Science & Space :  The Official GrahamHancock.com forums
For all that is Scientifically related to Cosmology and Space. (NB: Please take discussions about UFOs, possible Alien contact, Crop-Circles, Alien Abductions, Planet-X and Niburu to the ‘Paranormal and Supernatural’ Message Board). 
Welcome! Log InRegister
Quote
OCaptain
And who exactly created them to invalidate Velikovsky?





please see this post

[grahamhancock.com]

[www.aip.org]

Quote

The Discovery of Global Warming June 2011
Venus & Mars

In the 1960s and 1970s, observations of Mars and Venus showed that planets that seemed much like the Earth could have frightfully different atmospheres. The greenhouse effect had made Venus a furnace, while lack of atmosphere had locked Mars in a deep freeze. This was visible evidence that climate can be delicately balanced, so that a planet's atmosphere could flip from a livable state to a deadly one.


Quote

Already back in 1940, Rupert Wildt had made a rough calculation of the greenhouse effect from the large amount of CO2 that others had found in telescope studies of Venus; he predicted the effect could raise the surface temperature above the boiling point of water. But raising it as high as 600°K seemed impossible.(4*) Nobody mounted a serious attack on the problem (after all, very few people were doing any kind of planetary astronomy in those decades). Finally in 1960 a young doctoral student, Carl Sagan, took up the problem and got a solution that made his name known among astronomers. Using what he later recalled as "embarrassingly crude" methods, taking data from tables designed for steam boiler engineering, he confirmed that Venus could indeed be a greenhouse effect furnace.(5) The atmosphere would have to be almost totally opaque, and this "very efficient greenhouse effect" couldn't all be due to CO2. He pointed to absorption of radiation by water vapor as the likely culprit
.


So Carl Sagan was wrong about "Venusian warming"
His starting assumption was that Venus was always where it is


Quote

The discovery that Venus's atmosphere had a composition, and probably a history, very different from Earth's prompted scientists to abandon their old assumption that planetary atmospheres were fixed forever by simple chemistry[/b


What?????? a different history!!
what on Venus could that possibly mean?


Quote

The atmosphere of Venus was filled not only with CO2 but also with an opaque haze. Its nature was unknown, and in the 1960s scientists could only say that the haze was probably caused by some kind of tiny particles.(10) "The clouds on Venus had long been a mystery," as one expert recalled, "in which stratospheric aerosols now appeared to play a key role. The unraveling of the precise role of aerosols in the Venus atmosphere would certainly benefit studies of chemical contamination of Earth's atmosphere." (11*) In the early 1970s, ground-based telescope observations produced extraordinarily precise data on the optical properties of these aerosols, and at last they were identified. The haze was from sulfur compounds.(12*)
The greenhouse effect of the sulfates could be calculated, and by the late 1970s, NASA climate modeler James Hansen stated confidently that the sulfates together with CO2 "are responsible for the basic climatic state on Venus." Hansen had originally become interested in the greenhouse effect when, in response to Sagan's primitive calculations, he tried to derive a better explanation of why the planet's atmosphere was so hot. Now Hansen's findings about sulfate aerosols strengthened his belief that these particles could make a serious difference for the Earth's climate as well. Sulfates were emitted by volcanoes and, increasingly, by human industry, so Venus had things to tell us about climate change at home.(13*) (CO2 was by far the largest factor in warming Venus, and the effect of sulfates would be debated for decades. It turned out that the greenhouse effect of sulfate clouds reflecting heat back to the surface of Venus was outweighed by cooling due to their reflection of incoming sunlight.)

So Hansen was wound up about sulfate aerosols........

Sagan was encouraged by those wanting a different reason for Venus being warm
his explanation was readily accepted, even though it was simplistic and wrong
He became famous for having the wrong but politically correct answer (something to refute Velikovsky)

the how and whys of "global warming" change over time
but the belief in it exists soesn't

Options: ReplyQuote


Subject Views Written By Posted
More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 1816 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 409 OCaptain 28-Oct-15 23:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 289 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 393 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 286 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 269 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 258 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 00:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 325 laughin 29-Oct-15 16:29
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 315 Starbinder 29-Oct-15 17:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 258 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 18:08
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 224 laughin 29-Oct-15 18:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:13
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 245 laughin 31-Oct-15 15:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 273 drrayeye 31-Oct-15 16:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 16:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 221 laughin 31-Oct-15 18:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 215 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 19:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 laughin 01-Nov-15 03:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 247 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 05:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 283 laughin 01-Nov-15 16:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 188 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:31
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 224 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 laughin 30-Oct-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 287 Aine 30-Oct-15 15:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 225 carolb 30-Oct-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:55
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 293 Aine 30-Oct-15 17:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 246 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 182 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 18:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 laughin 29-Oct-15 20:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 230 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 22:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 209 carolb 29-Oct-15 22:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 228 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 00:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 227 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 317 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 222 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 15:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 335 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 221 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 181 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 17:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 305 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 185 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 274 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 284 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 182 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 21:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 176 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 01:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 317 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:38
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 176 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 202 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 03:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 carolb 31-Oct-15 12:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 183 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 238 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 16:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 18:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 189 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 00:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 carolb 01-Nov-15 01:00
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 01:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 260 skakos 03-Nov-15 09:51
Conspiracy... 195 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 185 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 274 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:30
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 176 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 194 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 185 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 12:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:41
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 153 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 20:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 196 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 189 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 12:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 13:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 carolb 01-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 16:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 209 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 carolb 01-Nov-15 17:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 181 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 18:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 21:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 163 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 19:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 288 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 209 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 19:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 187 laughin 30-Oct-15 20:17
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 20:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 246 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 21:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 211 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 188 Starbinder 31-Oct-15 01:05
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 Starbinder 02-Nov-15 19:40
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 carolb 02-Nov-15 21:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 198 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 347 carolb 06-Nov-15 15:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 196 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 18:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 208 carolb 06-Nov-15 20:10
What about scientism? 214 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 08:19
Re: What about scientism? 218 carolb 07-Nov-15 12:59
Re: What about scientism? 235 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:55
Re: What about scientism? 302 carolb 07-Nov-15 17:37
Re: What about scientism? 230 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 19:55
"Blue sky thinking" 222 randompHactor 07-Nov-15 20:15
Re: What about scientism? 218 carolb 07-Nov-15 20:41
Re: What about scientism? 199 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 23:36
Re: What about scientism? 189 carolb 07-Nov-15 23:45
Re: What about scientism? 241 laughin 09-Nov-15 02:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 336 laughin 30-Oct-15 15:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 298 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 430 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 23:51
SUMMARY? 219 skakos 02-Nov-15 21:33
Mod Note > skakos – Switch View 224 Dr. Troglodyte 02-Nov-15 22:33
Re: SUMMARY? 315 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 23:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 321 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 176 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 16:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 drrayeye 02-Nov-15 19:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 154 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 269 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 165 drrayeye 03-Nov-15 16:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 193 OCaptain 03-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 189 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 18:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 325 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 164 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 222 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 193 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 04:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 06:18
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 178 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:30
Regarding myths... 197 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:46
Re: Regarding myths... 189 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 17:00
Re: off topic... 176 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 20:15
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 254 skakos 04-Nov-15 13:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 186 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 619 skakos 04-Nov-15 22:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 311 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 01:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 skakos 05-Nov-15 14:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 195 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 14:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 288 skakos 05-Nov-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 185 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 19:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 267 Laird Scranton 04-Nov-15 21:23
Cosmic Disconnect 207 laughin 06-Nov-15 15:00
Re: Cosmic Disconnect 164 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 365 skakos 16-Nov-15 12:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 288 OCaptain 16-Nov-15 13:54
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 316 skakos 16-Nov-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 379 OCaptain 17-Nov-15 01:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 308 skakos 18-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 325 Ratcho 18-Nov-15 18:45
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 284 OCaptain 19-Nov-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 353 skakos 19-Nov-15 07:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 495 skakos 27-Dec-15 22:04


Sorry, only registered users may post in this forum.