"The debris Venus allegedly deposited in Earth's atmosphere causing
40 years of darkness after the Exodus left no trace in the world's ice
caps or ocean bottoms, [See "Ice Cores", Kronos X:1, 1984, 97-102, or
Appendix D at end of [abob.libs.uga.edu].]
a test ignored by Rose [and an example of negative evidence with which
Velikovskians do not have a good track record of dealing. N.B.: The
"Worzel Ash" touted by Velikovsky and his epigoni is known to be
volcanic (to the exclusion of any other source) from eruptions in Central
America, limited in extent (i.e., not global), and far older than 3500
years; see "The Worzel Ash," Kronos X:1, 1984, 92-94 or section
"The 'Worzel' Ash" in Mewhinney's "Minds in Ablation". (12-III-99) .]"
Note "Minds in Ablation Part Seven: Dust" is at:
The extent of the "Worzel Ash" of Worzel (1959) and as
discussed by Ewing et al. (1959) and Anders and Limber (1959)
is now known to have been vastly overestimated. Detailed
research published by Bowels et al. (1973), Drexler et al.
(1980), Ledbetter (1984, 1985), and Ledbetter and Sparks
(1979), which included trace element analysis and dating by
biostratigraphy, oxygen isotope stratigraphy, and radiometric
methods not performed by Worzel (1959), show that what he
mapped as the "Worzel Ash" actually consists of a number of
different beds of volcanic ash that vary greatly in age. They
found that the "Worzel Ash" was not a single global ash bed.
From the trace and minor element analysis of 128 volcanic
ash samples from 56 cores, Bowles et al. (1973) concluded that
the unit, which Worzel (1959) mapped as the "Worzel Ash"
consists of different ash beds of differing ages including
three regionally widespread volcanic ash beds. Ledbetter
and Sparks (1979) found what they called the "Worzel D ash"
to be the distal counterpart of the rhyolitic Los Chocoyos
ash-flow tuff of Guatemala and both were the result of a
caldera ("supervolcano") eruption. Drexler et al. (1980)
found that the "Worzel D" (Los Chocoyos) ash was created by
a massive caldera eruption of the Atitlan caldera, which
buried the much of the Guatemalan Highlands and Pacific
coastal plain under a thick layer of ignimbrite and spread
volcanic ash from Florida to Ecuador. Drexler et al. (1980)
contains a map showing the distribution of the Los Chocoyos
("Worzel D" and Y8) ash bed. In this eruption, the Atitlan
caldera erupted 270-280 cubic kilometers of volcanic material
and created a huge volcanic caldera now filled by Lake
Atitlan (Rose et al. 1987).
More coring and detailed geochemical analyses by Ledbetter
(1985) of ash layers recovered from cores in the Gulf of
Mexico and the Pacific Ocean adjacent to Central America
defined 11 distinct ash beds within the sediments underlying
the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Ocean surrounding Central
America. He was able to delineate the extent of each of the
ash layers. The two most widespread ash layers, the Los
Chocoyos ("Worzel D") ash bed was estimated to be 84,000
years old and the Worzel L ash bed was estimated to be
230,000 years old. Ledbetter (1984) noted that the Y8 ash
bed in Gulf of Mexico is the same as the Los Chocoyos
(Worzel D) ash bed.
The distributions of the Los Chocoyos (Worzel D) and
other regionally extensive volcanic ash beds (tephras)
are shown in figure 2 (page 6) of Machida (2002). In
this figure, The Wozel D ash is ash deposit no. 26.
Anders, E., and N. Limber, 1959, Origin of the Worzel
Deep-Sea Ash. Nature. vol. 184, pp. 44-45.
Bowels, F.A., R.N. Jack, and I.S.E. Carmichael, 1973,
Investigation of Deep-Sea Volcanic Ash Layers from
Equatorial Pacific Cores. Geological Society of America
Bulletin, vol. 84, no. 7, pp. 2371-2388
Drexler, J.W., W.I. Rose, Jr., R.S.J. Sparks, and M.T.
Ledbetter, 1980. The Los Chocoyos Ash, Guatemala: a major
stratigraphic marker in middle America andin three ocean
basins. Quaternary Research, vol. 13, pp. 327-345.
Ewing, M., B.C. Heezen and D,B. Ericson, 1959, Significance
of the Worzel Deep Sea Ash. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 355-361.
Ledbetter, M.T., 1984. Late Pleistocene tephrochronology
in the Gulf of Mexico region. In N. Healy-Williams, ed.,
pp. 119-148, Principles of Pleistocene Stratigraphy Applied
to the Gulf of Mexico. IHRDC Press, Boston.
Ledbetter, M.T., 1985, Tephrochronology of marine tephra
adjacent to Central America. Geological Society of America
Bulletin. vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 77-82.
Ledbetter, M.T., and R.S.J. Sparks, 1979, Duration of large-
magnitude explosive eruptions deduced from graded bedding
in deep-sea ash layers Geology. vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 240-244
Machida, H. 2002, Quaternary Volcanoes and Widespread
Tephras of the World. Global Environmental Research.
vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 3-17.
Rose, W.I., C.G. Newhall, T.J. Bornhorst, and S. Self, 1985,
Quaternary silicic pyroclastic deposits of Atitlan Caldera,
Guatemala. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research.
vol. 33, no. 1-3, pp. 57-80.
Worzel, J.L., 1959, Extensive deep sea sub-bottom reflections
identified as white ash. National Academy of Sciences of the
United States of America. vol. 45, no. 3, pp.349-355.
Los Chocoyos ash [volcano.und.edu]
Atitlan, Guatemala [volcano.und.edu]
Lake Atitlan [volcano.und.edu]
Lago de Atitlán [en.wikipedia.org]
Essen in "Re: The Evidence of Mu"
C. Leroy Ellenberger - [en.wikipedia.org]