> Hello Steve Clayton; you wrote: ”…place a
> stone every 3 minutes…”
> What is the source of this statement? Would you
> kindly provide a link?
> Dr. Troglodyte
Hello Dr. Troglodyte
This is not the only source of information, concerning the building rate.
Please note, I have been using 1 stone every 3 minutes, as I do except the Hal Report. The Funicular system can be increased in rate.
Both Pyramids are equally estimated to have 2.3 million stones each. 2 million after subtracting the estimated volume of the hollow spaces of the chambers and galleries. And, if you except the Hall Report: 2004] calculated the volume of natural rock hill outcrops inside Kheops and Khephren, at 30% to 50% of the total volume of the pyramids. Ref: [hal.archives-ouvertes.fr] My comments are only included within this paragraph, other than Franz estimates every a block every 2-3 minutes.
Note that, as in the first paper, the construction rate exceeds 350 cubic meters per day for the first twelve years. Any proposed pyramid construction scheme must be able to provide this rate.
NOVA pyramid-building experimentIn 1997, Mark Lehner and stonemason Roger Hopkins conducted a three-week pyramid-building experiment for a NOVA television episode. They built a pyramid 6 metres (20 ft) high by 9 metres (30 ft) wide, consisting of a total of 162 cubic metres (5,700 cu ft), or about 405 tons. It was made out of 186 stones weighing an average of 2.2 tons each. Twelve quarrymen carved 186 stones in 22 days, and the structure was erected using 44 men. They used iron hammers, chisels and levers (this is a modern shortcut, as the ancient Egyptians were limited to using copper and later bronze and wood). But Lehner and Hopkins did experiments with copper tools, noting that they were adequate for the job in hand, provided that additional manpower was available to constantly resharpen the ancient tools. They estimated they would have needed around 20 extra men for this maintenance. Another shortcut taken was the use of a front-end loader or fork lift truck, but modern machinery was not used to finish the construction. They used levers to lift the capstone to a height of 20 feet (6.1 m). Four or five men were able to use levers on stones less than one ton to flip them over and transport them by rolling, but larger stones had to be towed. Lehner and Hopkins found that by putting the stones on wooden sledges and sliding the sledges on wooden tracks, they were able to tow a two-ton stone with 12 to 20 men. The wood for these sledges and tracks would have to have been imported from Lebanon at great cost since there was little, if any, wood in ancient Egypt. While the builders failed to duplicate the precise jointing created by the ancient Egyptians, Hopkins was confident that this could have been achieved with more practice.
Great PyramidFurther information: The diary of MererSome research suggests alternate estimates to the accepted workforce size. For instance, mathematician Kurt Mendelssohn calculated that the workforce may have been 50,000 men at most, while Ludwig Borchardt and Louis Croon placed the number at 36,000. According to Miroslav Verner, a workforce of no more than 30,000 was needed in the Great Pyramid's construction. Evidence suggests that around 5,000 were permanent workers on salaries with the balance working three- or four-month shifts in lieu of taxes while receiving subsistence "wages" of ten loaves of bread and a jug of beer per day. Zahi Hawass believes that the majority of workers may have been volunteers. It is estimated that only 4,000 of the total workforce were labourers who quarried the stone, hauled blocks to the pyramid and set the blocks in place. The vast majority of the workforce provided support services such as scribes, toolmakers and other backup services. The tombs of supervisors contain inscriptions regarding the organisation of the workforce. There were two crews of approximately 2,000 workers sub-divided into named gangs of 1,000. The gangs were divided into five phyles of 200 which were in turn split into groups of around 20 workers grouped according to their skills, with each group having their own project leader and a specific task.A construction management study carried out by the firm Daniel, Mann, Johnson, & Mendenhall in association with Mark Lehner, and other Egyptologists, estimates that the total project required an average workforce of 14,567 people and a peak workforce of 40,000. Without the use of pulleys, wheels, or iron tools, they used critical path analysis to suggest the Great Pyramid was completed from start to finish in approximately 10 years. Their study estimates the number of blocks used in construction was between 2 and 2.8 million (an average of 2.4 million), but settles on a reduced finished total of 2 million after subtracting the estimated volume of the hollow spaces of the chambers and galleries. Most sources agree on this number of blocks somewhere above 2.3 million. Their calculations suggest the workforce could have sustained a rate of 180 blocks per hour (3 blocks/minute) with ten-hour work days for putting each individual block in place. They derived these estimates from modern third-world construction projects that did not use modern machinery, but conclude it is still unknown exactly how the Great Pyramid was built. As Dr. Craig Smith of the team points out:Their calculations suggest the workforce could have sustained a rate of 180 blocks per hour (3 blocks/minute) with ten-hour work days for putting each individual block in place.
Franz estimates every a block every 2-3 minutes.
Detailed calculations how many workers were necessary to build the pyramid
Khufu (Chuefui-Chnum or Khnum-Khuf, Cheops in Greek) during the 4th dynasty of the old kingdomTime to build Probably max. 23 years (Khufu reigned from 2551 to 2528 before Christ *). Herodotus writes about 10 years of preparation and 20 years of building (details of the text)Per day With 2'500'000 stones 342 stones have to be moved daily (working during 365 days a year) or 431 stones daily (working during 290 days a year).Per minute 10-hour day: every 2 minutes a stone (34 to 43 per hour)
8-hour day: nearly a stone every minute (42 to 53 stones per hour)Rule of thumb While construction the pyramid the rate of delivery was 1 stone weighting 2.5 tons every minute. For our calculations we assume 500 stones a day. This is a rough estimate, assuming a 8-hour day, during 290 days a year, with 20 years to build the pyramid. Also assuming, that more time had to be used for the huge granite blocks for the King's chamber and for the more difficult upper part of the pyramid, where work went slower than in the lower parts. There probably were also other factors delaying the building of the pyramid such as the weather or a temporary shortage of certain building materials.