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OCaptain
And who exactly created them to invalidate Velikovsky?





please see this post

[grahamhancock.com]

[www.aip.org]

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The Discovery of Global Warming June 2011
Venus & Mars

In the 1960s and 1970s, observations of Mars and Venus showed that planets that seemed much like the Earth could have frightfully different atmospheres. The greenhouse effect had made Venus a furnace, while lack of atmosphere had locked Mars in a deep freeze. This was visible evidence that climate can be delicately balanced, so that a planet's atmosphere could flip from a livable state to a deadly one.


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Already back in 1940, Rupert Wildt had made a rough calculation of the greenhouse effect from the large amount of CO2 that others had found in telescope studies of Venus; he predicted the effect could raise the surface temperature above the boiling point of water. But raising it as high as 600°K seemed impossible.(4*) Nobody mounted a serious attack on the problem (after all, very few people were doing any kind of planetary astronomy in those decades). Finally in 1960 a young doctoral student, Carl Sagan, took up the problem and got a solution that made his name known among astronomers. Using what he later recalled as "embarrassingly crude" methods, taking data from tables designed for steam boiler engineering, he confirmed that Venus could indeed be a greenhouse effect furnace.(5) The atmosphere would have to be almost totally opaque, and this "very efficient greenhouse effect" couldn't all be due to CO2. He pointed to absorption of radiation by water vapor as the likely culprit
.


So Carl Sagan was wrong about "Venusian warming"
His starting assumption was that Venus was always where it is


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The discovery that Venus's atmosphere had a composition, and probably a history, very different from Earth's prompted scientists to abandon their old assumption that planetary atmospheres were fixed forever by simple chemistry[/b


What?????? a different history!!
what on Venus could that possibly mean?


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The atmosphere of Venus was filled not only with CO2 but also with an opaque haze. Its nature was unknown, and in the 1960s scientists could only say that the haze was probably caused by some kind of tiny particles.(10) "The clouds on Venus had long been a mystery," as one expert recalled, "in which stratospheric aerosols now appeared to play a key role. The unraveling of the precise role of aerosols in the Venus atmosphere would certainly benefit studies of chemical contamination of Earth's atmosphere." (11*) In the early 1970s, ground-based telescope observations produced extraordinarily precise data on the optical properties of these aerosols, and at last they were identified. The haze was from sulfur compounds.(12*)
The greenhouse effect of the sulfates could be calculated, and by the late 1970s, NASA climate modeler James Hansen stated confidently that the sulfates together with CO2 "are responsible for the basic climatic state on Venus." Hansen had originally become interested in the greenhouse effect when, in response to Sagan's primitive calculations, he tried to derive a better explanation of why the planet's atmosphere was so hot. Now Hansen's findings about sulfate aerosols strengthened his belief that these particles could make a serious difference for the Earth's climate as well. Sulfates were emitted by volcanoes and, increasingly, by human industry, so Venus had things to tell us about climate change at home.(13*) (CO2 was by far the largest factor in warming Venus, and the effect of sulfates would be debated for decades. It turned out that the greenhouse effect of sulfate clouds reflecting heat back to the surface of Venus was outweighed by cooling due to their reflection of incoming sunlight.)

So Hansen was wound up about sulfate aerosols........

Sagan was encouraged by those wanting a different reason for Venus being warm
his explanation was readily accepted, even though it was simplistic and wrong
He became famous for having the wrong but politically correct answer (something to refute Velikovsky)

the how and whys of "global warming" change over time
but the belief in it exists soesn't

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Subject Views Written By Posted
More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 1792 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 405 OCaptain 28-Oct-15 23:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 284 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 385 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 281 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 267 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 255 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 00:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 320 laughin 29-Oct-15 16:29
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 311 Starbinder 29-Oct-15 17:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 254 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 18:08
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 laughin 29-Oct-15 18:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:13
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 239 laughin 31-Oct-15 15:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 270 drrayeye 31-Oct-15 16:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 16:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 laughin 31-Oct-15 18:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 19:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 231 laughin 01-Nov-15 03:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 05:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 280 laughin 01-Nov-15 16:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 185 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:31
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 219 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 204 laughin 30-Oct-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 Aine 30-Oct-15 15:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 carolb 30-Oct-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:55
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 247 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 288 Aine 30-Oct-15 17:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 242 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 179 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 18:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 226 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 239 laughin 29-Oct-15 20:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 226 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 22:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 carolb 29-Oct-15 22:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 00:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 224 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 311 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 15:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 332 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 197 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 179 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 17:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 301 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 187 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 180 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 272 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 188 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 233 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 180 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 21:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 204 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 171 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 01:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 311 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:38
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 171 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 198 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 03:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 278 carolb 31-Oct-15 12:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 189 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 178 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 232 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 16:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 18:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 240 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 187 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 00:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 carolb 01-Nov-15 01:00
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 01:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 258 skakos 03-Nov-15 09:51
Conspiracy... 193 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 179 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 270 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:30
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 172 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 181 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 12:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:41
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 150 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 20:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 193 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 185 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 12:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 13:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 221 carolb 01-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 16:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 248 carolb 01-Nov-15 17:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 179 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 18:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 21:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 160 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 19:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 19:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 230 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 182 laughin 30-Oct-15 20:17
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 20:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 241 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 247 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 21:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 187 Starbinder 31-Oct-15 01:05
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 196 Starbinder 02-Nov-15 19:40
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 227 carolb 02-Nov-15 21:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 192 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 343 carolb 06-Nov-15 15:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 18:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 carolb 06-Nov-15 20:10
What about scientism? 206 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 08:19
Re: What about scientism? 213 carolb 07-Nov-15 12:59
Re: What about scientism? 229 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:55
Re: What about scientism? 297 carolb 07-Nov-15 17:37
Re: What about scientism? 227 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 19:55
"Blue sky thinking" 218 randompHactor 07-Nov-15 20:15
Re: What about scientism? 217 carolb 07-Nov-15 20:41
Re: What about scientism? 196 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 23:36
Re: What about scientism? 186 carolb 07-Nov-15 23:45
Re: What about scientism? 234 laughin 09-Nov-15 02:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 330 laughin 30-Oct-15 15:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 293 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 426 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 23:51
SUMMARY? 216 skakos 02-Nov-15 21:33
Mod Note > skakos – Switch View 220 Dr. Troglodyte 02-Nov-15 22:33
Re: SUMMARY? 312 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 23:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 316 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 172 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 16:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 279 drrayeye 02-Nov-15 19:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 151 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 264 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 162 drrayeye 03-Nov-15 16:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 190 OCaptain 03-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 184 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 18:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 320 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 160 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 218 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 185 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 04:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 06:18
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 171 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:30
Regarding myths... 194 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:46
Re: Regarding myths... 186 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 17:00
Re: off topic... 171 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 20:15
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 248 skakos 04-Nov-15 13:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 196 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 181 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 603 skakos 04-Nov-15 22:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 306 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 01:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 skakos 05-Nov-15 14:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 14:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 284 skakos 05-Nov-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 182 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 19:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 265 Laird Scranton 04-Nov-15 21:23
Cosmic Disconnect 203 laughin 06-Nov-15 15:00
Re: Cosmic Disconnect 159 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 359 skakos 16-Nov-15 12:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 286 OCaptain 16-Nov-15 13:54
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 310 skakos 16-Nov-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 376 OCaptain 17-Nov-15 01:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 303 skakos 18-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 322 Ratcho 18-Nov-15 18:45
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 282 OCaptain 19-Nov-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 346 skakos 19-Nov-15 07:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 489 skakos 27-Dec-15 22:04


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