Science & Space :  The Official GrahamHancock.com forums
For all that is Scientifically related to Cosmology and Space. (NB: Please take discussions about UFOs, possible Alien contact, Crop-Circles, Alien Abductions, Planet-X and Niburu to the ‘Paranormal and Supernatural’ Message Board). 
Welcome! Log InRegister
Quote
OCaptain
And who exactly created them to invalidate Velikovsky?





please see this post

[grahamhancock.com]

[www.aip.org]

Quote

The Discovery of Global Warming June 2011
Venus & Mars

In the 1960s and 1970s, observations of Mars and Venus showed that planets that seemed much like the Earth could have frightfully different atmospheres. The greenhouse effect had made Venus a furnace, while lack of atmosphere had locked Mars in a deep freeze. This was visible evidence that climate can be delicately balanced, so that a planet's atmosphere could flip from a livable state to a deadly one.


Quote

Already back in 1940, Rupert Wildt had made a rough calculation of the greenhouse effect from the large amount of CO2 that others had found in telescope studies of Venus; he predicted the effect could raise the surface temperature above the boiling point of water. But raising it as high as 600°K seemed impossible.(4*) Nobody mounted a serious attack on the problem (after all, very few people were doing any kind of planetary astronomy in those decades). Finally in 1960 a young doctoral student, Carl Sagan, took up the problem and got a solution that made his name known among astronomers. Using what he later recalled as "embarrassingly crude" methods, taking data from tables designed for steam boiler engineering, he confirmed that Venus could indeed be a greenhouse effect furnace.(5) The atmosphere would have to be almost totally opaque, and this "very efficient greenhouse effect" couldn't all be due to CO2. He pointed to absorption of radiation by water vapor as the likely culprit
.


So Carl Sagan was wrong about "Venusian warming"
His starting assumption was that Venus was always where it is


Quote

The discovery that Venus's atmosphere had a composition, and probably a history, very different from Earth's prompted scientists to abandon their old assumption that planetary atmospheres were fixed forever by simple chemistry[/b


What?????? a different history!!
what on Venus could that possibly mean?


Quote

The atmosphere of Venus was filled not only with CO2 but also with an opaque haze. Its nature was unknown, and in the 1960s scientists could only say that the haze was probably caused by some kind of tiny particles.(10) "The clouds on Venus had long been a mystery," as one expert recalled, "in which stratospheric aerosols now appeared to play a key role. The unraveling of the precise role of aerosols in the Venus atmosphere would certainly benefit studies of chemical contamination of Earth's atmosphere." (11*) In the early 1970s, ground-based telescope observations produced extraordinarily precise data on the optical properties of these aerosols, and at last they were identified. The haze was from sulfur compounds.(12*)
The greenhouse effect of the sulfates could be calculated, and by the late 1970s, NASA climate modeler James Hansen stated confidently that the sulfates together with CO2 "are responsible for the basic climatic state on Venus." Hansen had originally become interested in the greenhouse effect when, in response to Sagan's primitive calculations, he tried to derive a better explanation of why the planet's atmosphere was so hot. Now Hansen's findings about sulfate aerosols strengthened his belief that these particles could make a serious difference for the Earth's climate as well. Sulfates were emitted by volcanoes and, increasingly, by human industry, so Venus had things to tell us about climate change at home.(13*) (CO2 was by far the largest factor in warming Venus, and the effect of sulfates would be debated for decades. It turned out that the greenhouse effect of sulfate clouds reflecting heat back to the surface of Venus was outweighed by cooling due to their reflection of incoming sunlight.)

So Hansen was wound up about sulfate aerosols........

Sagan was encouraged by those wanting a different reason for Venus being warm
his explanation was readily accepted, even though it was simplistic and wrong
He became famous for having the wrong but politically correct answer (something to refute Velikovsky)

the how and whys of "global warming" change over time
but the belief in it exists soesn't

Options: ReplyQuote


Subject Views Written By Posted
More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 1935 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 436 OCaptain 28-Oct-15 23:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 303 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 421 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 300 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 292 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 271 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 00:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 339 laughin 29-Oct-15 16:29
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 333 Starbinder 29-Oct-15 17:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 275 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 18:08
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 238 laughin 29-Oct-15 18:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 258 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:13
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 263 laughin 31-Oct-15 15:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 295 drrayeye 31-Oct-15 16:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 222 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 16:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 236 laughin 31-Oct-15 18:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 231 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 19:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 251 laughin 01-Nov-15 03:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 270 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 05:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 308 laughin 01-Nov-15 16:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 204 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:31
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 240 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 laughin 30-Oct-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 302 Aine 30-Oct-15 15:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 239 carolb 30-Oct-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 251 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:55
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 270 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 318 Aine 30-Oct-15 17:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 263 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 18:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 247 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 238 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 256 laughin 29-Oct-15 20:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 248 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 22:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 239 carolb 29-Oct-15 22:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 248 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 00:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 338 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 244 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 15:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 362 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 239 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 17:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 323 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 208 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 197 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 294 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 208 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 303 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 198 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 21:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 230 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 221 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 190 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 01:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 335 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:38
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 194 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 03:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 302 carolb 31-Oct-15 12:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 196 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 254 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 16:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 18:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 260 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 00:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 222 carolb 01-Nov-15 01:00
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 224 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 01:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 276 skakos 03-Nov-15 09:51
Conspiracy... 212 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 296 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:30
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 190 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 12:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:41
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 168 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 20:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 214 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 208 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 12:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 13:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 carolb 01-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 220 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 16:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 230 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 267 carolb 01-Nov-15 17:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 18:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 208 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 21:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 181 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 220 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 19:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 305 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 226 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 19:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 263 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 202 laughin 30-Oct-15 20:17
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 235 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 20:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 263 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 274 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 21:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 Starbinder 31-Oct-15 01:05
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 Starbinder 02-Nov-15 19:40
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 246 carolb 02-Nov-15 21:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 362 carolb 06-Nov-15 15:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 211 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 18:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 222 carolb 06-Nov-15 20:10
What about scientism? 230 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 08:19
Re: What about scientism? 233 carolb 07-Nov-15 12:59
Re: What about scientism? 274 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:55
Re: What about scientism? 321 carolb 07-Nov-15 17:37
Re: What about scientism? 251 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 19:55
"Blue sky thinking" 246 randompHactor 07-Nov-15 20:15
Re: What about scientism? 240 carolb 07-Nov-15 20:41
Re: What about scientism? 218 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 23:36
Re: What about scientism? 212 carolb 07-Nov-15 23:45
Re: What about scientism? 253 laughin 09-Nov-15 02:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 355 laughin 30-Oct-15 15:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 322 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 466 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 23:51
SUMMARY? 234 skakos 02-Nov-15 21:33
Mod Note > skakos – Switch View 241 Dr. Troglodyte 02-Nov-15 22:33
Re: SUMMARY? 335 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 23:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 342 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 16:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 321 drrayeye 02-Nov-15 19:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 171 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 288 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 178 drrayeye 03-Nov-15 16:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 209 OCaptain 03-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 204 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 18:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 357 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 179 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 04:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 221 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 06:18
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:30
Regarding myths... 212 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:46
Re: Regarding myths... 204 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 17:00
Re: off topic... 189 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 20:15
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 272 skakos 04-Nov-15 13:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 720 skakos 04-Nov-15 22:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 337 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 01:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 skakos 05-Nov-15 14:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 212 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 14:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 310 skakos 05-Nov-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 19:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 301 Laird Scranton 04-Nov-15 21:23
Cosmic Disconnect 219 laughin 06-Nov-15 15:00
Re: Cosmic Disconnect 177 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 393 skakos 16-Nov-15 12:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 306 OCaptain 16-Nov-15 13:54
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 338 skakos 16-Nov-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 408 OCaptain 17-Nov-15 01:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 333 skakos 18-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 351 Ratcho 18-Nov-15 18:45
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 296 OCaptain 19-Nov-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 377 skakos 19-Nov-15 07:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 516 skakos 27-Dec-15 22:04


Sorry, only registered users may post in this forum.