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Hi Derek and all

The pyramidion is an interesting subject. Here are some thoughts.

The Capstone of the Great Pyramid

Every small progression led to something new, and so the question of a capstone came up. The exact height of the Great Pyramid has been a matter for debate, and there has been speculation about whether or not the pyramid was capped with a capstone (pyramidion). Many capstones were placed atop pyramids and obelisks and some were covered in precious metal and so shone brightly in the sun.

In the Cairo museum there is a selection of capstones, although much smaller than that required for the Great Pyramid.

The height of the Great Pyramid is difficult to measure exactly as many stones are now missing from the top, and there is also some confusion about whether it was completed with a capstone at all.

J.P. Lepre, the author of The Egyptian Pyramids, a comprehensive illustrated reference, says ‘there is much controversy as to whether the edifices pyramidion or capstone was ever set in place; some authors point out that the triangulation of the monument itself was flawed and therefore could not properly receive the precast capstone, while others argue that the crowning pyramidion was blemished or fractured, and was never set into place, because it was rejected by the builders.’

Agatharchides of Cnidus, a Greek historian and geographer, who lived in the time of Ptolemy VI Philometor and his successors, reported that the base of the Pyramid of Cheops corresponded to 1/8th minute of one degree and the apothem to 1/10th of a minute of one degree. He also reported that the pyramid was topped by a pyramidion, or capstone, of four cubits, which could be included in a calculation, or excluded, depending on the problem to be resolved. I think Agatharchides was using the 12.1 inch foot in his description giving 750 feet for the base and so 4 cubits equates to 6 feet. Now please dont anyone get excited as this is only my opinion and may be incorrect.

Agatharchides also wrote a report about the dimensions of the Great Pyramid and the interesting feature here is that he excluded the pyramidion from the reckoning.

The Celestial Equator

Knowing that the perimeter of the Great Pyramid equals 30 seconds of latitude at the equator, I wondered if the height of the pyramid equated to the celestial equator - the imaginary line which circles the Earth and allows astronomers to plot the position of the stars.

The celestial equator is a great circle lying on the celestial sphere, an imaginary sphere of infinitely large radius enclosing the universe so that all celestial bodies appear to be projected onto its surface. On this are the celestial poles at either of the two points at which the earth’s axis, extended to infinity, would intersect the celestial sphere. Celestial latitude is the angular distance of a celestial body north or south from the ecliptic; celestial longitude is the angular distance measured eastwards from the vernal equinox to the intersection of the ecliptic with the great circle passing through a celestial body and the poles of the ecliptic.

The coincidence I was looking at here depended on Agatharchides being correct and the Great Pyramid’s capstone being 4 cubits in height. If so then the height of the pyramid to the base of the capstone may very well be 432 Saxon feet (13.2 ins).

The celestial equator is 360 degrees in circumference as is the equator surrounding Earth. 360 degrees = 21,600 minutes = 43,200 half minutes, just as on Earth.

As shown earlier the perimeter of the base of the Great Pyramid is equal to one half minute of latitude at the equator.

AND THE NUMBER 432 SENDS A POWERFUL MESSAGE.

Best wishes

Jim Wakefield

The pyramidion is an interesting subject. Here are some thoughts.

The Capstone of the Great Pyramid

Every small progression led to something new, and so the question of a capstone came up. The exact height of the Great Pyramid has been a matter for debate, and there has been speculation about whether or not the pyramid was capped with a capstone (pyramidion). Many capstones were placed atop pyramids and obelisks and some were covered in precious metal and so shone brightly in the sun.

In the Cairo museum there is a selection of capstones, although much smaller than that required for the Great Pyramid.

The height of the Great Pyramid is difficult to measure exactly as many stones are now missing from the top, and there is also some confusion about whether it was completed with a capstone at all.

J.P. Lepre, the author of The Egyptian Pyramids, a comprehensive illustrated reference, says ‘there is much controversy as to whether the edifices pyramidion or capstone was ever set in place; some authors point out that the triangulation of the monument itself was flawed and therefore could not properly receive the precast capstone, while others argue that the crowning pyramidion was blemished or fractured, and was never set into place, because it was rejected by the builders.’

Agatharchides of Cnidus, a Greek historian and geographer, who lived in the time of Ptolemy VI Philometor and his successors, reported that the base of the Pyramid of Cheops corresponded to 1/8th minute of one degree and the apothem to 1/10th of a minute of one degree. He also reported that the pyramid was topped by a pyramidion, or capstone, of four cubits, which could be included in a calculation, or excluded, depending on the problem to be resolved. I think Agatharchides was using the 12.1 inch foot in his description giving 750 feet for the base and so 4 cubits equates to 6 feet. Now please dont anyone get excited as this is only my opinion and may be incorrect.

Agatharchides also wrote a report about the dimensions of the Great Pyramid and the interesting feature here is that he excluded the pyramidion from the reckoning.

The Celestial Equator

Knowing that the perimeter of the Great Pyramid equals 30 seconds of latitude at the equator, I wondered if the height of the pyramid equated to the celestial equator - the imaginary line which circles the Earth and allows astronomers to plot the position of the stars.

The celestial equator is a great circle lying on the celestial sphere, an imaginary sphere of infinitely large radius enclosing the universe so that all celestial bodies appear to be projected onto its surface. On this are the celestial poles at either of the two points at which the earth’s axis, extended to infinity, would intersect the celestial sphere. Celestial latitude is the angular distance of a celestial body north or south from the ecliptic; celestial longitude is the angular distance measured eastwards from the vernal equinox to the intersection of the ecliptic with the great circle passing through a celestial body and the poles of the ecliptic.

The coincidence I was looking at here depended on Agatharchides being correct and the Great Pyramid’s capstone being 4 cubits in height. If so then the height of the pyramid to the base of the capstone may very well be 432 Saxon feet (13.2 ins).

The celestial equator is 360 degrees in circumference as is the equator surrounding Earth. 360 degrees = 21,600 minutes = 43,200 half minutes, just as on Earth.

As shown earlier the perimeter of the base of the Great Pyramid is equal to one half minute of latitude at the equator.

AND THE NUMBER 432 SENDS A POWERFUL MESSAGE.

Best wishes

Jim Wakefield