. . . and here's something to begin the new year . . .
The Great Pyramid and the "Cosmic Angles" of Freemasonry based on Ancient Astronomical Observations - a Major New Discovery.
"It is also manifest that the technical terms of ancient science varies but slightly all over the globe.
The circle was divided into 360 degrees for convenience of measurements, the properties of the 'Pi proportion' applied to the squaring of the circle, the law of the square of the hypotheneuse, the number of days between solstices, the geometry of the solar system, the cycles of the planets [Don Barone will especially like the last two] and the phenomena of terrestrial motion are not inventions of man which can be one thing in one place and another elsewhere.
"The third and fourth chapters of Prescott's immortal 'Conquest of Mexico' tell precisely what the Spaniards found in this respect upon their arrival in America, so that it is not proposing an at all wild or improbable hypothesis to assume that as these same facts were at the root of the religious mysteries of the whole ancient Eastern world they performed a precisely similar role on the American continent. Freemasonry has preserved the assurance in its ritual and symbolism, that this is the case through long ages of persecution and tyranny which have conspired to suppress all popular knowledge of the fact.
"The evidences of a community of crude scientific knowledge between the widely separated ancient races of Asia, Europe and America, and with particular reference to the latter, its distribution over our own continent, from the great lakes of the North to the Andes in the South, are bound up in the existence everywhere, over the entire enormous expanse, of graven and sculptured objects, ranging all the way, from tiny amulets and so-called 'ceremonial stones' to monoliths, elaborately carved 'idols' and gorgeous temples designed uniquely to set forth the principal cosmic figures and angles of astronomical observation.
"These may be briefly enumerated as the angles of 23½ degrees, that of the inclination of the earth's axis to the pole of the ecliptic and of the equator to the plane of the ecliptic 47 degrees, or double the foregoing, which apprises their knowledge of the circumpolar motion; the precession of the equinoxes, the earth's orbit, equinoxes and solstices; the angles of 66½ degrees and 11¾ degrees, which relate to the crossing of the plane of the ecliptic by the earth's axis and that of the equator by the pole of the ecliptic.
These are the angles which are so closely bound up with the cosmic expression of the divine name of Jehovah, but closely associated with them are various triangles and oblong figures, such as the triangle of Pythagoras (3 - 4 - 5) and its derivations, the 3 - 4 -3 triangle, which gives us the side of a square and the radius of a circle equal circumference thereto, this latter being the vertical axis of the great Pyramid of Cheops, at Gizeh, Egypt." (My Italics).
Source: Ancient Freemasonry: An Introduction to Masonic Archaeology. Frank C. Higgins. (Kessinger Publishing. Originally published in 1919). p. 72 - 73.
This quote which I stumbled across only a month ago, written by a 32nd-degree Mason who published this in 1919 and whose work was respected and revered by many - especially his own brethren - is highly significant and could change everything we know and think we know about the Great Pyramid of Giza.
Although Higgins writes about these geophysical-related angles and the knowledge they convey, which are very ancient - all being proportionally designed into various objects (keystones), and art, stone amulets, trinkets and other artefacts found from all over the globe - also large structures and temples, including the Great Pyramid of Giza . . . Higgins didn't know how, or if he did, he didn't say how these angles were encoded within the Great Pyramid or where they might be found within its geometry.
It would appear then that Higgins' archaeological finds and observations and in regard to the Great Pyramid of Giza which he cites as one source, have been verified by my discoveries made between 2001 and 2002, and so in turn my discoveries have been verified and substantiated.
As some may know, I have found the angles of 11.75° (2 x 11.75° = 23.5°) . . . 23.5° . . . and 47° (double 23.5°) . . . within the geometry of the Great Pyramid. In addition I have also found the angle of 6.5° - an angle quoted by Higgins in his book but not in this context, but which is geodetically related to the GP's own location on the earth and in respect of the ecliptic. These new findings and more will be presented in a new book I have co-authored with Scott Creighton.
So the above quote is profound in respect of what Scott and I have discovered and changes everything.
This discovery can no longer be considered "a mere flight of fanciful imagination", "apophenia" on my part, or a mere "coincidence" . . . "an extraordinary one, but a coincidence all the same" as some have viewed or expressed it.
Again, Higgins had already stated that these same angles had been encoded within many different ancient sources, and that the 360-degree system was in use thousands of years ago, and so what Scott and I have discovered again backs up Higgins statement and vice-versa.
The keystones Higgins found with the lateral side angles of 11.75° (again, 2 x 11.75° = 23.5°) are said to be around six to 7 thousand years old according to Higgins whose work in the archaeological field revealed the source-origins of Masonic knowledge and was respected by his fellow Masons.
He found keystone-shaped amulets - also as ancient - referencing the angle of 47 degrees; also an ancient geometrical formula based only on a perfect circle and two perfect squares and from which the obliquity angle of the earth's axis of 23.5° and the 51.5-degree side angles of the Great Pyramid can be derived and which has been preserved in the Masonic Apron . . . and has showed all these angles in ancient Greek and Mesopotamian art – revealing that the ancients of Egypt, Chaldea and India must have known about the Precession of the Equinoxes long before the Greek astronomer and mathematician Hipparchus - whom it is said was the first person to discover Precession between 146 and 130 BC.
The conclusions which Higgins expressed back in 1919 regarding his own archaeological findings, both supports and confirms my own discovery of these geophysical or GP-geodetic-related angles in the Great Pyramid and also reveals 'intent' on behalf of the architects (as part of an ancient, global tradition) who encoded these 360-degree-related angles associated with the geophysics of the earth, and within the Great Pyramid's E/W cross-section angle geometry.
That the architects used the 360-degree system is given in the fact that the 360-degree values we give to these angles today is reflected in the same values regarding the number of Course Layers or Levels from the base of the pyramid to the floor of each of the Great Pyramid's internal chambers as discovered by Scott Creighton and myself.
I also discovered that the angles of 23.5* and 26.5* connect the two chambers together and that these angles along with the location of the King's Chamber and the Queen's Chamber conform to the ancient 'Geometric Formula' on which the architects had based the Great Pyramid and now preserved and concealed within the Masonic Apron and other sources including the architecture of Gothic Cathedrals.
There are 23½ Course Layers to the floor of the Queen's Chamber and 50 Course Layers from the base to the King's Chamber, with 26½ Course Layers between the floors of each chamber . . . 23½ + 26½ = 50.
According to Professor G. J. Toomer, the 360-degree system was most likely based on the approximate number of days in a year, which today numbers 365¼.
The logic for this theory is that ancient astronomers noticed that the stars in the sky, which circle the celestial pole, were advancing by approximately one–360th of a circle each day.
Some ancient calendars – for example, the Persian calendar – included only 360 days for the year, which may be related to the use of the sexagesimal numeral system based on the number 60 as used by the ancient Babylonians and Sumerians.
The division of the circle into 360 degrees is also found in ancient India, as evidenced in the Rigveda, one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language which dates back to sometime between 1,700 and 1,100 BC.
But again, the fact that the angle values that have been discovered and so ‘prophetically’ commented on by Higgins as being integrally embedded and 'intrinsically' evident in the geometrical architecture of many ancient temples and structures (including the Great Pyramid) and again this also means later Gothic architecture - angles which are also reflected in the same number of course layers in the Great Pyramid - is evidence that the architects knew about, and used the 360-degree measuring system, which may be far older than realised.
1. See: Professor G. J. Toomer. “Hipparchus and Babylonian Astronomy” in A Scientific Humanist: Studies in Memory of Abraham Sachs, edited by Erle Leichty, Maria deJ. Ellis, and Pamela Gerardi, 353-365. Occasional Publications of the Samuel Noah Kramer Fund 9. Philadelphia 1988.