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OCaptain
And who exactly created them to invalidate Velikovsky?





please see this post

[grahamhancock.com]

[www.aip.org]

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The Discovery of Global Warming June 2011
Venus & Mars

In the 1960s and 1970s, observations of Mars and Venus showed that planets that seemed much like the Earth could have frightfully different atmospheres. The greenhouse effect had made Venus a furnace, while lack of atmosphere had locked Mars in a deep freeze. This was visible evidence that climate can be delicately balanced, so that a planet's atmosphere could flip from a livable state to a deadly one.


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Already back in 1940, Rupert Wildt had made a rough calculation of the greenhouse effect from the large amount of CO2 that others had found in telescope studies of Venus; he predicted the effect could raise the surface temperature above the boiling point of water. But raising it as high as 600°K seemed impossible.(4*) Nobody mounted a serious attack on the problem (after all, very few people were doing any kind of planetary astronomy in those decades). Finally in 1960 a young doctoral student, Carl Sagan, took up the problem and got a solution that made his name known among astronomers. Using what he later recalled as "embarrassingly crude" methods, taking data from tables designed for steam boiler engineering, he confirmed that Venus could indeed be a greenhouse effect furnace.(5) The atmosphere would have to be almost totally opaque, and this "very efficient greenhouse effect" couldn't all be due to CO2. He pointed to absorption of radiation by water vapor as the likely culprit
.


So Carl Sagan was wrong about "Venusian warming"
His starting assumption was that Venus was always where it is


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The discovery that Venus's atmosphere had a composition, and probably a history, very different from Earth's prompted scientists to abandon their old assumption that planetary atmospheres were fixed forever by simple chemistry[/b


What?????? a different history!!
what on Venus could that possibly mean?


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The atmosphere of Venus was filled not only with CO2 but also with an opaque haze. Its nature was unknown, and in the 1960s scientists could only say that the haze was probably caused by some kind of tiny particles.(10) "The clouds on Venus had long been a mystery," as one expert recalled, "in which stratospheric aerosols now appeared to play a key role. The unraveling of the precise role of aerosols in the Venus atmosphere would certainly benefit studies of chemical contamination of Earth's atmosphere." (11*) In the early 1970s, ground-based telescope observations produced extraordinarily precise data on the optical properties of these aerosols, and at last they were identified. The haze was from sulfur compounds.(12*)
The greenhouse effect of the sulfates could be calculated, and by the late 1970s, NASA climate modeler James Hansen stated confidently that the sulfates together with CO2 "are responsible for the basic climatic state on Venus." Hansen had originally become interested in the greenhouse effect when, in response to Sagan's primitive calculations, he tried to derive a better explanation of why the planet's atmosphere was so hot. Now Hansen's findings about sulfate aerosols strengthened his belief that these particles could make a serious difference for the Earth's climate as well. Sulfates were emitted by volcanoes and, increasingly, by human industry, so Venus had things to tell us about climate change at home.(13*) (CO2 was by far the largest factor in warming Venus, and the effect of sulfates would be debated for decades. It turned out that the greenhouse effect of sulfate clouds reflecting heat back to the surface of Venus was outweighed by cooling due to their reflection of incoming sunlight.)

So Hansen was wound up about sulfate aerosols........

Sagan was encouraged by those wanting a different reason for Venus being warm
his explanation was readily accepted, even though it was simplistic and wrong
He became famous for having the wrong but politically correct answer (something to refute Velikovsky)

the how and whys of "global warming" change over time
but the belief in it exists soesn't

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Subject Views Written By Posted
More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 1898 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 428 OCaptain 28-Oct-15 23:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 300 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 411 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 298 Laird Scranton 28-Oct-15 23:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 288 carolb 28-Oct-15 23:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 268 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 00:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 336 laughin 29-Oct-15 16:29
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 329 Starbinder 29-Oct-15 17:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 272 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 18:08
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 235 laughin 29-Oct-15 18:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 256 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:13
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 259 laughin 31-Oct-15 15:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 288 drrayeye 31-Oct-15 16:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 218 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 16:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 234 laughin 31-Oct-15 18:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 19:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 248 laughin 01-Nov-15 03:12
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 264 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 05:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 303 laughin 01-Nov-15 16:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:31
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 238 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 220 laughin 30-Oct-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 298 Aine 30-Oct-15 15:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 carolb 30-Oct-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 249 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:55
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 267 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 315 Aine 30-Oct-15 17:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 259 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 196 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 18:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 244 laughin 30-Oct-15 18:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 235 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 253 laughin 29-Oct-15 20:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 245 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 22:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 234 carolb 29-Oct-15 22:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 245 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 00:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 239 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 334 Aine 30-Oct-15 14:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 237 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 15:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 351 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 16:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 236 carolb 30-Oct-15 16:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 17:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 321 carolb 30-Oct-15 17:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 196 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:37
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 288 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:06
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 249 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 302 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 195 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 21:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 228 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 220 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 218 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 187 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 01:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 333 carolb 31-Oct-15 01:38
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 191 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 03:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 299 carolb 31-Oct-15 12:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 194 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:47
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 252 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 16:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 18:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 257 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:48
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 00:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 220 carolb 01-Nov-15 01:00
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 222 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 01:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 274 skakos 03-Nov-15 09:51
Conspiracy... 210 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:19
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 197 OCaptain 30-Oct-15 20:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 292 Laird Scranton 30-Oct-15 20:30
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 187 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 00:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 214 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 02:04
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 198 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 12:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 210 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 15:41
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 165 OCaptain 31-Oct-15 20:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 211 Laird Scranton 31-Oct-15 21:26
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 12:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 13:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 238 carolb 01-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 217 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 16:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 224 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:56
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 265 carolb 01-Nov-15 17:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 195 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 18:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 205 drrayeye 01-Nov-15 21:57
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 177 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 16:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 OCaptain 01-Nov-15 19:35
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 302 Laird Scranton 01-Nov-15 20:34
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 223 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 19:27
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 254 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:01
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 199 laughin 30-Oct-15 20:17
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 229 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 20:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 260 carolb 30-Oct-15 20:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 270 Starbinder 30-Oct-15 21:14
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 226 carolb 30-Oct-15 23:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 Starbinder 31-Oct-15 01:05
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 213 Starbinder 02-Nov-15 19:40
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 244 carolb 02-Nov-15 21:21
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 214 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 14:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 359 carolb 06-Nov-15 15:16
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 207 Starbinder 06-Nov-15 18:50
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 220 carolb 06-Nov-15 20:10
What about scientism? 227 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 08:19
Re: What about scientism? 230 carolb 07-Nov-15 12:59
Re: What about scientism? 263 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:55
Re: What about scientism? 316 carolb 07-Nov-15 17:37
Re: What about scientism? 248 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 19:55
"Blue sky thinking" 244 randompHactor 07-Nov-15 20:15
Re: What about scientism? 234 carolb 07-Nov-15 20:41
Re: What about scientism? 215 drrayeye 07-Nov-15 23:36
Re: What about scientism? 206 carolb 07-Nov-15 23:45
Re: What about scientism? 250 laughin 09-Nov-15 02:51
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 353 laughin 30-Oct-15 15:03
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 320 OCaptain 29-Oct-15 23:20
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 460 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 23:51
SUMMARY? 232 skakos 02-Nov-15 21:33
Mod Note > skakos – Switch View 237 Dr. Troglodyte 02-Nov-15 22:33
Re: SUMMARY? 331 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 23:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 339 Laird Scranton 29-Oct-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 187 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 16:53
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 318 drrayeye 02-Nov-15 19:52
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 169 Laird Scranton 02-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 285 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:44
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 176 drrayeye 03-Nov-15 16:09
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 206 OCaptain 03-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 18:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 354 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 177 laughin 03-Nov-15 19:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 235 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 21:02
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 203 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 04:58
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 218 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 06:18
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 189 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 14:30
Regarding myths... 210 skakos 03-Nov-15 11:46
Re: Regarding myths... 201 Laird Scranton 03-Nov-15 17:00
Re: off topic... 185 Ratcho 03-Nov-15 20:15
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 269 skakos 04-Nov-15 13:28
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 216 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:07
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 201 skakos 04-Nov-15 15:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 697 skakos 04-Nov-15 22:22
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 334 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 01:11
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 209 skakos 05-Nov-15 14:10
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 209 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 14:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 307 skakos 05-Nov-15 19:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 197 Laird Scranton 05-Nov-15 19:42
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 298 Laird Scranton 04-Nov-15 21:23
Cosmic Disconnect 216 laughin 06-Nov-15 15:00
Re: Cosmic Disconnect 173 OCaptain 07-Nov-15 13:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 389 skakos 16-Nov-15 12:46
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 303 OCaptain 16-Nov-15 13:54
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 332 skakos 16-Nov-15 15:36
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 400 OCaptain 17-Nov-15 01:23
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 328 skakos 18-Nov-15 18:32
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 349 Ratcho 18-Nov-15 18:45
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 292 OCaptain 19-Nov-15 00:49
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 372 skakos 19-Nov-15 07:24
Re: More comet evidence in support of Velikovsky 511 skakos 27-Dec-15 22:04


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