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OCaptain
And who exactly created them to invalidate Velikovsky?





please see this post

[grahamhancock.com]

[www.aip.org]

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The Discovery of Global Warming June 2011
Venus & Mars

In the 1960s and 1970s, observations of Mars and Venus showed that planets that seemed much like the Earth could have frightfully different atmospheres. The greenhouse effect had made Venus a furnace, while lack of atmosphere had locked Mars in a deep freeze. This was visible evidence that climate can be delicately balanced, so that a planet's atmosphere could flip from a livable state to a deadly one.


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Already back in 1940, Rupert Wildt had made a rough calculation of the greenhouse effect from the large amount of CO2 that others had found in telescope studies of Venus; he predicted the effect could raise the surface temperature above the boiling point of water. But raising it as high as 600°K seemed impossible.(4*) Nobody mounted a serious attack on the problem (after all, very few people were doing any kind of planetary astronomy in those decades). Finally in 1960 a young doctoral student, Carl Sagan, took up the problem and got a solution that made his name known among astronomers. Using what he later recalled as "embarrassingly crude" methods, taking data from tables designed for steam boiler engineering, he confirmed that Venus could indeed be a greenhouse effect furnace.(5) The atmosphere would have to be almost totally opaque, and this "very efficient greenhouse effect" couldn't all be due to CO2. He pointed to absorption of radiation by water vapor as the likely culprit
.


So Carl Sagan was wrong about "Venusian warming"
His starting assumption was that Venus was always where it is


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The discovery that Venus's atmosphere had a composition, and probably a history, very different from Earth's prompted scientists to abandon their old assumption that planetary atmospheres were fixed forever by simple chemistry[/b


What?????? a different history!!
what on Venus could that possibly mean?


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The atmosphere of Venus was filled not only with CO2 but also with an opaque haze. Its nature was unknown, and in the 1960s scientists could only say that the haze was probably caused by some kind of tiny particles.(10) "The clouds on Venus had long been a mystery," as one expert recalled, "in which stratospheric aerosols now appeared to play a key role. The unraveling of the precise role of aerosols in the Venus atmosphere would certainly benefit studies of chemical contamination of Earth's atmosphere." (11*) In the early 1970s, ground-based telescope observations produced extraordinarily precise data on the optical properties of these aerosols, and at last they were identified. The haze was from sulfur compounds.(12*)
The greenhouse effect of the sulfates could be calculated, and by the late 1970s, NASA climate modeler James Hansen stated confidently that the sulfates together with CO2 "are responsible for the basic climatic state on Venus." Hansen had originally become interested in the greenhouse effect when, in response to Sagan's primitive calculations, he tried to derive a better explanation of why the planet's atmosphere was so hot. Now Hansen's findings about sulfate aerosols strengthened his belief that these particles could make a serious difference for the Earth's climate as well. Sulfates were emitted by volcanoes and, increasingly, by human industry, so Venus had things to tell us about climate change at home.(13*) (CO2 was by far the largest factor in warming Venus, and the effect of sulfates would be debated for decades. It turned out that the greenhouse effect of sulfate clouds reflecting heat back to the surface of Venus was outweighed by cooling due to their reflection of incoming sunlight.)

So Hansen was wound up about sulfate aerosols........

Sagan was encouraged by those wanting a different reason for Venus being warm
his explanation was readily accepted, even though it was simplistic and wrong
He became famous for having the wrong but politically correct answer (something to refute Velikovsky)

the how and whys of "global warming" change over time
but the belief in it exists soesn't

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Subject Views Written By Posted
More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 1850 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 416 OCaptain 28-Oct-15 23:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 296 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 399 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 292 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 281 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 262 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 00:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 331 laughin 29-Oct-15 16:29
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 323 Starbinder 29-Oct-15 17:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 267 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 18:08
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 230 laughin 29-Oct-15 18:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 250 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:13
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 253 laughin 31-Oct-15 15:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 280 drrayeye 31-Oct-15 16:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 214 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 16:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 226 laughin 31-Oct-15 18:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 222 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 19:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 243 laughin 01-Nov-15 03:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 255 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 05:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 292 laughin 01-Nov-15 16:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 195 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:31
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 laughin 30-Oct-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 292 Aine 30-Oct-15 15:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 231 carolb 30-Oct-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 244 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:55
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 263 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 304 Aine 30-Oct-15 17:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 254 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 18:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 239 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 249 laughin 29-Oct-15 20:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 240 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 22:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 carolb 29-Oct-15 22:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 235 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 00:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 234 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 327 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 15:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 344 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 17:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 315 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 244 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 294 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 190 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 21:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 224 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 214 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 182 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 01:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 327 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:38
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 184 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 03:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 293 carolb 31-Oct-15 12:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 188 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 246 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 16:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 18:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 197 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 00:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 212 carolb 01-Nov-15 01:00
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 01:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 267 skakos 03-Nov-15 09:51
Conspiracy... 204 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 190 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 286 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:30
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 182 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 208 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 12:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:41
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 160 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 20:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 204 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 12:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 13:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 233 carolb 01-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 211 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 16:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 260 carolb 01-Nov-15 17:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 188 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 18:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 21:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 170 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 211 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 19:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 296 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 19:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 245 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 194 laughin 30-Oct-15 20:17
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 20:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 255 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 262 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 21:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 221 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 198 Starbinder 31-Oct-15 01:05
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 208 Starbinder 02-Nov-15 19:40
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 239 carolb 02-Nov-15 21:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 355 carolb 06-Nov-15 15:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 202 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 18:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 214 carolb 06-Nov-15 20:10
What about scientism? 219 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 08:19
Re: What about scientism? 223 carolb 07-Nov-15 12:59
Re: What about scientism? 250 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:55
Re: What about scientism? 309 carolb 07-Nov-15 17:37
Re: What about scientism? 241 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 19:55
"Blue sky thinking" 231 randompHactor 07-Nov-15 20:15
Re: What about scientism? 227 carolb 07-Nov-15 20:41
Re: What about scientism? 208 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 23:36
Re: What about scientism? 197 carolb 07-Nov-15 23:45
Re: What about scientism? 246 laughin 09-Nov-15 02:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 349 laughin 30-Oct-15 15:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 309 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 443 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 23:51
SUMMARY? 226 skakos 02-Nov-15 21:33
Mod Note > skakos – Switch View 231 Dr. Troglodyte 02-Nov-15 22:33
Re: SUMMARY? 324 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 23:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 332 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 181 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 16:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 297 drrayeye 02-Nov-15 19:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 163 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 277 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 169 drrayeye 03-Nov-15 16:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 200 OCaptain 03-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 195 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 18:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 336 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 170 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 198 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 04:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 212 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 06:18
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 182 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:30
Regarding myths... 204 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:46
Re: Regarding myths... 196 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 17:00
Re: off topic... 182 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 20:15
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 265 skakos 04-Nov-15 13:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 193 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 656 skakos 04-Nov-15 22:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 323 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 01:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 skakos 05-Nov-15 14:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 14:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 301 skakos 05-Nov-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 19:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 283 Laird Scranton 04-Nov-15 21:23
Cosmic Disconnect 211 laughin 06-Nov-15 15:00
Re: Cosmic Disconnect 168 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 375 skakos 16-Nov-15 12:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 298 OCaptain 16-Nov-15 13:54
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 323 skakos 16-Nov-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 392 OCaptain 17-Nov-15 01:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 321 skakos 18-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 343 Ratcho 18-Nov-15 18:45
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 288 OCaptain 19-Nov-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 366 skakos 19-Nov-15 07:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 505 skakos 27-Dec-15 22:04


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