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Lee McGiffen Wrote:
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H. L.. Roeten argued that the entrance passages of the pyramids of the 3rd and 4th dynasties pointed to Thuban at the time of their construction.

Roeten supplied the angle of 3rd and fourth dynasty pyramid entrance passages, but did not provide any other information, such as the position of the pole star in relation to the latitude at which each pyramid was built; nor did he indicate whether the upper or lower culmination was involved; nor did he examine the geometry of each entrance passage; nor did he account for the fact that both the Bent Pyramid and the Pyramid of Khafre each have two entrance passages.

Indeed, of the Bent Pyramid's two entrance passages, although one points north, the other points west, to a nondescript part of the western sky. It is unlikely the western entrance had an astronomical meaning, unless its purpose was to imitate the northern entrance passage.

We should also note that, while both of the Pyramid of Khafre's entrance passages point north, each has a different angle, the upper passage 25° 55', (17:35, close to a 1:2 slope) and the lower passage being 21° 40’, a 2:5 slope.

Then, with the pyramid of Djedefre, authorities give two different angles. Vallogia, and Helck and Otto, give an angle of 26°, which corresponds to a 1:2 slope, while Stadelmann, Lehner, Edwards, and Badawy all giving 22° 35', which corresponds to a slope of 5:12, which could well be based on the 5:12:13 Pythagorean Triple.

The latter interpretation is supported by the observation that the Red Pyramid's entrance passage is 27° 56', corresponding to an 8:15 slope, which is arguably based on the 8:15:17 Pythagorean Triple. The Pyramid of Meidum's entrance passage, according to Edwards, is 28° (Edwards), probably intended to be the same as the Red Pyramid's entrance passage.

So here in Djedefre's, Meidum's and the Red Pyramid's entrance passages, geometrical interpretations are strongly supported, especially interpretations with a Pythagorean leaning.

Now we come to the Descending Passage of Khufu's Pyramid. This was said (Smyth; Lockyer; Proctor) to point to Thuban, albeit in 2800 BCE, yet its slope of 26° 34' corresponds to the simple ratio of 1:2. This argues strongly for a geometrical over an astronomical interpretation for this passage.

Now it would be fair to say that at least some consideration should be given to a stellar interpretation, given that the builders went out of their way to have these entrance passages pointing to the northern meridian, and there can be little doubt that they point to the circumpolar region at least. But given the obvious geometric nature of several of these shafts, it would be fair to say that the later pyramids simply followed the example of earlier pyramids, thus at least giving a "tip of the hat" to the circumpolar or pole star orientation of earlier passages, while at the same time adopting a more geometric meaning.

The same may be said of Khufu's shafts. These are called "model corridors" by Stadelmann (also Lehner), because they share the same function, supposedly, as the Descending Passage, namely, to point to the cicumpolar stars, and in the case of the KCN shaft, towards the pole star Thuban. But here there is a problem. Both the Descending Passage and the KCN shaft point to Thuban, and although they point to the upper and lower culminations of Thuban (and leaving aside the question as to why they incorporate both culminations instead of sticking with the lower culmination), a bigger problem arises with the observation that the dates for these culimations are hundreds of years apart.

Something has to give.

References:

Butler, Haydn R., Egyptian Pyramid Geometry, Benben Publications: Mississauga, Ontario, 1998.

Edwards, I.E.S., The Pyramids of Egypt, Penguin Books: London, 1993.

Roeten, L. H., "Some remarks about the development of the pyramids of the 3rd and 4th dynasty and the initial orientation of the pyramid complex of Meidum. Part II," Göttinger Miszellen, vol. 236, 2013.
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I am not sure how I missed this excellent post. A very belated thank you for the effort.



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 10-Jan-20 00:42 by Thanos5150.

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Subject Views Written By Posted
Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 2145 Thanos5150 19-Oct-14 01:05
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 607 Thunderbird 19-Oct-14 02:08
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 496 Audrey 19-Oct-14 03:58
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 501 Thanos5150 19-Oct-14 05:32
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 486 Audrey 19-Oct-14 08:43
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 450 Spiros 19-Oct-14 19:05
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 488 Audrey 20-Oct-14 02:13
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 457 Spiros 23-Oct-14 04:07
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 480 Thanos5150 19-Oct-14 19:50
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 460 Audrey 19-Oct-14 21:50
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 506 Thanos5150 20-Oct-14 01:46
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 420 Audrey 20-Oct-14 03:14
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 560 Thanos5150 20-Oct-14 04:34
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 970 Thanos5150 20-Oct-14 06:03
The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 396 DScribr 18-Nov-16 21:42
Re: The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 318 Thanos5150 19-Nov-16 17:09
Re: The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 370 Warwick 19-Nov-16 19:27
Re: The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 360 Thanos5150 19-Nov-16 23:23
Earliest known serekh? 355 DScribr 20-Nov-16 01:17
Re: Earliest known serekh? 275 Thanos5150 20-Nov-16 02:58
Re: Earliest known serekh? 464 DScribr 20-Nov-16 16:58
Re: The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 292 Warwick 20-Nov-16 06:17
Re: The Key 294 DScribr 19-Nov-16 19:35
Re: The Key 314 Thanos5150 19-Nov-16 22:57
Re: The Key 280 DScribr 20-Nov-16 01:20
P.S. three-in-one 288 DScribr 20-Nov-16 01:30
Re: P.S. three-in-one 314 Thanos5150 20-Nov-16 02:06
Re: The Key 327 Thanos5150 19-Nov-16 23:46
Re: The Key 293 DScribr 20-Nov-16 01:26
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 490 Audrey 21-Oct-14 03:13
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 953 Thanos5150 21-Oct-14 21:03
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 471 Audrey 22-Oct-14 04:33
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 519 Thanos5150 22-Oct-14 21:55
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 406 Audrey 23-Oct-14 06:19
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 479 Thanos5150 24-Oct-14 04:24
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 443 Audrey 25-Oct-14 00:53
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 394 Thanos5150 27-Oct-14 04:41
Viewing Stars By Day! 342 DScribr 19-Nov-16 02:36
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 501 Graham Chase 19-Oct-14 10:24
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 505 shiningfromwithin 19-Oct-14 21:12
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 496 Thanos5150 20-Oct-14 02:09
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 472 Graham Chase 20-Oct-14 10:51
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 475 Thanos5150 20-Oct-14 17:08
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 420 Graham Chase 20-Oct-14 19:07
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 467 Thanos5150 20-Oct-14 19:28
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 459 Graham Chase 20-Oct-14 20:35
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 435 Audrey 21-Oct-14 03:25
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 465 Graham Chase 21-Oct-14 08:30
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 288 Lee McGiffen 20-Nov-16 06:53
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 408 drew 22-Oct-14 00:01
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 552 Thanos5150 22-Oct-14 16:49
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 471 drew 22-Oct-14 22:10
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 392 Thanos5150 23-Oct-14 00:11
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 413 drew 23-Oct-14 07:46
"Black Genesis" 449 David L 22-Oct-14 17:11
Re: "Black Genesis" 383 Graham Chase 22-Oct-14 17:22
Re: "Black Genesis" 426 Graham Chase 22-Oct-14 17:55
Re: "Black Genesis" 428 David L 23-Oct-14 12:11
Re: "Black Genesis" 468 Spiros 23-Oct-14 15:58
Re: "Black Genesis" 390 Audrey 24-Oct-14 00:37
Re: "Black Genesis" 576 Spiros 24-Oct-14 04:14
Re: "Black Genesis" 493 Audrey 24-Oct-14 17:33
inscription 508 Spiros 25-Oct-14 20:46
Re: inscription 430 Audrey 26-Oct-14 01:40
Re: inscription 406 Spiros 27-Oct-14 04:00
the shafts - Amphipolis tomb 399 Spiros 23-Oct-14 17:19
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 588 Audrey 24-Oct-14 02:18
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 641 Thanos5150 21-Jun-16 02:43
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 334 Manu 20-Nov-16 00:20
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 269 Thanos5150 20-Nov-16 05:53
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 355 Manu 20-Nov-16 07:14
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 341 Lee McGiffen 20-Nov-16 06:05
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 439 Manu 20-Nov-16 07:53
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 43 Thanos5150 10-Jan-20 00:41
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 89 Thanos5150 09-Jan-20 02:46
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 56 engbren 09-Jan-20 08:01
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 48 Thanos5150 09-Jan-20 16:59
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 35 engbren 09-Jan-20 21:52
Path of the Pole 73 hendrik dirker 10-Jan-20 04:22
Re: Thuban and the Descending Passages-The Key to Dating the Pyramids? 41 drew 10-Jan-20 00:00
the problem 72 Spiros 11-Jan-20 15:31


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