I believe you need to adjust your delivery rate somewhat. This is why I figure they mustta moved stones four or five at a time up the pyramid and in several trains to the base and causeway. Specifically they did not work 24/ 7 all year round. No construction ever occurred at night and pyramid building season was not over 8 months. Stones couldn't even be floated across the river beyond mid-February or so. I doubt they had much if any water off-season anyway. I also doubt they worked longer than 9 or 10 hour days. It was hard work tending all this equipment not to mention quarrying and it's far easier to just knock off after the men get tired. Getting time to rest makes them readier the next morning. The workers village was just simply tiny. They didn't have accommodations to house large numbers of spell men, injured, and sick workers. Very few men, women, and children built these so each had to function at near peak efficiency. This picture of leek eating stone draggers just never happened. It's obvious people wanted to work on the pyramid and if they were starving, beaten, or forced to working grueling hours in the desert heat most would be awol. It was an honor to work on these projects not a death sentence. But this means stones were needed much faster. They probably needed to move about 22 stones/ per hour up the pyramid but this was done in steps apparently so one stone might have needed to be lifted as many as 6 times. Then they also needed to first move these from the quarry to the base and there were always boats at the port that needed to be unloaded of casing stones and supplies. Calculating this "rate" gets tricky because it's really many different rates on different cycles. There were always stones in movement and it would astound onlookers that many just seemed to fly about like swallows under the riverbank and some a "bowshot (300') at a time". You could see much of the work from the east side near the "boat pit". This region was a beehive of activity.
"Ropes" are interesting. Ultimately they did nothing but transmit forces but, of course, building and operating them required a great deal of expertise and learning. I believe the largest diameter ancient rope known was about 4 1/2 inches but this would be insufficient for most of my designs. Building heavier ropes would have been >easy enough. This would be sufficient for your proposals but you need more capacity to to move all the stones to get the job done in 30 years.
Yes, they would of needed 4 or more, lifting areas. Possibly one on each side. What ever it took. You have multiple access points. The Causeway on the other hand, is only 1 path up, which constrains the amount of stones. Barges in Tandem was the solution.
I have prepared my numbers and the references. It is allot. My concern is delivering it all at once, will cause everyones eyes to gloss over. Snooze time... 4 1/2 " is a very large rope. My multiplying small sizes into a group, would be potentially easier to manage. Certainly a 30 year build would help. Thou, I will digress to Franz's calculations.
Before I begin, I need to establish some constants.
1. The picture of Egyptian Rope Making, has two interesting shapes. The first is a rope sling. The second, ??? the possibility of a barge with stones? It could a number of other things. A plate with items on it... The Sling is pretty clear as to what it is. A wooden dowel through the loops, would serve to connect them, and easily disconnect them.
2. These are Franz Lohner's calculations.
Ref: Probably max. 23 years (Khufu reigned from 2551 to 2528 before Christ *). Herodotus writes about 10 years of preparation and 20 years of building. With 2'500'000 stones 342 stones have to be moved daily (working during 365 days a year) or 431 stones daily (working during 290 days a year). 10-hour day: every 2 minutes a stone (34 to 43 per hour) 8-hour day: nearly a stone every minute (42 to 53 stones per hour)
For our calculations we assume 500 stones a day. This is a rough estimate, assuming a 8-hour day, during 290 days a year, with 20 years to build the pyramid. Also assuming, that more time had to be used for the huge granite blocks for the King's chamber and for the more difficult upper part of the pyramid, where work went slower than in the lower parts. There probably were also other factors delaying the building of the pyramid such as the weather or a temporary shortage of certain building materials.
So, I will be working with 500 stones per day. Franz's estimates are for G1. I usually work on G2, as it was the last, and best preserved Pyramid on the Giza Plateau. It contains less stones than G1.
OK, I will start updating the post in blocks, so as to keep it as simple as possible. The fist section will be the Links for Conversions, Rope specifications with (MBL) minimum breakage loads per size, and an Incline Plain with Friction Calculator.
Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 24-Mar-20 14:34 by Steve Clayton.