seemed much like the Earth could have frightfully different atmospheres. The greenhouse effect had made Venus a furnace, while lack of atmosphere had locked Mars in a deep freeze. This was visible evidence that climate can be delicately balanced, so that a planet's atmosphere could flip from a livable state to a deadly one.


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Already back in 1940, Rupert Wildt had made a rough calculation of the greenhouse effect from the large amount of CO2 that others had found in telescope studies of Venus; he predicted the effect could raise the surface temperature above the boiling point of water. But raising it as high as 600°K seemed impossible.(4*) Nobody mounted a serious attack on the problem (after all, very few people were doing any kind of planetary astronomy in those decades). Finally in 1960 a young doctoral student, Carl Sagan, took up the problem and got a solution that made his name known among astronomers. Using what he later recalled as "embarrassingly crude" methods, taking data from tables designed for steam boiler engineering, he confirmed that Venus could indeed be a greenhouse effect furnace.(5) The atmosphere would have to be almost totally opaque, and this "very efficient greenhouse effect" couldn't all be due to CO2. He pointed to absorption of radiation by water vapor as the likely culprit
.


So Carl Sagan was wrong about "Venusian warming"
His starting assumption was that Venus was always where it is


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The discovery that Venus's atmosphere had a composition, and probably a history, very different from Earth's prompted scientists to abandon their old assumption that planetary atmospheres were fixed forever by simple chemistry[/b


What?????? a different history!!
what on Venus could that possibly mean?


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The atmosphere of Venus was filled not only with CO2 but also with an opaque haze. Its nature was unknown, and in the 1960s scientists could only say that the haze was probably caused by some kind of tiny particles.(10) "The clouds on Venus had long been a mystery," as one expert recalled, "in which stratospheric aerosols now appeared to play a key role. The unraveling of the precise role of aerosols in the Venus atmosphere would certainly benefit studies of chemical contamination of Earth's atmosphere." (11*) In the early 1970s, ground-based telescope observations produced extraordinarily precise data on the optical properties of these aerosols, and at last they were identified. The haze was from sulfur compounds.(12*)
The greenhouse effect of the sulfates could be calculated, and by the late 1970s, NASA climate modeler James Hansen stated confidently that the sulfates together with CO2 "are responsible for the basic climatic state on Venus." Hansen had originally become interested in the greenhouse effect when, in response to Sagan's primitive calculations, he tried to derive a better explanation of why the planet's atmosphere was so hot. Now Hansen's findings about sulfate aerosols strengthened his belief that these particles could make a serious difference for the Earth's climate as well. Sulfates were emitted by volcanoes and, increasingly, by human industry, so Venus had things to tell us about climate change at home.(13*) (CO2 was by far the largest factor in warming Venus, and the effect of sulfates would be debated for decades. It turned out that the greenhouse effect of sulfate clouds reflecting heat back to the surface of Venus was outweighed by cooling due to their reflection of incoming sunlight.)

So Hansen was wound up about sulfate aerosols........

Sagan was encouraged by those wanting a different reason for Venus being warm
his explanation was readily accepted, even though it was simplistic and wrong
He became famous for having the wrong but politically correct answer (something to refute Velikovsky)

the how and whys of "global warming" change over time
but the belief in it exists soesn't

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Subject Views Written By Posted
More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 1872 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 422 OCaptain 28-Oct-15 23:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 298 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 406 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 294 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 283 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 265 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 00:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 333 laughin 29-Oct-15 16:29
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 325 Starbinder 29-Oct-15 17:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 269 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 18:08
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 laughin 29-Oct-15 18:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:13
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 256 laughin 31-Oct-15 15:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 drrayeye 31-Oct-15 16:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 16:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 230 laughin 31-Oct-15 18:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 225 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 19:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 245 laughin 01-Nov-15 03:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 256 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 05:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 297 laughin 01-Nov-15 16:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 198 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:31
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 234 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 218 laughin 30-Oct-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 295 Aine 30-Oct-15 15:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 233 carolb 30-Oct-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 246 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:55
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 264 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 311 Aine 30-Oct-15 17:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 256 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 193 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 18:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 241 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 251 laughin 29-Oct-15 20:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 22:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 228 carolb 29-Oct-15 22:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 238 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 00:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 236 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 331 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 15:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 346 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 212 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 233 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 194 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 17:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 317 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 202 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 193 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 283 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 202 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 246 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 298 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 21:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 225 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 215 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 184 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 01:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 329 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:38
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 186 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 03:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 296 carolb 31-Oct-15 12:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 190 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 248 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 16:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 218 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 18:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 254 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 00:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 carolb 01-Nov-15 01:00
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 218 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 01:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 271 skakos 03-Nov-15 09:51
Conspiracy... 206 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 193 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 289 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:30
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 184 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 211 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 194 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 12:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:41
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 162 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 20:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 202 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 12:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 13:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 235 carolb 01-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 16:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 218 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 261 carolb 01-Nov-15 17:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 190 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 18:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 202 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 21:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 173 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 19:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 299 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 218 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 19:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 249 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 196 laughin 30-Oct-15 20:17
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 221 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 20:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 257 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 266 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 21:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 Starbinder 31-Oct-15 01:05
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 Starbinder 02-Nov-15 19:40
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 241 carolb 02-Nov-15 21:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 209 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 357 carolb 06-Nov-15 15:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 204 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 18:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 carolb 06-Nov-15 20:10
What about scientism? 222 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 08:19
Re: What about scientism? 226 carolb 07-Nov-15 12:59
Re: What about scientism? 257 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:55
Re: What about scientism? 312 carolb 07-Nov-15 17:37
Re: What about scientism? 244 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 19:55
"Blue sky thinking" 238 randompHactor 07-Nov-15 20:15
Re: What about scientism? 231 carolb 07-Nov-15 20:41
Re: What about scientism? 211 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 23:36
Re: What about scientism? 201 carolb 07-Nov-15 23:45
Re: What about scientism? 248 laughin 09-Nov-15 02:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 349 laughin 30-Oct-15 15:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 319 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 453 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 23:51
SUMMARY? 229 skakos 02-Nov-15 21:33
Mod Note > skakos – Switch View 235 Dr. Troglodyte 02-Nov-15 22:33
Re: SUMMARY? 329 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 23:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 336 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 183 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 16:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 314 drrayeye 02-Nov-15 19:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 166 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 283 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 173 drrayeye 03-Nov-15 16:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 204 OCaptain 03-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 18:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 349 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 174 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 04:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 06:18
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 186 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:30
Regarding myths... 207 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:46
Re: Regarding myths... 199 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 17:00
Re: off topic... 183 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 20:15
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 267 skakos 04-Nov-15 13:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 198 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 680 skakos 04-Nov-15 22:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 332 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 01:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 skakos 05-Nov-15 14:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 14:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 305 skakos 05-Nov-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 195 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 19:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 295 Laird Scranton 04-Nov-15 21:23
Cosmic Disconnect 213 laughin 06-Nov-15 15:00
Re: Cosmic Disconnect 169 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 382 skakos 16-Nov-15 12:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 301 OCaptain 16-Nov-15 13:54
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 329 skakos 16-Nov-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 396 OCaptain 17-Nov-15 01:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 324 skakos 18-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 346 Ratcho 18-Nov-15 18:45
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 291 OCaptain 19-Nov-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 369 skakos 19-Nov-15 07:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 508 skakos 27-Dec-15 22:04


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