H. L.. Roeten argued that the entrance passages of the pyramids of the 3rd and 4th dynasties pointed to Thuban at the time of their construction.
Roeten supplied the angle of 3rd and fourth dynasty pyramid entrance passages, but did not provide any other information, such as the position of the pole star in relation to the latitude at which each pyramid was built; nor did he indicate whether the upper or lower culmination was involved; nor did he examine the geometry of each entrance passage; nor did he account for the fact that both the Bent Pyramid and the Pyramid of Khafre each have two entrance passages.
Indeed, of the Bent Pyramid's two entrance passages, although one points north, the other points west, to a nondescript part of the western sky. It is unlikely the western entrance had an astronomical meaning, unless its purpose was to imitate the northern entrance passage.
We should also note that, while both of the Pyramid of Khafre's entrance passages point north, each has a different angle, the upper passage 25° 55', (17:35, close to a 1:2 slope) and the lower passage being 21° 40’, a 2:5 slope.
Then, with the pyramid of Djedefre, authorities give two different angles. Vallogia, and Helck and Otto, give an angle of 26°, which corresponds to a 1:2 slope, while Stadelmann, Lehner, Edwards, and Badawy all giving 22° 35', which corresponds to a slope of 5:12, which could well be based on the 5:12:13 Pythagorean Triple.
The latter interpretation is supported by the observation that the Red Pyramid's entrance passage is 27° 56', corresponding to an 8:15 slope, which is arguably based on the 8:15:17 Pythagorean Triple. The Pyramid of Meidum's entrance passage, according to Edwards, is 28° (Edwards), probably intended to be the same as the Red Pyramid's entrance passage.
So here in Djedefre's, Meidum's and the Red Pyramid's entrance passages, geometrical interpretations are strongly supported, especially interpretations with a Pythagorean leaning.
Now we come to the Descending Passage of Khufu's Pyramid. This was said (Smyth; Lockyer; Proctor) to point to Thuban, albeit in 2800 BCE, yet its slope of 26° 34' corresponds to the simple ratio of 1:2. This argues strongly for a geometrical over an astronomical interpretation for this passage.
Now it would be fair to say that at least some consideration should be given to a stellar interpretation, given that the builders went out of their way to have these entrance passages pointing to the northern meridian, and there can be little doubt that they point to the circumpolar region at least. But given the obvious geometric nature of several of these shafts, it would be fair to say that the later pyramids simply followed the example of earlier pyramids, thus at least giving a "tip of the hat" to the circumpolar or pole star orientation of earlier passages, while at the same time adopting a more geometric meaning.
The same may be said of Khufu's shafts. These are called "model corridors" by Stadelmann (also Lehner), because they share the same function, supposedly, as the Descending Passage, namely, to point to the cicumpolar stars, and in the case of the KCN shaft, towards the pole star Thuban. But here there is a problem. Both the Descending Passage and the KCN shaft point to Thuban, and although they point to the upper and lower culminations of Thuban (and leaving aside the question as to why they incorporate both culminations instead of sticking with the lower culmination), a bigger problem arises with the observation that the dates for these culimations are hundreds of years apart.
Something has to give.
Butler, Haydn R., Egyptian Pyramid Geometry, Benben Publications: Mississauga, Ontario, 1998.
Edwards, I.E.S., The Pyramids of Egypt, Penguin Books: London, 1993.
Roeten, L. H., "Some remarks about the development of the pyramids of the 3rd and 4th dynasty and the initial orientation of the pyramid complex of Meidum. Part II," Göttinger Miszellen, vol. 236, 2013.
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Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 10-Jan-20 00:42 by Thanos5150.