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OCaptain
And who exactly created them to invalidate Velikovsky?





please see this post

[grahamhancock.com]

[www.aip.org]

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The Discovery of Global Warming June 2011
Venus & Mars

In the 1960s and 1970s, observations of Mars and Venus showed that planets that seemed much like the Earth could have frightfully different atmospheres. The greenhouse effect had made Venus a furnace, while lack of atmosphere had locked Mars in a deep freeze. This was visible evidence that climate can be delicately balanced, so that a planet's atmosphere could flip from a livable state to a deadly one.


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Already back in 1940, Rupert Wildt had made a rough calculation of the greenhouse effect from the large amount of CO2 that others had found in telescope studies of Venus; he predicted the effect could raise the surface temperature above the boiling point of water. But raising it as high as 600°K seemed impossible.(4*) Nobody mounted a serious attack on the problem (after all, very few people were doing any kind of planetary astronomy in those decades). Finally in 1960 a young doctoral student, Carl Sagan, took up the problem and got a solution that made his name known among astronomers. Using what he later recalled as "embarrassingly crude" methods, taking data from tables designed for steam boiler engineering, he confirmed that Venus could indeed be a greenhouse effect furnace.(5) The atmosphere would have to be almost totally opaque, and this "very efficient greenhouse effect" couldn't all be due to CO2. He pointed to absorption of radiation by water vapor as the likely culprit
.


So Carl Sagan was wrong about "Venusian warming"
His starting assumption was that Venus was always where it is


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The discovery that Venus's atmosphere had a composition, and probably a history, very different from Earth's prompted scientists to abandon their old assumption that planetary atmospheres were fixed forever by simple chemistry[/b


What?????? a different history!!
what on Venus could that possibly mean?


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The atmosphere of Venus was filled not only with CO2 but also with an opaque haze. Its nature was unknown, and in the 1960s scientists could only say that the haze was probably caused by some kind of tiny particles.(10) "The clouds on Venus had long been a mystery," as one expert recalled, "in which stratospheric aerosols now appeared to play a key role. The unraveling of the precise role of aerosols in the Venus atmosphere would certainly benefit studies of chemical contamination of Earth's atmosphere." (11*) In the early 1970s, ground-based telescope observations produced extraordinarily precise data on the optical properties of these aerosols, and at last they were identified. The haze was from sulfur compounds.(12*)
The greenhouse effect of the sulfates could be calculated, and by the late 1970s, NASA climate modeler James Hansen stated confidently that the sulfates together with CO2 "are responsible for the basic climatic state on Venus." Hansen had originally become interested in the greenhouse effect when, in response to Sagan's primitive calculations, he tried to derive a better explanation of why the planet's atmosphere was so hot. Now Hansen's findings about sulfate aerosols strengthened his belief that these particles could make a serious difference for the Earth's climate as well. Sulfates were emitted by volcanoes and, increasingly, by human industry, so Venus had things to tell us about climate change at home.(13*) (CO2 was by far the largest factor in warming Venus, and the effect of sulfates would be debated for decades. It turned out that the greenhouse effect of sulfate clouds reflecting heat back to the surface of Venus was outweighed by cooling due to their reflection of incoming sunlight.)

So Hansen was wound up about sulfate aerosols........

Sagan was encouraged by those wanting a different reason for Venus being warm
his explanation was readily accepted, even though it was simplistic and wrong
He became famous for having the wrong but politically correct answer (something to refute Velikovsky)

the how and whys of "global warming" change over time
but the belief in it exists soesn't

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Subject Views Written By Posted
More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 1985 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 460 OCaptain 28-Oct-15 23:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 314 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 434 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 311 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 302 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 292 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 00:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 349 laughin 29-Oct-15 16:29
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 345 Starbinder 29-Oct-15 17:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 287 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 18:08
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 254 laughin 29-Oct-15 18:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 269 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:13
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 275 laughin 31-Oct-15 15:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 309 drrayeye 31-Oct-15 16:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 233 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 16:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 247 laughin 31-Oct-15 18:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 19:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 273 laughin 01-Nov-15 03:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 05:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 321 laughin 01-Nov-15 16:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:31
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 236 laughin 30-Oct-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 324 Aine 30-Oct-15 15:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 251 carolb 30-Oct-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 262 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:55
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 283 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 331 Aine 30-Oct-15 17:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 284 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 211 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 18:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 259 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 262 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 268 laughin 29-Oct-15 20:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 259 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 22:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 262 carolb 29-Oct-15 22:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 263 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 00:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 254 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 358 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 257 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 15:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 394 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 231 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 262 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 17:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 337 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 221 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 307 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 263 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 319 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 211 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 21:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 241 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 236 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 233 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 01:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 347 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:38
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 208 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 238 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 03:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 317 carolb 31-Oct-15 12:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 209 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 265 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 16:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 249 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 18:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 273 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 00:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 235 carolb 01-Nov-15 01:00
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 235 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 01:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 288 skakos 03-Nov-15 09:51
Conspiracy... 222 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 314 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:30
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 202 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 12:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 236 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:41
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 179 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 20:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 226 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 12:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 239 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 13:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 265 carolb 01-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 16:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 243 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 281 carolb 01-Nov-15 17:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 214 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 18:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 222 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 21:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 193 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 240 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 19:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 329 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 239 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 19:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 289 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 laughin 30-Oct-15 20:17
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 255 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 20:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 285 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 286 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 21:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 240 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 224 Starbinder 31-Oct-15 01:05
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 231 Starbinder 02-Nov-15 19:40
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 258 carolb 02-Nov-15 21:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 388 carolb 06-Nov-15 15:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 18:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 234 carolb 06-Nov-15 20:10
What about scientism? 255 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 08:19
Re: What about scientism? 255 carolb 07-Nov-15 12:59
Re: What about scientism? 293 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:55
Re: What about scientism? 346 carolb 07-Nov-15 17:37
Re: What about scientism? 265 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 19:55
"Blue sky thinking" 259 randompHactor 07-Nov-15 20:15
Re: What about scientism? 250 carolb 07-Nov-15 20:41
Re: What about scientism? 233 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 23:36
Re: What about scientism? 236 carolb 07-Nov-15 23:45
Re: What about scientism? 274 laughin 09-Nov-15 02:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 368 laughin 30-Oct-15 15:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 334 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 489 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 23:51
SUMMARY? 246 skakos 02-Nov-15 21:33
Mod Note > skakos – Switch View 264 Dr. Troglodyte 02-Nov-15 22:33
Re: SUMMARY? 355 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 23:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 365 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 16:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 342 drrayeye 02-Nov-15 19:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 182 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 300 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 189 drrayeye 03-Nov-15 16:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 231 OCaptain 03-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 226 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 18:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 368 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 202 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 218 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 04:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 244 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 06:18
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:30
Regarding myths... 224 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:46
Re: Regarding myths... 217 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 17:00
Re: off topic... 200 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 20:15
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 294 skakos 04-Nov-15 13:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 240 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 215 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 768 skakos 04-Nov-15 22:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 349 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 01:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 233 skakos 05-Nov-15 14:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 235 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 14:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 331 skakos 05-Nov-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 226 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 19:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 324 Laird Scranton 04-Nov-15 21:23
Cosmic Disconnect 244 laughin 06-Nov-15 15:00
Re: Cosmic Disconnect 202 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 404 skakos 16-Nov-15 12:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 319 OCaptain 16-Nov-15 13:54
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 360 skakos 16-Nov-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 424 OCaptain 17-Nov-15 01:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 355 skakos 18-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 364 Ratcho 18-Nov-15 18:45
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 309 OCaptain 19-Nov-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 388 skakos 19-Nov-15 07:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 527 skakos 27-Dec-15 22:04


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